Post-Embryonic Nerve-Associated Precursors to Adult Pigment Cells: Genetic Requirements and Dynamics of Morphogenesis and Differentiation
Events
Loading … Spinner

Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Post-embryonic nerve-associated precursors to adult pigment cells: Genetic requirements and dynamics of morphogenesis and differentiation", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Erine H.", "last_name"=>"Budi", "scopus_author_id"=>"8755664600"}, {"first_name"=>"Larissa B.", "last_name"=>"Patterson", "scopus_author_id"=>"16241942800"}, {"first_name"=>"David M.", "last_name"=>"Parichy", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603075756"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS Genetics", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"15537390", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-79957975047", "sgr"=>"79957975047", "pui"=>"361887796", "isbn"=>"1553-7404 (Electronic)\\n1553-7390 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"21625562", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pgen.1002044"}, "id"=>"b785c46d-67b4-3087-b470-333014b70252", "abstract"=>"The pigment cells of vertebrates serve a variety of functions and generate a stunning variety of patterns. These cells are also implicated in human pathologies including melanoma. Whereas the events of pigment cell development have been studied extensively in the embryo, much less is known about morphogenesis and differentiation of these cells during post-embryonic stages. Previous studies of zebrafish revealed genetically distinct populations of embryonic and adult melanophores, the ectotherm homologue of amniote melanocytes. Here, we use molecular markers, vital labeling, time-lapse imaging, mutational analyses, and transgenesis to identify peripheral nerves as a niche for precursors to adult melanophores that subsequently migrate to the skin to form the adult pigment pattern. We further identify genetic requirements for establishing, maintaining, and recruiting precursors to the adult melanophore lineage and demonstrate novel compensatory behaviors during pattern regulation in mutant backgrounds. Finally, we show that distinct populations of latent precursors having differential regenerative capabilities persist into the adult. These findings provide a foundation for future studies of post-embryonic pigment cell precursors in development, evolution, and neoplasia.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/postembryonic-nerveassociated-precursors-adult-pigment-cells-genetic-requirements-dynamics-morphogen", "reader_count"=>64, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>7, "Researcher"=>18, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>18, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Other"=>3, "Student > Master"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>7, "Researcher"=>18, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>18, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Other"=>3, "Student > Master"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>9, "Materials Science"=>1, "Mathematics"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>50, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Neuroscience"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>50}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>9}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "Japan"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1}, "group_count"=>4}

CrossRef

Scopus | Further Information

{"@_fa"=>"true", "link"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"self", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/79957975047"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"author-affiliation", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/79957975047?field=author,affiliation"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=79957975047&origin=inward"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus-citedby", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=79957975047&origin=inward"}], "prism:url"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/79957975047", "dc:identifier"=>"SCOPUS_ID:79957975047", "eid"=>"2-s2.0-79957975047", "dc:title"=>"Post-embryonic nerve-associated precursors to adult pigment cells: Genetic requirements and dynamics of morphogenesis and differentiation", "dc:creator"=>"Budi E.", "prism:publicationName"=>"PLoS Genetics", "prism:issn"=>"15537390", "prism:eIssn"=>"15537404", "prism:volume"=>"7", "prism:issueIdentifier"=>"5", "prism:pageRange"=>nil, "prism:coverDate"=>"2011-05-01", "prism:coverDisplayDate"=>"May 2011", "prism:doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pgen.1002044", "citedby-count"=>"61", "affiliation"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"University of Washington, Seattle", "affiliation-city"=>"Seattle", "affiliation-country"=>"United States"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"University of Washington, Seattle", "affiliation-city"=>"Seattle", "affiliation-country"=>"United States"}], "pubmed-id"=>"21625562", "prism:aggregationType"=>"Journal", "subtype"=>"ar", "subtypeDescription"=>"Article", "article-number"=>"e1002044", "source-id"=>"4000151808", "openaccess"=>"1", "openaccessFlag"=>true}

Facebook

  • {"url"=>"http%3A%2F%2Fjournals.plos.org%2Fplosgenetics%2Farticle%3Fid%3D10.1371%252Fjournal.pgen.1002044", "share_count"=>0, "like_count"=>0, "comment_count"=>0, "click_count"=>0, "total_count"=>0}

Wikipedia | Further Information

Counter

  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"58", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"261"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"79", "xml_views"=>"8", "html_views"=>"197"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"84"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"43"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"28", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"62"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"69"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"5", "html_views"=>"50"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"38", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"89"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"53"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"21", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"47"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"49"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"64"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"89"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"36"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"46"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"9", "html_views"=>"112"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"32"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"37"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"50"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"79"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"198"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"69"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"39"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"44"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"52"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"37"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"23", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"28"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"43"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"101"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"95"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"105"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"75"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"64"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"90"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"93"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"57"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"46"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"49"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"60"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"61"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"45"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"36"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"34"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"19"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"12"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"30"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"24"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"41"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"42"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"40"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"38"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"39"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"34"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"43"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"60"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"19"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"28"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"30"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"19"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"14"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"13"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"15"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"38"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"24"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"28"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"28"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"19"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"30"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"27"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"36"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"30"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"25"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"14"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"20"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"27"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"16"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"10"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"16"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"14"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"8"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"13"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"10"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"14"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"8"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"9"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"8"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"3"}

Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/773295"], "description"=>"<p>(A) <i>kitla</i> was normally expressed within the epidermis\n and hypodermis (arrow) during post-embryonic development of wild-type\n fish. sc, spinal cord. m, myotome, e, epidermis. (B) In sibling\n <i>Tg(hsp70::kitla)</i> larvae, heat shock resulted in\n increased <i>kitla</i> transgene expression within the\n epidermis (arrowheads) as well as ectopic expression within the myotomes\n (arrow), spinal cord, and elsewhere. (C) The late melanophore lineage\n marker <i>dopachrome tautomerase</i> (<i>dct</i>),\n encoding an enzyme required for melanin synthesis <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002044#pgen.1002044-Kelsh3\" target=\"_blank\">[96]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002044#pgen.1002044-Guyonneau1\" target=\"_blank\">[97]</a>,\n was not expressed within the myotomes of wild-type fish. (D) However,\n <i>dct</i> was expressed by scattered cells within the\n myotomes (arrow) in larvae misexpressing <i>kitla</i>. (E,F)\n Newly differentiated ectopic melanophores (arrow) were found between\n myotubes (arrowheads; E) and these cells continued to express sox10\n protein (F). (G) Vibratome section revealing ectopic melanophores\n (arrow) within the myotome of a <i>Tg(hsp70::kitla)</i> larva\n 48 h after the initiation of kitla misexpression. Melanophores deep\n within the myotome were found only in <i>Tg(hsp70::kitla)</i>,\n though melanophores were occasionally found within the horizontal\n myoseptum of both transgenic and wild-type larvae [ectopic\n melanophores per larva, <i>Tg(hsp70::kitla)</i>:\n mean±SE = 1.3±0.15,\n range = 0–7 cells,\n <i>n</i> = 80 larvae; non-transgenic\n siblings: mean±SE = 0±0,\n range = 0,\n <i>n</i> = 69]. Longer durations of\n kitla misexpression resulted in more ectopic melanophores per larva.\n Suggesting that ectopic melanophores differentiated <i>in\n situ</i> rather than migrated into the myotomes from the\n hypodermis, labeling of hypodermal cells by photoconversion of\n mitfa::Eos+ <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002044#pgen.1002044-Curran2\" target=\"_blank\">[55]</a> failed to reveal movement of cells away from\n enhanced kitla expression in the epidermis into the myotome\n (<i>n</i> = 10 larvae, 3–5\n cells per individual). (H) In contrast to the wild-type, ectopic\n melanophores were significantly fewer in <i>erbb3b;\n Tg(hsp70::kitla)</i> mutants [Wilcoxon test,\n Z = 7.1, <i>P</i><0.0001; ectopic\n melanophores per larva, <i>erbb3b; Tg(hsp70::kitla</i>):\n mean±SE = 0.04±0.03,\n range = 0–1,\n <i>n</i> = 50 larvae; non-transgenic\n siblings: mean±SE = 0±0,\n range = 0,\n <i>n</i> = 70] and in\n <i>Tg(hsp70::kitla</i>) larvae treated with AG1478 during\n the ErbB embryonic critical period [Wilcoxon test,\n Z = 2.9, <i>P</i><0.005; ectopic\n melanophores per larva, AG1478-treated\n <i>Tg(hsp70::kitla</i>):\n mean±SE = 0.7±0.2,\n range = 0–4,\n <i>n</i> = 45 larvae; untreated\n <i>Tg(hsp70::kitla</i>) siblings:\n mean±SE = 1.6±0.2,\n range = 0–5,\n <i>n</i> = 35].</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["misexpression", "induced", "ectopic", "melanophores", "the"], "article_id"=>443664, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["Erine H. Budi", "Larissa B. Patterson", "David M. Parichy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002044.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_kitla_misexpression_induced_ectopic_melanophores_within_the____myotomes_/443664", "title"=>"kitla misexpression induced ectopic melanophores within the\n myotomes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-05-19 01:01:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/773178"], "description"=>"<p>Shown are in situ hybridizations performed on transverse sections of\n 7–9 SSL larvae. (A) <i>foxd3</i> transcript was detected\n in dorsal root ganglia (arrow) and scattered cells (e.g., arrowheads)\n within the myotome (m) and near the epidermis (e). (B)\n <i>sox10</i> expression by cells adjacent to the neural\n tube (arrow) and within the myotome (arrowhead). (C)\n <i>foxd3+</i> cells (e.g., arrowheads) at the base of\n the dorsal fin (f). (D) <i>foxd3+</i> cells within the\n myotomes and near the epidermis. (E–G)\n <i>foxd3+</i>, <i>sox10+</i>, and\n <i>crestin+</i> cells within the myotomes.\n (H–J) Cells expressed <i>mitfa</i> (arrowheads), within\n the horizontal myoseptum (H), at the surface of the myotome (I), and at\n the base of anal fin (J) (see text for details).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["embryonic", "neural", "crest", "glial"], "article_id"=>443546, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["Erine H. Budi", "Larissa B. Patterson", "David M. Parichy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002044.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Post_embryonic_expression_of_embryonic_neural_crest_and_glial____markers_/443546", "title"=>"Post-embryonic expression of embryonic neural crest and glial\n markers.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-05-19 00:59:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/774472"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Hypothesized lineage relationships, showing neural crest (NC) cells in\n the early embryo that give rise to Schwann cells and pigment cells of the\n early larva as well as <i>erbb3b</i>-dependent progenitors to\n metamorphic glial and pigment cell lineages (mGP). mGP are maintained in\n association with peripheral nerves and ganglia, express foxd3, and their\n population expands (multiple arrowheads) in a\n <i>tuba8l3a</i>-dependent manner. During pigment pattern\n metamorphosis (met), some mGP differentiate as metamorphic Schwann cells (S)\n and the expansion of this lineage likely requires <i>erbb3b</i>\n (not shown). Other mGP become specified for metamorphic pigment cell\n lineages, as marked by mitfa::GFP expression. Some mitfa::GFP+ cells\n will give rise to melanophores or iridophores and are initially\n extra-hypodermally located in peripheral nerves and ganglia (M/I-e) but then\n migrate to the hypodermis (M/I-h). The expansion of this population requires\n <i>ednrb1</i><a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002044#pgen.1002044-Parichy6\" target=\"_blank\">[58]</a>.\n Some M/I-h will differentiate as metamorphic iridophores (I), other M/I-h\n expand their population in a <i>tuba8l3a-</i> and\n <i>kita-</i>dependent manner and ultimately differentiate as\n metamorphic melanophores (M). Individual M/I-e or M/I-h may be bipotent for\n melanophore and iridophore fates, as in embryos <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002044#pgen.1002044-Curran2\" target=\"_blank\">[55]</a>, or their respective\n populations may harbor precursors already specified for either the\n melanophore or iridophore fate. <i>csf1r</i>-dependent metamorphic\n xanthophores (X) presumably arise from a different precursor population\n (dashed line) and promote the survival of metamorphic melanophores (orange\n arrow) <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002044#pgen.1002044-Parichy3\" target=\"_blank\">[38]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002044#pgen.1002044-Nakamasu1\" target=\"_blank\">[42]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002044#pgen.1002044-Parichy8\" target=\"_blank\">[60]</a>. Some\n mGP persist into the adult and have a limited re-population potential. (B)\n Schematic of metamorphic larva illustrating sources and migratory pathways\n of metamorphic melanophore and iridophore precursors. Shown are mGP and\n M/I-e (colors as in A) associated with nerves and beneath the dorsal fin\n (f). M/I-e enter the hypodermis (arrows) from the dorsal or ventral margins\n of the myotomes (m), or after migrating along nerves associated with the the\n vertical myosepta (vm) or the horizontal myoseptum (hm). Others may arise\n from the lateral line nerve (ll). Once in the hypodermis, these cells\n differentiate as melanophores (green cell with heavy black outline) or\n iridophores (not shown). sc, spinal cord. Additional populations of\n precursors that may give rise to LM melanophores and scale melanophores are\n not shown (see text).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pigment", "precursors", "recruitment"], "article_id"=>444845, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["Erine H. Budi", "Larissa B. Patterson", "David M. Parichy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002044.g012", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Model_for_establishment_and_maintenance_of_adult_pigment_cell_precursors____and_their_recruitment_during_development_and_regeneration_/444845", "title"=>"Model for establishment and maintenance of adult pigment cell precursors\n and their recruitment during development and regeneration.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-05-19 01:20:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/773607"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Occurrence of cells in sections from the mid-trunk of wild-type and\n <i>erbb3b</i> mutant larvae. Each class of cells was\n reduced in <i>erbb3b</i> mutants (all\n <i>P</i><0.0001). (B,C) Cell frequencies in wild-type and\n <i>erbb3b</i> mutants across stages. pre-met,\n pre-metamorphosis (4.9–5.3 SSL); early met, early metamorphosis\n (6.2–8.0 SSL); late met, late metamorphosis (9.0–13.0 SSL).\n (B) The frequency of foxd3+; mitfa::GFP+ cells was greatest in\n wild-type larvae during early pigment pattern metamorphosis (doubly vs.\n singly labeled cells, difference among stages:\n <i>χ</i><i><sup>2</sup></i> = 15.7,\n d.f. = 2, <i>P</i><0.0005;\n <i>N</i> = 1217 total cells\n examined). Doubly labeled cells tended to be rarer and delayed in\n <i>erbb3b</i> mutants\n (<i>N</i> = 83 total cells examined). (C)\n The frequencies of EdU+ cells differed significantly among stages,\n with more foxd3+ and sox10+ cells labeled with EdU during the\n pre-metamorphic period, and more mitfa::GFP+ cells labeled with EdU\n during early metamorphosis (EdU labeling frequency variation among\n stages, foxd3+:\n <i>χ</i><i><sup>2</sup></i> = 11.3,\n d.f. = 2, <i>P</i><0.005,\n <i>N</i> = 450 cells; sox10+:\n <i>χ</i><i><sup>2</sup></i> = 140.7,\n d.f. = 2, <i>P</i><0.0001;\n <i>N</i> = 1679 cells;\n mitfa::GFP+:\n <i>χ</i><i><sup>2</sup></i> = 14.4,\n d.f. = 2, <i>P</i><0.001,\n <i>N</i> = 927 cells). In\n <i>erbb3b</i> mutants, EdU labeling frequencies were\n reduced in comparison to wild-type for foxd3+ cells\n (<i>χ</i><i><sup>2</sup></i> = 3.4,\n d.f. = 1,\n <i>P</i> = 0.06;\n <i>N</i> = 44 cells) and sox10+\n cells\n (<i>χ</i><i><sup>2</sup></i> = 11.4,\n d.f. = 1, <i>P</i><0.001;\n <i>N</i> = 77 cells), though not\n significantly so for mitfa::GFP+ cells (<i>P</i>>0.1;\n <i>N</i> = 59 cells). Asymmetric\n confidence intervals in B and C, Bayesian 95% upper and lower\n bounds.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["extra-hypodermal", "precursor", "cells", "co-expression", "molecular", "temporally", "regulated"], "article_id"=>443976, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["Erine H. Budi", "Larissa B. Patterson", "David M. Parichy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002044.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Missing_extra_hypodermal_precursor_cells_in_erbb3b____mutants_co_expression_of_molecular_markers_and_temporally_regulated____proliferation_/443976", "title"=>"Missing extra-hypodermal precursor cells in <i>erbb3b</i>\n mutants, co-expression of molecular markers, and temporally regulated\n proliferation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-05-19 01:06:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/774096"], "description"=>"<p>Shown are analyses of time-lapse movies for trunks derived from wild-type\n and mutant larvae (<i>N</i> = 281 larvae,\n 5241 total cells examined). (A) Total numbers of newly arising\n hypodermal mitfa::GFP+ cells differed among genotypes (square root\n transformed data,\n <i>F</i><sub>5,273</sub> = 30.2,\n <i>P</i><0.0001). Shown are least squares means\n (±95% confidence intervals) after controlling for\n significant differences among stages\n (<i>F</i><sub>2,273</sub> = 3.9,\n <i>P</i><0.0001) and normalized to cells\n mm<sup>−2</sup> day<sup>−1</sup>. Letters above bars\n indicate means that differed significantly (<i>P</i><0.05)\n by Tukey-Kramer post hoc comparisons. Numbers within bars indicate\n numbers of larval trunks examined. (B) The origins of new hypodermal\n mitfa::GFP+ cells differed among genotypes\n (<i>χ</i><i><sup>2</sup></i> = 145.6,\n d.f. = 10, <i>P</i><0.0001;\n <i>n</i> = 1582 total new cells). Bar\n widths are proportional to the total numbers of new hypodermal cells\n observed in each genotype (shown in A). DV, cells entering the\n hypodermis after migrating over the dorsal or ventral myotome margins;\n HM, cells entering from the vicinity of the horizontal myoseptum. M,\n cells entering from within the myotomes. The sources of mitfa::GFP+\n cells did not differ significantly across stages overall\n (<i>χ</i><i><sup>2</sup></i> = 0.003,\n d.f. = 4,\n <i>P</i> = 1), though different genotypes\n exhibited stage-dependent variation (stage x genotype interaction:\n <i>χ</i><i><sup>2</sup></i> = 46.3,\n d.f. = 20, <i>P</i><0.0001; not\n shown). (C) Frequencies of differentiation, death and proliferation\n differed among genotypes. Bar widths are proportional to the total\n numbers of hypodermal mitfa::GFP+ cells and melanophores observed\n per larva, after controlling for area and duration of imaging, and\n normalized to cells mm<sup>−2</sup> day<sup>−1</sup> (larva\n means±SE: wild-type, 116±9; <i>erbb3b</i>,\n 13±8; <i>tuba8l3a</i>, 62±9;\n <i>kita</i>, 72±10; <i>csf1r</i>,\n 78±14; <i>ednrb1</i>, 61±16). Differentiation,\n The likelihood of mitfa::GFP+ cells acquiring melanin during\n imaging differed among genotypes\n (<i>χ</i><i><sup>2</sup></i> = 100.6,\n d.f. = 5, <i>P</i><0.0001;\n <i>n</i> = 335 total differentiating\n cells): the relatively few <i>erbb3b</i> and\n <i>tuba8l3a</i> mutant cells were especially likely to\n differentiate whereas very few <i>kita</i> mutant cells\n differentiated. Additional effects were attributable to stage\n (<i>χ</i><i><sup>2</sup></i> = 30.3,\n d.f. = 2, <i>P</i><0.0001) and a stage\n x genotype interaction\n (<i>χ</i><i><sup>2</sup></i> = 27.3,\n d.f. = 10, <i>P</i><0.0001; not\n shown). Death, The incidence of mitfa::GFP+ cells dying during\n imaging differed among genotypes\n (<i>χ</i><i><sup>2</sup></i> = 116.9,\n d.f. = 5, <i>P</i><0.0001;\n <i>n</i> = 507 total dying cells)\n with particularly high rates of death in <i>kita</i> and\n <i>ednrb1</i> mutants. Additional variation was\n attributable to differences among stages\n (<i>χ</i><i><sup>2</sup></i> = 23.5,\n d.f. = 2, <i>P</i><0.0001) and a stage\n x genotype interaction\n (<i>χ</i><i><sup>2</sup></i> = 20.4,\n d.f. = 10, <i>P</i><0.05) resulting\n from an increased likelihood of <i>ednrb1</i> mutant cells\n dying at later stages (not shown) Division, The incidence of\n mitfa::GFP+ cells dividing differed significantly among genotypes\n (<i>χ</i><i><sup>2</sup></i> = 23.6,\n d.f. = 5, <i>P</i><0.0001;\n <i>n</i> = 142 total dividing cells).\n Asymmetric confidence intervals, Bayesian 95% upper and lower\n bounds.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["controls", "morphogenesis", "hypodermal"], "article_id"=>444469, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["Erine H. Budi", "Larissa B. Patterson", "David M. Parichy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002044.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Genetic_controls_over_the_origins_differentiation_and_morphogenesis____of_hypodermal_mitfa_GFP_cells_/444469", "title"=>"Genetic controls over the origins, differentiation, and morphogenesis\n of hypodermal mitfa::GFP+ cells.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-05-19 01:14:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/773462"], "description"=>"<p>All images are from early metamorphic (6.2–8.0 SSL) wild-type\n larvae except for B, L, and M, from <i>erbb3b</i> mutant\n larvae. (A–C) Transverse confocal projections (collapsing ∼1.5\n mm of trunk along the anterior-posterior axis) showing GFP+ cells\n in living larvae (left side of each larva is shown). Images correspond\n to <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002044#pgen.1002044.s007\" target=\"_blank\">Videos S1</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002044#pgen.1002044.s008\" target=\"_blank\">S2</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002044#pgen.1002044.s009\" target=\"_blank\">S3</a>.\n (A) mitfa::GFP+ cells in a wild-type fish occur in the hypodermis,\n between the epidermis (e) and the myotome (m), within the the myotome\n itself (arrow), and above the spinal cord (sc). Arrowhead, location of\n the horizontal myoseptum. (B) In <i>erbb3b</i> mutants, most\n mitfa::GFP+ cells were missing. This image is intentionally\n overexposed compared to A, revealing faint reflected fluorescence from\n iridescent iridophores in the hypodermis (arrowhead), which are present\n in wild-type larvae as well. (C) sox10::GFP+ cells were found in\n extra-hypodermal locations of wild-type\n <i>Tg(−4.9sox10:egfp)<sup>ba2</sup></i> larvae\n <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002044#pgen.1002044-Carney1\" target=\"_blank\">[98]</a>. (D–M) Immunohistochemical analyses of\n fixed specimens. (D) Co-expression of mitfa::GFP (green) and sox10\n (red). v, vertebral column. (E) mitfa::GFP+ cells aligned with\n mbp+ glia (red) along ventral root motor fibers. Arrow,\n mitfa::GFP+ cells did not co-express mbp. (F) Lateral view showing\n mitfa::GFP+ cells and foxd3+ cells (red) between Hu+\n neurons (blue) of dorsal root ganglia. mitfa::GFP+ and foxd3+\n cells were often found close to one another (e.g., arrows) whereas other\n cells co-expressed mitfa::GFP and foxd3 (arrowhead). (G) Lateral view\n with superimposed brightfield and fluorescence images showing\n mitfa::GFP+ and foxd3+ cells along a peripheral nerve fiber\n stained for acetylated alpha tubulin (blue) within the myotome. Arrows,\n adjacent mitfa::GFP+ and foxd3+ cells. (H). A nerve plexus\n near the base of the caudal fin harbored numerous mitfa::GFP+ and\n foxd3+ cells. (I) Along a peripheral nerve within the myotome some\n cells co-expressed mitfa::GFP and foxd3 (arrowhead), whereas cells\n expressing either mitfa::GFP+ or foxd3+ were often juxtaposed\n (arrows). (J,K) Transverse sections through the dorsal trunk showing\n sox10+ cells (J) and foxd3+ cells (K) n the hypodermis, within\n the myotomes, and near the spinal cord. Arrow, lateral line nerve. (L,M)\n In <i>erbb3b</i> mutant larvae, very few sox10+ (L) or\n foxd3+ (M) cells were found.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cells", "expressing", "sox10", "in", "wild-type", "larvae", "deficiency"], "article_id"=>443830, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["Erine H. Budi", "Larissa B. Patterson", "David M. Parichy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002044.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>30, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Extra_hypodermal_cells_expressing_mitfa_GFP_foxd3_and_sox10_in____wild_type_larvae_and_their_deficiency_in_erbb3b____mutants_/443830", "title"=>"Extra-hypodermal cells expressing mitfa::GFP, foxd3, and sox10 in\n wild-type larvae and their deficiency in <i>erbb3b</i>\n mutants.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-05-19 01:03:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/773793"], "description"=>"<p>(A–C) DiI labeled tissues imaged immediately after injection into\n the base of the dorsal fin (A), the vicinity of the horizontal myoseptum\n and lateral line nerve (B), and the inner myotome (C). Each site yielded\n hypodermal DiI+; mitfa::GFP+ cells or DiI+ melanophores\n (12 of 30 larvae, 3 of 30 larvae, 15 of 87 larvae, respectively).\n (D–F) DiI+ cells that expressed either mitfa::GFP (D) or\n contained melanin (E,F) found within the lateral hypodermis 4 d\n following injection into the base of the dorsal fin (D, F) or the inner\n myotome (E). (G) DiI-labeling was observed for additional cells\n including iridophores. Although the frequencies with which DiI labeled\n pigment cells were found differed between injection sites, each site\n gave rise to DiI+ iridophores at a frequency indistinguishable from\n that of DiI+ mitfa::GFP+ cells\n (<i>χ</i><i><sup>2</sup></i> = 0.6,\n d.f. = 1,\n <i>P</i> = 0.4). We did not observe\n DiI-labeled xanthophores.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["showed", "extra-hypodermal", "contributions", "metamorphic", "melanophores"], "article_id"=>444163, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["Erine H. Budi", "Larissa B. Patterson", "David M. Parichy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002044.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_DiI_labeling_showed_extra_hypodermal_contributions_to_metamorphic____melanophores_and_iridophores_/444163", "title"=>"DiI-labeling showed extra-hypodermal contributions to metamorphic\n melanophores and iridophores.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-05-19 01:09:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/390607", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/390640", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/390665", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/390710", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/390759", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/390799", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/390846", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/390921", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/390993", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/391086", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/391134", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/391230", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/391283", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/391335", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/391377", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/391424", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/391486", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/391536", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/391561", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/391581", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/391593", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/391637"], "description"=>"<div><p>The pigment cells of vertebrates serve a variety of functions and generate a stunning variety of patterns. These cells are also implicated in human pathologies including melanoma. Whereas the events of pigment cell development have been studied extensively in the embryo, much less is known about morphogenesis and differentiation of these cells during post-embryonic stages. Previous studies of zebrafish revealed genetically distinct populations of embryonic and adult melanophores, the ectotherm homologue of amniote melanocytes. Here, we use molecular markers, vital labeling, time-lapse imaging, mutational analyses, and transgenesis to identify peripheral nerves as a niche for precursors to adult melanophores that subsequently migrate to the skin to form the adult pigment pattern. We further identify genetic requirements for establishing, maintaining, and recruiting precursors to the adult melanophore lineage and demonstrate novel compensatory behaviors during pattern regulation in mutant backgrounds. Finally, we show that distinct populations of latent precursors having differential regenerative capabilities persist into the adult. These findings provide a foundation for future studies of post-embryonic pigment cell precursors in development, evolution, and neoplasia.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["post-embryonic", "nerve-associated", "precursors", "pigment", "requirements", "morphogenesis", "and", "differentiation"], "article_id"=>137153, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["Erine H. Budi", "Larissa B. Patterson", "David M. Parichy"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002044.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002044.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002044.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002044.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002044.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002044.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002044.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002044.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002044.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002044.s010", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002044.s011", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002044.s012", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002044.s013", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002044.s014", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002044.s015", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002044.s016", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002044.s017", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002044.s018", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002044.s019", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002044.s020", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002044.s021", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002044.s022"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Post_Embryonic_Nerve_Associated_Precursors_to_Adult_Pigment_Cells___Genetic_Requirements_and_Dynamics_of_Morphogenesis_and___Differentiation/137153", "title"=>"Post-Embryonic Nerve-Associated Precursors to Adult Pigment Cells:\n Genetic Requirements and Dynamics of Morphogenesis and\n Differentiation", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-05-19 01:59:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/774354"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Time-course of temperature shifts, with letters corresponding to\n images in B–H. Final sample size at 698 days post-fertilization:\n <i>n</i> = 5. (B) A young adult\n <i>kita; csf1r<sup>TS</sup></i> mutant at 33°C lacked\n melanophores as in <i>kita; csf1r<sup>j4e1</sup></i> mutants\n <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002044#pgen.1002044-Parichy3\" target=\"_blank\">[38]</a> (some melanized cellular debris resulting\n from melanophore death is evident dorsally). (C) Temperature downshift\n to 24°C allowed recovery of a hypodermal melanophore (e.g., arrow)\n complement initially indistinguishable from <i>kita</i> single\n mutants <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002044#pgen.1002044-Parichy7\" target=\"_blank\">[59]</a>. Arrowhead, the dorsal flank is initially\n devoid of scale-associated melanophores, as is typical of\n <i>kita</i> mutants. (D,E) Additional rounds of ablation\n and recovery yield progressively fewer hypodermal melanophores (arrow),\n though some melanophores develop on the dorsal scales (arrowhead).\n Hypodermal xanthophores and iridophores were depleted as well (data not\n shown). (F) Dorsal flank of another individual showing hypodermal\n melanophores (arrow) and scale melanophores (arrowhead). (G) Detail of\n scale-associated melanophores. Iridescent iridophores and yellow-orange\n xanthophores are apparent as well. (H) Detail of hypodermal melanophores\n viewed through an overlying scale containing a concentration of\n xanthophores and iridophores (outlined in red).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["regeneration", "hypodermal", "melanophores", "following"], "article_id"=>444720, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["Erine H. Budi", "Larissa B. Patterson", "David M. Parichy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002044.g011", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Limited_regeneration_of_adult_hypodermal_melanophores_following____genetic_ablation_/444720", "title"=>"Limited regeneration of adult hypodermal melanophores following\n genetic ablation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-05-19 01:18:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/774163"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Wild-type larvae exhibited mitfa::GFP+ cells (green) associated\n with mbp+ glia (red) of peripheral nerves (arrow). sc, spinal cord;\n m, myotome; e, epidermis; ll, lateral line nerve. (B) mitfa::GFP+\n cells (green), foxd3+ cells (red; arrow), and doubly labeled\n mitfa::GFP+; foxd3+ cells (arrowhead) were associated with\n nerve fibers stained for acetylated alpha tubulin (blue). (C) In\n <i>tuba8l3a</i> mutants, regions deficient for mbp+\n glia were also deficient for mitfa::GFP+ cells. (D) Peripheral\n nerves were often defasciculated (arrow) and were deficient for\n foxd3+ and mitfa::GFP+ cells.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["precursors", "deficient", "in", "mutant"], "article_id"=>444537, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["Erine H. Budi", "Larissa B. Patterson", "David M. Parichy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002044.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Extra_hypodermal_precursors_were_deficient_in_____tuba8l3a_mutant_larvae_/444537", "title"=>"Extra-hypodermal precursors were deficient in\n <i>tuba8l3a</i> mutant larvae.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-05-19 01:15:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/774044"], "description"=>"<p>Shown are the relative frequencies of cells entering the hypodermis in\n time-lapse movies of trunks derived from wild-type larvae\n (<i>N</i> = 127 larvae, 1220\n mitfa::GFP+ total cells examined) during different periods of\n pigment pattern metamorphosis (very early, 6.4–6.6 SSL; early,\n 6.6–6.8 SSL; middle, 6.8–7.6 SSL). Cells newly arrived in\n the hypodermis (<i>n</i> = 644) were\n classified as migrating over the dorsal or ventral margins of the\n myotomes (DV), emerging from the vicinity of the horizontal myoseptum\n (HM) and lateral line, or emerging from within the myotomes (M),\n tyically along vertical myosepta. Individuals were binned by stage and\n bar widths are proportional to the average numbers of newly appearing\n hypodermal mitfa::GFP+ cells per larva, normalized to cells\n mm<sup>−2</sup> day<sup>−1</sup> (mean±SE above\n bars). The relative frequencies of cells arising from different sources\n differed between stages\n (<i>χ</i><i><sup>2</sup></i> = 20.0,\n d.f. = 4, <i>P</i><0.0001), with cells\n increasingly likely to emerge from within the myotomes as compared to\n migrating over the dorsal or ventral margins of the myotomes.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cells", "entered", "the"], "article_id"=>444421, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["Erine H. Budi", "Larissa B. Patterson", "David M. Parichy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002044.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sources_of_mitfa_GFP_cells_that_entered_the____hypodermis_/444421", "title"=>"Sources of mitfa::GFP+ cells that entered the\n hypodermis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-05-19 01:13:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/773686"], "description"=>"<p>All images from transverse sections of wild-type larvae staged as in\n <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002044#pgen-1002044-g003\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 3</a> (see\n <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002044#pgen.1002044.s004\" target=\"_blank\">Figure S4</a> for comparisons with <i>erbb3b</i>\n mutant larvae). (A,B) Merged images showing cells (arrowheads) within\n the myotomes labeled for either mitfa::GFP (red in A) or sox10::GFP (red\n in B) as well as EdU (green). (C,D) Cells within the lateral myotomes\n (m) and near the hypodermis (C) or at the base of the anal fin (f in D)\n labeled for mitfa::GFP (red), foxd3 (blue), and EdU (green). Merged\n views show fluorescence images or fluorescence images with brightfield\n overlays. Arrowheads, triple-labeled cells. m, myotome. e,\n epidermis.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["extra-hypodermal", "cells", "revealed", "post-embryonic", "edu"], "article_id"=>444054, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["Erine H. Budi", "Larissa B. Patterson", "David M. Parichy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002044.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Proliferative_extra_hypodermal_cells_revealed_by_post_embryonic_EdU____incorporation_/444054", "title"=>"Proliferative extra-hypodermal cells revealed by post-embryonic EdU\n incorporation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-05-19 01:07:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/773927"], "description"=>"<p>All panels show lateral views of larval trunks and are derived from\n time-lapse movies of <i>Tg(mitfa::GFP)</i> larvae. Elapsed\n time (min) at lower right of each panel. (A) mitfa::GFP+ cells\n differentiated into melanophores (e.g., arrowhead). (B–D)\n mitfa::GFP+ cells entered the hypodermis during the larval-to-adult\n transformation. (B) A cell at the dorsal margin of the myotomes extended\n a long process (arrowhead) into the hypodermis and interacted with\n processes of a second cell. *, cell body. (C) A long process\n (arrowhead) preceded emergence of the cell body (*) from the level\n of the horizontal myoseptum (dotted line). This cell subsequently\n interacted with a neighboring cell, extended a processes ventrally, and\n moved in that direction. (D) A cell initially deep within the myotome\n (*) emerged into the hypodermis. The focal plane changes across\n panels, from deep within the myotome to the surface of the myotome and\n hypodermis, where other cells are found already. (E) Death of\n mitfa::GFP+ cell (*) revealed by fragmentation and cellular\n debris (arrowheads). (F,G) mitfa::GFP+ cells (F) and melanophores\n that retain some residual GFP expression (G) proliferating within the\n hypodermis. Melanophores in G are imaged in a <i>kita</i>\n mutant (see text for details). See <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002044#pgen.1002044.s010\" target=\"_blank\">Videos\n S4</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002044#pgen.1002044.s011\" target=\"_blank\">S5</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002044#pgen.1002044.s012\" target=\"_blank\">S6</a>,\n <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002044#pgen.1002044.s013\" target=\"_blank\">S7</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002044#pgen.1002044.s014\" target=\"_blank\">S8</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002044#pgen.1002044.s015\" target=\"_blank\">S9</a>,\n <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002044#pgen.1002044.s016\" target=\"_blank\">S10</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002044#pgen.1002044.s017\" target=\"_blank\">S11</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002044#pgen.1002044.s018\" target=\"_blank\">S12</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002044#pgen.1002044.s019\" target=\"_blank\">S13</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002044#pgen.1002044.s020\" target=\"_blank\">S14</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002044#pgen.1002044.s021\" target=\"_blank\">S15</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002044#pgen.1002044.s022\" target=\"_blank\">S16</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["time-lapse", "imaging", "revealed", "extra-hypodermal", "origins", "morphogenetic", "behaviors", "hypodermal", "cells"], "article_id"=>444289, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["Erine H. Budi", "Larissa B. Patterson", "David M. Parichy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002044.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ex_vivo_time_lapse_imaging_revealed_extra_hypodermal____origins_and_morphogenetic_behaviors_of_hypodermal_mitfa_GFP_cells____and_melanophores_/444289", "title"=>"<i>Ex vivo</i> time-lapse imaging revealed extra-hypodermal\n origins and morphogenetic behaviors of hypodermal mitfa::GFP+ cells\n and melanophores.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-05-19 01:11:29"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"6", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"45", "unique-ip"=>"52", "pdf"=>"34", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"25", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"28", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"8", "unique-ip"=>"23", "figure"=>"11", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"8", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"18", "unique-ip"=>"19", "pdf"=>"6", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"28", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"12", "unique-ip"=>"27", "figure"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"16"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"10", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"27", "unique-ip"=>"28", "pdf"=>"16", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"14", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"7", "unique-ip"=>"15", "figure"=>"12", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"6"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"12", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"18", "unique-ip"=>"21", "pdf"=>"16", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"26", "unique-ip"=>"26", "pdf"=>"17", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"16", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"13", "unique-ip"=>"17", "figure"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"17", "unique-ip"=>"18", "pdf"=>"10", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"12", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"9", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"5", "unique-ip"=>"9", "figure"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"4"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"5", "unique-ip"=>"9", "pdf"=>"4", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"13", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"8", "unique-ip"=>"14", "figure"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"96", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"12", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"43", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"31", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"22", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"12", "supp-data"=>"13", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"13", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"6", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"13", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"21", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2011-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2011-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Anatomy", "average_usage"=>[301, 558, 690, 806, 916, 1018, 1112, 1197, 1275, 1349, 1421, 1495, 1561, 1631, 1697, 1762, 1835, 1895, 1954, 2020, 2078, 2142, 2197, 2258, 2313, 2376, 2437, 2494, 2557, 2618, 2682, 2744, 2818, 2880, 2940, 3000, 3056]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Anatomy and physiology", "average_usage"=>[298, 559, 690, 805, 916, 1018, 1115, 1201, 1283, 1356, 1425, 1498, 1565, 1635, 1703, 1767, 1835, 1902, 1962, 2027, 2089, 2150, 2210, 2265]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Cell biology", "average_usage"=>[289, 559, 699, 817, 931, 1031, 1127, 1214, 1297, 1370, 1444, 1515, 1584, 1656, 1726, 1797, 1862, 1930, 1996, 2061, 2125, 2190, 2250, 2311, 2373, 2435, 2496, 2563, 2630, 2692, 2760, 2824, 2898, 2960, 3019, 3089, 3143]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences", "average_usage"=>[303, 571, 709, 823, 937, 1038, 1133, 1216, 1298, 1370, 1447, 1518, 1588, 1656, 1725, 1790, 1856, 1926, 1992, 2054, 2118, 2182, 2242, 2301, 2363, 2425, 2484, 2544, 2602, 2662, 2716, 2776, 2841, 2901, 2960, 3016, 3071]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Anatomy", "average_usage"=>[301, 559, 686, 796, 908, 1013, 1103, 1196, 1281, 1355, 1431, 1507, 1579, 1648, 1711, 1778, 1841, 1910, 1967, 2034, 2087, 2141, 2202, 2261, 2320, 2386, 2444, 2502, 2566, 2632, 2691, 2755, 2812, 2873, 2929, 2997, 3047]}, {"subject_area"=>"/People and places", "average_usage"=>[346, 621, 752, 863, 972, 1071, 1187, 1286, 1369, 1443, 1516, 1582, 1659, 1736, 1816, 1899, 1967, 2041, 2119, 2193, 2260, 2330, 2389, 2455, 2510, 2567, 2625, 2698, 2787, 2836, 2908, 2966, 3019, 3080, 3130, 3180, 3244]}, {"subject_area"=>"/People and places/Population groupings", "average_usage"=>[344, 630, 756, 876, 981, 1083, 1179, 1272, 1346, 1421, 1508, 1583, 1659, 1744, 1809, 1891, 1954, 2030, 2105, 2174, 2247, 2324, 2386, 2441, 2502, 2557, 2621, 2685, 2753, 2825, 2882, 2935, 2989, 3052, 3117, 3181, 3242]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences/Materials science", "average_usage"=>[284, 516, 629, 726, 835, 925, 1006, 1080, 1148, 1224, 1288, 1355, 1434, 1501, 1563, 1633, 1716, 1767, 1833, 1890, 1949, 2016, 2072, 2132, 2181, 2232, 2293, 2341, 2413, 2480, 2546, 2615, 2678, 2736, 2796, 2869, 2929]}]}
Loading … Spinner
There are currently no alerts