The Genome Sequence of the Leaf-Cutter Ant Atta cephalotes Reveals Insights into Its Obligate Symbiotic Lifestyle
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{"title"=>"The genome sequence of the leaf-cutter ant Atta cephalotes reveals insights into its obligate symbiotic lifestyle", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Garret", "last_name"=>"Suen", "scopus_author_id"=>"15119954100"}, {"first_name"=>"Clotilde", "last_name"=>"Teiling", "scopus_author_id"=>"6505630586"}, {"first_name"=>"Lewyn", "last_name"=>"Li", "scopus_author_id"=>"37026633900"}, {"first_name"=>"Carson", "last_name"=>"Holt", "scopus_author_id"=>"23389051500"}, {"first_name"=>"Ehab", "last_name"=>"Abouheif", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603350845"}, {"first_name"=>"Erich", "last_name"=>"Bornberg-Bauer", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603818279"}, {"first_name"=>"Pascal", "last_name"=>"Bouffard", "scopus_author_id"=>"36893512800"}, {"first_name"=>"Eric J.", "last_name"=>"Caldera", "scopus_author_id"=>"23979471700"}, {"first_name"=>"Elizabeth", "last_name"=>"Cash", "scopus_author_id"=>"37057084600"}, {"first_name"=>"Amy", "last_name"=>"Cavanaugh", "scopus_author_id"=>"37057070000"}, {"first_name"=>"Olgert", "last_name"=>"Denas", "scopus_author_id"=>"24824035100"}, {"first_name"=>"Eran", "last_name"=>"Elhaik", "scopus_author_id"=>"9939380900"}, {"first_name"=>"Marie Julie", "last_name"=>"Favé", "scopus_author_id"=>"23388903100"}, {"first_name"=>"Jürgen", "last_name"=>"Gadau", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603809124"}, {"first_name"=>"Joshua D.", "last_name"=>"Gibson", "scopus_author_id"=>"35483649000"}, {"first_name"=>"Dan", "last_name"=>"Graur", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004525157"}, {"first_name"=>"Kirk J.", "last_name"=>"Grubbs", "scopus_author_id"=>"37057442900"}, {"first_name"=>"Darren E.", "last_name"=>"Hagen", "scopus_author_id"=>"35733607100"}, {"first_name"=>"Timothy T.", "last_name"=>"Harkins", "scopus_author_id"=>"35264029200"}, {"first_name"=>"Martin", "last_name"=>"Helmkampf", "scopus_author_id"=>"23090933700"}, {"first_name"=>"Hao", "last_name"=>"Hu", "scopus_author_id"=>"55740773400"}, {"first_name"=>"Brian R.", "last_name"=>"Johnson", "scopus_author_id"=>"55474588700"}, {"first_name"=>"Jay", "last_name"=>"Kim", "scopus_author_id"=>"36098149500"}, {"first_name"=>"Sarah E.", "last_name"=>"Marsh", "scopus_author_id"=>"57198029952"}, {"first_name"=>"Joseph A.", "last_name"=>"Moeller", "scopus_author_id"=>"37057644500"}, {"first_name"=>"Mónica C.", "last_name"=>"Muñoz-TorresMó", "scopus_author_id"=>"37007757800"}, {"first_name"=>"Marguerite C.", "last_name"=>"Murphy", "scopus_author_id"=>"56316207500"}, {"first_name"=>"Meredith C.", "last_name"=>"Naughton", "scopus_author_id"=>"37057795700"}, {"first_name"=>"Surabhi", "last_name"=>"Nigam", "scopus_author_id"=>"37057908400"}, {"first_name"=>"Rick", "last_name"=>"Overson", "scopus_author_id"=>"36519261800"}, {"first_name"=>"Rajendhran", "last_name"=>"Rajakumar", "scopus_author_id"=>"37057839300"}, {"first_name"=>"Justin T.", "last_name"=>"Reese", "scopus_author_id"=>"15048513900"}, {"first_name"=>"Jarrod J.", "last_name"=>"Scott", "scopus_author_id"=>"25224242200"}, {"first_name"=>"Chris R.", "last_name"=>"Smith", "scopus_author_id"=>"15840399200"}, {"first_name"=>"Shu", "last_name"=>"Tao", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202042062"}, {"first_name"=>"Neil D.", "last_name"=>"Tsutsui", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004427372"}, {"first_name"=>"Lumi", "last_name"=>"Viljakainen", "scopus_author_id"=>"19640810600"}, {"first_name"=>"Lothar", "last_name"=>"Wissler", "scopus_author_id"=>"23480866200"}, {"first_name"=>"Mark D.", "last_name"=>"Yandell", "scopus_author_id"=>"6601908759"}, {"first_name"=>"Fabian", "last_name"=>"Zimmer", "scopus_author_id"=>"37058254400"}, {"first_name"=>"James", "last_name"=>"Taylor", "scopus_author_id"=>"55568519056"}, {"first_name"=>"Steven C.", "last_name"=>"Slater", "scopus_author_id"=>"7101863812"}, {"first_name"=>"Sandra W.", "last_name"=>"Clifton", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004660630"}, {"first_name"=>"Wesley C.", "last_name"=>"Warren", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202784659"}, {"first_name"=>"Christine G.", "last_name"=>"Elsik", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602625086"}, {"first_name"=>"Christopher D.", "last_name"=>"Smith", "scopus_author_id"=>"7501653107"}, {"first_name"=>"George M.", "last_name"=>"Weinstock", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005387907"}, {"first_name"=>"Nicole M.", "last_name"=>"Gerardo", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506473080"}, {"first_name"=>"Cameron R.", "last_name"=>"Currie", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004329501"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS Genetics", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"21347285", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pgen.1002007", "sgr"=>"79952270451", "isbn"=>"1553-7404 (Electronic)\\r1553-7390 (Linking)", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-79952270451", "issn"=>"15537390", "pui"=>"361374018"}, "id"=>"9d1fd46e-d631-3099-8528-53d66f8acad5", "abstract"=>"Leaf-cutter ants are one of the most important herbivorous insects in the Neotropics, harvesting vast quantities of fresh leaf material. The ants use leaves to cultivate a fungus that serves as the colony's primary food source. This obligate ant-fungus mutualism is one of the few occurrences of farming by non-humans and likely facilitated the formation of their massive colonies. Mature leaf-cutter ant colonies contain millions of workers ranging in size from small garden tenders to large soldiers, resulting in one of the most complex polymorphic caste systems within ants. To begin uncovering the genomic underpinnings of this system, we sequenced the genome of Atta cephalotes using 454 pyrosequencing. One prediction from this ant's lifestyle is that it has undergone genetic modifications that reflect its obligate dependence on the fungus for nutrients. Analysis of this genome sequence is consistent with this hypothesis, as we find evidence for reductions in genes related to nutrient acquisition. These include extensive reductions in serine proteases (which are likely unnecessary because proteolysis is not a primary mechanism used to process nutrients obtained from the fungus), a loss of genes involved in arginine biosynthesis (suggesting that this amino acid is obtained from the fungus), and the absence of a hexamerin (which sequesters amino acids during larval development in other insects). Following recent reports of genome sequences from other insects that engage in symbioses with beneficial microbes, the A. cephalotes genome provides new insights into the symbiotic lifestyle of this ant and advances our understanding of host-microbe symbioses.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/genome-sequence-leafcutter-ant-atta-cephalotes-reveals-insights-obligate-symbiotic-lifestyle", "reader_count"=>399, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>14, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>19, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>98, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>15, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>109, "Student > Postgraduate"=>17, "Student > Master"=>44, "Other"=>15, "Student > Bachelor"=>41, "Lecturer"=>7, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>15}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>14, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>19, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>98, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>15, "Student > Ph. D. 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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/399773", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/399814", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/399847", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/399905", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/399942", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/400008", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/400079", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/400108", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/400136", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/400169", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/400221", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/400249", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/400268", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/400290", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/400356", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/400410", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/400491", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/400517", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/400558", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/400621", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/400656", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/400688", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/400760", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/400805", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/400913"], "description"=>"<div><p>Leaf-cutter ants are one of the most important herbivorous insects in the Neotropics, harvesting vast quantities of fresh leaf material. The ants use leaves to cultivate a fungus that serves as the colony's primary food source. This obligate ant-fungus mutualism is one of the few occurrences of farming by non-humans and likely facilitated the formation of their massive colonies. Mature leaf-cutter ant colonies contain millions of workers ranging in size from small garden tenders to large soldiers, resulting in one of the most complex polymorphic caste systems within ants. To begin uncovering the genomic underpinnings of this system, we sequenced the genome of <em>Atta cephalotes</em> using 454 pyrosequencing. One prediction from this ant's lifestyle is that it has undergone genetic modifications that reflect its obligate dependence on the fungus for nutrients. Analysis of this genome sequence is consistent with this hypothesis, as we find evidence for reductions in genes related to nutrient acquisition. These include extensive reductions in serine proteases (which are likely unnecessary because proteolysis is not a primary mechanism used to process nutrients obtained from the fungus), a loss of genes involved in arginine biosynthesis (suggesting that this amino acid is obtained from the fungus), and the absence of a hexamerin (which sequesters amino acids during larval development in other insects). Following recent reports of genome sequences from other insects that engage in symbioses with beneficial microbes, the <em>A. cephalotes</em> genome provides new insights into the symbiotic lifestyle of this ant and advances our understanding of host–microbe symbioses.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genome", "leaf-cutter", "ant", "reveals", "insights", "obligate", "symbiotic"], "article_id"=>138956, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Garret Suen", "Clotilde Teiling", "Lewyn Li", "Carson Holt", "Ehab Abouheif", "Erich Bornberg-Bauer", "Pascal Bouffard", "Eric J. Caldera", "Elizabeth Cash", "Amy Cavanaugh", "Olgert Denas", "Eran Elhaik", "Marie-Julie Favé", "Jürgen Gadau", "Joshua D. Gibson", "Dan Graur", "Kirk J. Grubbs", "Darren E. Hagen", "Timothy T. Harkins", "Martin Helmkampf", "Hao Hu", "Brian R. Johnson", "Jay Kim", "Sarah E. Marsh", "Joseph A. Moeller", "Mónica C. Muñoz-Torres", "Marguerite C. Murphy", "Meredith C. Naughton", "Surabhi Nigam", "Rick Overson", "Rajendhran Rajakumar", "Justin T. Reese", "Jarrod J. Scott", "Chris R. Smith", "Shu Tao", "Neil D. Tsutsui", "Lumi Viljakainen", "Lothar Wissler", "Mark D. Yandell", "Fabian Zimmer", "James Taylor", "Steven C. Slater", "Sandra W. Clifton", "Wesley C. Warren", "Christine G. Elsik", "Christopher D. Smith", "George M. Weinstock", "Nicole M. Gerardo", "Cameron R. Currie"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002007.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002007.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002007.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002007.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002007.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002007.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002007.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002007.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002007.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002007.s010", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002007.s011", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002007.s012", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002007.s013", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002007.s014", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002007.s015", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002007.s016", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002007.s017", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002007.s018", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002007.s019", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002007.s020", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002007.s021", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002007.s022", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002007.s023", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002007.s024", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002007.s025"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>84, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/The_Genome_Sequence_of_the_Leaf_Cutter_Ant_Atta_cephalotes_Reveals_Insights_into_Its_Obligate_Symbiotic_Lifestyle/138956", "title"=>"The Genome Sequence of the Leaf-Cutter Ant <em>Atta cephalotes</em> Reveals Insights into Its Obligate Symbiotic Lifestyle", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-02-10 02:29:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/799016"], "description"=>"<p>Orthology analysis of the <i>Atta cephalotes</i> predicted peptide sequences (green) against the proteomes of the fly <i>Drosophila melanogaster</i> (blue), the wasp <i>Nasonia vitripennis</i> (red), and the honey bee <i>Apis mellifera</i> (yellow).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["peptide", "sequences", "proteomes", "wasp"], "article_id"=>469321, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Garret Suen", "Clotilde Teiling", "Lewyn Li", "Carson Holt", "Ehab Abouheif", "Erich Bornberg-Bauer", "Pascal Bouffard", "Eric J. Caldera", "Elizabeth Cash", "Amy Cavanaugh", "Olgert Denas", "Eran Elhaik", "Marie-Julie Favé", "Jürgen Gadau", "Joshua D. Gibson", "Dan Graur", "Kirk J. Grubbs", "Darren E. Hagen", "Timothy T. Harkins", "Martin Helmkampf", "Hao Hu", "Brian R. Johnson", "Jay Kim", "Sarah E. Marsh", "Joseph A. Moeller", "Mónica C. Muñoz-Torres", "Marguerite C. Murphy", "Meredith C. Naughton", "Surabhi Nigam", "Rick Overson", "Rajendhran Rajakumar", "Justin T. Reese", "Jarrod J. Scott", "Chris R. Smith", "Shu Tao", "Neil D. Tsutsui", "Lumi Viljakainen", "Lothar Wissler", "Mark D. Yandell", "Fabian Zimmer", "James Taylor", "Steven C. Slater", "Sandra W. Clifton", "Wesley C. Warren", "Christine G. Elsik", "Christopher D. Smith", "George M. Weinstock", "Nicole M. Gerardo", "Cameron R. Currie"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002007.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Orthology_analysis_of_the_Atta_cephalotes_predicted_peptide_sequences_green_against_the_proteomes_of_the_fly_Drosophila_melanogaster_blue_the_wasp_Nasonia_vitripennis_red_and_the_honey_bee_Apis_mellifera_yellow_/469321", "title"=>"Orthology analysis of the <i>Atta cephalotes</i> predicted peptide sequences (green) against the proteomes of the fly <i>Drosophila melanogaster</i> (blue), the wasp <i>Nasonia vitripennis</i> (red), and the honey bee <i>Apis mellifera</i> (yellow).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-02-10 02:35:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/799367"], "description"=>"<p>General assembly statistics for the genome of the leaf-cutter ant <i>Atta cephalotes</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genome", "leaf-cutter", "ant"], "article_id"=>469670, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Garret Suen", "Clotilde Teiling", "Lewyn Li", "Carson Holt", "Ehab Abouheif", "Erich Bornberg-Bauer", "Pascal Bouffard", "Eric J. Caldera", "Elizabeth Cash", "Amy Cavanaugh", "Olgert Denas", "Eran Elhaik", "Marie-Julie Favé", "Jürgen Gadau", "Joshua D. Gibson", "Dan Graur", "Kirk J. Grubbs", "Darren E. Hagen", "Timothy T. Harkins", "Martin Helmkampf", "Hao Hu", "Brian R. Johnson", "Jay Kim", "Sarah E. Marsh", "Joseph A. Moeller", "Mónica C. Muñoz-Torres", "Marguerite C. Murphy", "Meredith C. Naughton", "Surabhi Nigam", "Rick Overson", "Rajendhran Rajakumar", "Justin T. Reese", "Jarrod J. Scott", "Chris R. Smith", "Shu Tao", "Neil D. Tsutsui", "Lumi Viljakainen", "Lothar Wissler", "Mark D. Yandell", "Fabian Zimmer", "James Taylor", "Steven C. Slater", "Sandra W. Clifton", "Wesley C. Warren", "Christine G. Elsik", "Christopher D. Smith", "George M. Weinstock", "Nicole M. Gerardo", "Cameron R. Currie"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002007.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_General_assembly_statistics_for_the_genome_of_the_leaf_cutter_ant_Atta_cephalotes_/469670", "title"=>"General assembly statistics for the genome of the leaf-cutter ant <i>Atta cephalotes</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-02-10 02:41:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/798878"], "description"=>"<p>Leaf-cutter ants harvest fresh leaf material which they cut from Neotropical rainforests (a) and use them to grow a fungus that serves as the colony's primary food source (b). These ants display a morphologically diverse caste system that reflects a complex division of labor (c) correlated to specific tasks within the colony. These include small workers that undertake garden management and brood care, medium workers that forage leaves, large workers that can serve as soldiers, and winged sexuals that lose their wings after mating. [Photo Credits: foraging workers, Jarrod J. Scott/University of Wisconsin-Madison; fungus garden, Austin D. Lynch/University of Wisconsin-Madison; caste morphology, used under the GNU Free Documentation License version 1.3].</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["leaf-cutter", "ant"], "article_id"=>469172, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Garret Suen", "Clotilde Teiling", "Lewyn Li", "Carson Holt", "Ehab Abouheif", "Erich Bornberg-Bauer", "Pascal Bouffard", "Eric J. Caldera", "Elizabeth Cash", "Amy Cavanaugh", "Olgert Denas", "Eran Elhaik", "Marie-Julie Favé", "Jürgen Gadau", "Joshua D. Gibson", "Dan Graur", "Kirk J. Grubbs", "Darren E. Hagen", "Timothy T. Harkins", "Martin Helmkampf", "Hao Hu", "Brian R. Johnson", "Jay Kim", "Sarah E. Marsh", "Joseph A. Moeller", "Mónica C. Muñoz-Torres", "Marguerite C. Murphy", "Meredith C. Naughton", "Surabhi Nigam", "Rick Overson", "Rajendhran Rajakumar", "Justin T. Reese", "Jarrod J. Scott", "Chris R. Smith", "Shu Tao", "Neil D. Tsutsui", "Lumi Viljakainen", "Lothar Wissler", "Mark D. Yandell", "Fabian Zimmer", "James Taylor", "Steven C. Slater", "Sandra W. Clifton", "Wesley C. Warren", "Christine G. Elsik", "Christopher D. Smith", "George M. Weinstock", "Nicole M. Gerardo", "Cameron R. Currie"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002007.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_leaf_cutter_ant_Atta_cephalotes_/469172", "title"=>"The leaf-cutter ant <i>Atta cephalotes</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-02-10 02:32:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/799253"], "description"=>"<p>Four hexamerins with varying copy number are found within these genomes except for <i>A. cephalotes</i> which is missing <i>hex 70c</i>. Many of these genes are found to be syntenic along chromosomes/scaffolds, as shown (not drawn to scale).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["hexamerin", "genes", "genomes"], "article_id"=>469558, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Garret Suen", "Clotilde Teiling", "Lewyn Li", "Carson Holt", "Ehab Abouheif", "Erich Bornberg-Bauer", "Pascal Bouffard", "Eric J. Caldera", "Elizabeth Cash", "Amy Cavanaugh", "Olgert Denas", "Eran Elhaik", "Marie-Julie Favé", "Jürgen Gadau", "Joshua D. Gibson", "Dan Graur", "Kirk J. Grubbs", "Darren E. Hagen", "Timothy T. Harkins", "Martin Helmkampf", "Hao Hu", "Brian R. Johnson", "Jay Kim", "Sarah E. Marsh", "Joseph A. Moeller", "Mónica C. Muñoz-Torres", "Marguerite C. Murphy", "Meredith C. Naughton", "Surabhi Nigam", "Rick Overson", "Rajendhran Rajakumar", "Justin T. Reese", "Jarrod J. Scott", "Chris R. Smith", "Shu Tao", "Neil D. Tsutsui", "Lumi Viljakainen", "Lothar Wissler", "Mark D. Yandell", "Fabian Zimmer", "James Taylor", "Steven C. Slater", "Sandra W. Clifton", "Wesley C. Warren", "Christine G. Elsik", "Christopher D. Smith", "George M. Weinstock", "Nicole M. Gerardo", "Cameron R. Currie"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002007.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>52, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_hexamerin_genes_in_the_genomes_of_Atta_cephalotes_Camponotus_floridanus_Harpegnathos_saltator_Apis_mellifera_and_Nasonia_vitripennis_/469558", "title"=>"Distribution of hexamerin genes in the genomes of <i>Atta cephalotes</i>, <i>Camponotus floridanus</i>, <i>Harpegnathos saltator</i>, <i>Apis mellifera</i>, and <i>Nasonia vitripennis</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-02-10 02:39:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/799129"], "description"=>"<p>This pathway in <i>A. cephalotes</i> was found to be missing the two enzymes agininosuccinate synthase (EC 6.3.4.5) and argininosuccinate lyase (EC 4.3.2.1), which catalyzes the conversion of aspartate and citrulline into arginine. Other enzymes in this pathway include ornithine cabamoyltransferase (EC 2.1.3.3), arginase (EC 3.5.3.1) and nitric oxide synthase (EC 1.14.13.39). Dotted arrows indicate genes encoding proteins which were not found.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["arginine", "biosynthesis", "pathway"], "article_id"=>469439, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Garret Suen", "Clotilde Teiling", "Lewyn Li", "Carson Holt", "Ehab Abouheif", "Erich Bornberg-Bauer", "Pascal Bouffard", "Eric J. Caldera", "Elizabeth Cash", "Amy Cavanaugh", "Olgert Denas", "Eran Elhaik", "Marie-Julie Favé", "Jürgen Gadau", "Joshua D. Gibson", "Dan Graur", "Kirk J. Grubbs", "Darren E. Hagen", "Timothy T. Harkins", "Martin Helmkampf", "Hao Hu", "Brian R. Johnson", "Jay Kim", "Sarah E. Marsh", "Joseph A. Moeller", "Mónica C. Muñoz-Torres", "Marguerite C. Murphy", "Meredith C. Naughton", "Surabhi Nigam", "Rick Overson", "Rajendhran Rajakumar", "Justin T. Reese", "Jarrod J. Scott", "Chris R. Smith", "Shu Tao", "Neil D. Tsutsui", "Lumi Viljakainen", "Lothar Wissler", "Mark D. Yandell", "Fabian Zimmer", "James Taylor", "Steven C. Slater", "Sandra W. Clifton", "Wesley C. Warren", "Christine G. Elsik", "Christopher D. Smith", "George M. Weinstock", "Nicole M. Gerardo", "Cameron R. Currie"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002007.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>24, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Predicted_arginine_biosynthesis_pathway_map_in_Atta_cephalotes_Camponotus_floridanus_Harpegnathus_saltator_Apis_mellifera_and_Nasonia_vitripennis_/469439", "title"=>"Predicted arginine biosynthesis pathway map in <i>Atta cephalotes</i>, <i>Camponotus floridanus</i>, <i>Harpegnathus saltator</i>, <i>Apis mellifera</i>, and <i>Nasonia vitripennis</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-02-10 02:37:19"}

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Relative Metric

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