Mechanisms of Chromosome Number Evolution in Yeast
Publication Date
July 21, 2011
Journal
PLoS Genetics
Authors
Jonathan L. Gordon, Kevin P. Byrne & Kenneth H. Wolfe
Volume
7
Issue
7
Pages
e1002190
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002190
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosgenetics/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pgen.1002190
Web of Science
000293338600038
Scopus
79960949108
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/mechanisms-chromosome-number-evolution-yeast
Events
Loading … Spinner

CiteULike | Further Information

Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Mechanisms of chromosome number evolution in yeast", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Jonathan L.", "last_name"=>"Gordon", "scopus_author_id"=>"12785182800"}, {"first_name"=>"Kevin P.", "last_name"=>"Byrne", "scopus_author_id"=>"8947777400"}, {"first_name"=>"Kenneth H.", "last_name"=>"Wolfe", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006297713"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS Genetics", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-79960949108", "sgr"=>"79960949108", "issn"=>"15537390", "isbn"=>"1553-7390", "pmid"=>"21811419", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pgen.1002190", "pui"=>"362246901"}, "id"=>"42cc190e-95c0-32b3-94f7-45d698b9cd37", "abstract"=>"The whole-genome duplication (WGD) that occurred during yeast evolution changed the basal number of chromosomes from 8 to 16. However, the number of chromosomes in post-WGD species now ranges between 10 and 16, and the number in non-WGD species (Zygosaccharomyces, Kluyveromyces, Lachancea, and Ashbya) ranges between 6 and 8. To study the mechanism by which chromosome number changes, we traced the ancestry of centromeres and telomeres in each species. We observe only two mechanisms by which the number of chromosomes has decreased, as indicated by the loss of a centromere. The most frequent mechanism, seen 8 times, is telomere-to-telomere fusion between two chromosomes with the concomitant death of one centromere. The other mechanism, seen once, involves the breakage of a chromosome at its centromere, followed by the fusion of the two arms to the telomeres of two other chromosomes. The only mechanism by which chromosome number has increased in these species is WGD. Translocations and inversions have cycled telomere locations, internalizing some previously telomeric genes and creating novel telomeric locations. Comparison of centromere structures shows that the length of the CDEII region is variable between species but uniform within species. We trace the complete rearrangement history of the Lachancea kluyveri genome since its common ancestor with Saccharomyces and propose that its exceptionally low level of rearrangement is a consequence of the loss of the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) DNA repair pathway in this species.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/mechanisms-chromosome-number-evolution-yeast", "reader_count"=>130, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>8, "Researcher"=>41, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>33, "Student > Postgraduate"=>7, "Student > Master"=>17, "Other"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>8}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>8, "Researcher"=>41, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>33, "Student > Postgraduate"=>7, "Student > Master"=>17, "Other"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>8}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>14, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>101, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Philosophy"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1, "Computer Science"=>5, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>101}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>5}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>14}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>2, "Austria"=>1, "South Korea"=>1, "Netherlands"=>1, "Sweden"=>2, "United States"=>12, "Japan"=>1, "Poland"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "France"=>1, "Germany"=>2}, "group_count"=>7}

CrossRef

Scopus | Further Information

{"@_fa"=>"true", "link"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"self", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/79960949108"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"author-affiliation", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/79960949108?field=author,affiliation"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=79960949108&origin=inward"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus-citedby", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=79960949108&origin=inward"}], "prism:url"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/79960949108", "dc:identifier"=>"SCOPUS_ID:79960949108", "eid"=>"2-s2.0-79960949108", "dc:title"=>"Mechanisms of chromosome number evolution in yeast", "dc:creator"=>"Gordon J.", "prism:publicationName"=>"PLoS Genetics", "prism:issn"=>"15537390", "prism:eIssn"=>"15537404", "prism:volume"=>"7", "prism:issueIdentifier"=>"7", "prism:pageRange"=>nil, "prism:coverDate"=>"2011-07-01", "prism:coverDisplayDate"=>"July 2011", "prism:doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pgen.1002190", "citedby-count"=>"52", "pubmed-id"=>"21811419", "prism:aggregationType"=>"Journal", "subtype"=>"ar", "subtypeDescription"=>"Article", "article-number"=>"e1002190", "source-id"=>"4000151808", "openaccess"=>"1", "openaccessFlag"=>true}

Facebook

  • {"url"=>"http%3A%2F%2Fjournals.plos.org%2Fplosgenetics%2Farticle%3Fid%3D10.1371%252Fjournal.pgen.1002190", "share_count"=>0, "like_count"=>0, "comment_count"=>0, "click_count"=>0, "total_count"=>0}

Counter

  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"109", "xml_views"=>"5", "html_views"=>"531"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"202", "xml_views"=>"10", "html_views"=>"751"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"150", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"404"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"33", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"122"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"32", "xml_views"=>"5", "html_views"=>"95"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"21", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"94"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"33", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"101"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"86"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"88"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"98"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"81"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"68"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"65"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"6", "html_views"=>"120"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"98"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"106"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"88"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"80"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"123"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"238"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"27", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"110"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"73"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"87"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"124"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"79"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"57"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"103"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"122"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"184"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"118"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"71"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"67"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"129"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"105"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"65"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"48"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"100"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"54"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"86"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"105"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"68"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"50"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"52"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"17"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"48"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"24"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"45"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"40"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"19"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"24"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"37"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"32"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"35"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"92"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"52"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"50"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"41"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"45"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"41"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"23"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"23"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"63"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"76"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"75"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"35"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"35"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"35"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"48"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"58"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"117"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"45"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"23"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"30"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"38"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"41"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"28"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"28"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"8"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"7"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"14"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"23"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"14"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"33"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"34", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"73"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"24", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"30"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"31", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"42"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"28"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"15"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"28"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"29"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"25"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"18"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"36"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"14"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"26"}

Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/379362", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/379377", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/379425", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/379464", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/379527", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/379548", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/379572", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/379597", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/379618", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/379641"], "description"=>"<div><p>The whole-genome duplication (WGD) that occurred during yeast evolution changed the basal number of chromosomes from 8 to 16. However, the number of chromosomes in post-WGD species now ranges between 10 and 16, and the number in non-WGD species (<em>Zygosaccharomyces</em>, <em>Kluyveromyces</em>, <em>Lachancea</em>, and <em>Ashbya</em>) ranges between 6 and 8. To study the mechanism by which chromosome number changes, we traced the ancestry of centromeres and telomeres in each species. We observe only two mechanisms by which the number of chromosomes has decreased, as indicated by the loss of a centromere. The most frequent mechanism, seen 8 times, is telomere-to-telomere fusion between two chromosomes with the concomitant death of one centromere. The other mechanism, seen once, involves the breakage of a chromosome at its centromere, followed by the fusion of the two arms to the telomeres of two other chromosomes. The only mechanism by which chromosome number has increased in these species is WGD. Translocations and inversions have cycled telomere locations, internalizing some previously telomeric genes and creating novel telomeric locations. Comparison of centromere structures shows that the length of the CDEII region is variable between species but uniform within species. We trace the complete rearrangement history of the <em>Lachancea kluyveri</em> genome since its common ancestor with <em>Saccharomyces</em> and propose that its exceptionally low level of rearrangement is a consequence of the loss of the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) DNA repair pathway in this species.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mechanisms", "chromosome", "yeast"], "article_id"=>134974, "categories"=>["Genetics"], "users"=>["Jonathan L. Gordon", "Kevin P. Byrne", "Kenneth H. Wolfe"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002190.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002190.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002190.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002190.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002190.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002190.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002190.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002190.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002190.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002190.s010"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>23, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Mechanisms_of_Chromosome_Number_Evolution_in_Yeast/134974", "title"=>"Mechanisms of Chromosome Number Evolution in Yeast", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-07-21 01:22:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/754005"], "description"=>"<p>The first column lists the Ancestral centromeres, and the numbers in the subsequent columns lists chromosome numbers (or scaffold numbers for unfinished genomes) where the orthologous centromeres are found in the other species. Post-WGD species have up to two centromeres for each ancestral centromere. The final row lists the total number of chromosomes in each species.</p><p><b>X</b>, Centromere lost.</p><p><b>+/−</b>, Sense/anti-sense strand in <i>S. cerevisiae</i>.</p><p><b>*</b>, Orientation change.</p><p><b>?</b>, Possible orientation change (see text).</p><p><b>r</b>, Reciprocal translocation at centromere.</p><p><b>i</b>, inversion at centromere.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ancestral", "centromeres", "extant"], "article_id"=>424379, "categories"=>["Genetics"], "users"=>["Jonathan L. Gordon", "Kevin P. Byrne", "Kenneth H. Wolfe"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002190.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mapping_between_Ancestral_centromeres_and_centromeres_in_extant_species_/424379", "title"=>"Mapping between Ancestral centromeres and centromeres in extant species.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-07-21 01:12:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/754033"], "description"=>"<p>The first column lists Ancestral chromosome numbers, and the second column lists the chromosome ends. For each Ancestral chromosome end, the corresponding orthologous chromosome end for each species examined with a finished genome sequence is given in the same column. Post-WGD species have two chromosome ends that correspond to each Ancestral chromosome end. Many of the corresponding chromosome ends have undergone rearrangements including fusions to other chromosomal locations which have led to the death of the Ancestral location, and in some cases the birth of a new telomere elsewhere in the genome.</p><p><b>X,</b> Loss of Ancestral telomere (newly created telomere in parentheses).</p><p><b>AncX-L/R,</b> Fusion to another Ancestral telomere.</p><p><b>*</b>, Rearrangement by translocation.</p><p><b>†</b>, Internalization of genes.</p><p><b>‡</b>, Chromosome fusion.</p><p><b>i</b>, Inversion.</p><p><b>•</b>, <i>A. gossypii</i> unique loss of centromere and telomeric fusion of chromosome arms.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ancestral", "telomeres", "extant", "finished", "genome"], "article_id"=>424404, "categories"=>["Genetics"], "users"=>["Jonathan L. Gordon", "Kevin P. Byrne", "Kenneth H. Wolfe"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002190.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mapping_between_Ancestral_telomeres_and_telomeres_in_extant_species_with_finished_genome_sequences_/424404", "title"=>"Mapping between Ancestral telomeres and telomeres in extant species with finished genome sequences.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-07-21 01:13:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/753879"], "description"=>"<p>The green chromosome at the top represents chromosome 5 at Node ‘B’ of the tree (<a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002190#pgen-1002190-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 1</a>), which is identical to chromosome 5 of the WGD Ancestor (see <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002190#pgen-1002190-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 2</a>). After <i>A. gossypii</i> diverged from <i>K. lactis</i>, this chromosome broke in the intergenic region containing its centromere. To avoid losing large numbers of genes during cell division, both arms of the split chromosome fused their broken edges to the telomeres of Ancestral chromosomes 6 and 8, which gave rise to the organisation on the extant <i>A. gossypii</i> chromosomes 1 and 3. The timing of loss of the centromere is unclear: it may have happened as a part of the rearrangement, or the centromere may have been carried on one of the chromosome arms and lost after fusion to the telomere of another centromere-containing chromosome. The mechanism of the fission event is also ambiguous: it may have occurred by the chromosome actually breaking into two, or by two separate translocations to other chromosome ends that separated the centromere from its neighboring genes.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["centromere", "breakage", "chromosome"], "article_id"=>424257, "categories"=>["Genetics"], "users"=>["Jonathan L. Gordon", "Kevin P. Byrne", "Kenneth H. Wolfe"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002190.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Loss_of_a_centromere_in_A_gossypii_by_the_breakage_of_a_chromosome_at_its_centromere_/424257", "title"=>"Loss of a centromere in <i>A. gossypii</i> by the breakage of a chromosome at its centromere.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-07-21 01:10:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/753804"], "description"=>"<p>Two non-reciprocal telomeric translocations and a telomere-to-telomere fusion gave rise to the extant chromosome structures in <i>Z. rouxii</i>. Chromosomes in green boxes are those that underwent rearrangements, while those in gray boxes are finished translocation products (<i>i.e.</i>, extant regions in <i>Z. rouxii</i>). The edges of the breakpoints are labelled with both the Ancestral and current <i>Z. rouxii</i> gene names. In the bottom step, the loss of a centromere occured contemporaneously with the two chromosomes fusing at their telomeres. All three rearrangements led to the internalisation of previously telomeric genes. The panels on the right show details of the gene orders and internalized telomeric genes at the junctions.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rearrangements", "chromosome", "fusions", "centromere"], "article_id"=>424176, "categories"=>["Genetics"], "users"=>["Jonathan L. Gordon", "Kevin P. Byrne", "Kenneth H. Wolfe"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002190.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Progression_of_rearrangements_and_chromosome_fusions_leading_to_the_loss_of_a_centromere_in_Z_rouxii_/424176", "title"=>"Progression of rearrangements and chromosome fusions leading to the loss of a centromere in <i>Z. rouxii</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-07-21 01:09:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/753929"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Sequence logo showing base frequencies at each position in all annotated CDEI and CDEIII regions from 10 species. (B) Rate of chromosome loss per mitotic cell division caused by mutagenesis of individual residues in CDEI and CDEIII sequences (gray letters) of <i>S. cerevisiae CEN6</i> (redrawn from <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002190#pgen.1002190-Hegemann1\" target=\"_blank\">[61]</a>). Sites conserved in the logo tend to have the largest effects on chromosome loss when mutated. (C) Variation of CDEII lengths in species with identifiable point centromeres. The number of points is fewer than the number of chromosomes in each species because some chomosomes have identical CDEII length.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genetics and genomics"], "article_id"=>424311, "categories"=>["Genetics"], "users"=>["Jonathan L. Gordon", "Kevin P. Byrne", "Kenneth H. Wolfe"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002190.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_CDE_conservation_in_the_Saccharomycetaceae_/424311", "title"=>"CDE conservation in the Saccharomycetaceae.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-07-21 01:11:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/753630"], "description"=>"<p>Parentheses show the numbers of chromosomes in extant species, and the inferred numbers at nodes in the tree. Negative numbers in red show chromosome number reductions. The black dot indicates the position of the WGD and the Ancestral genome sequence. Node ‘B’ is an older node that is the common ancestor of all non-WGD and post-WGD species. Lowercase letters represent specific rearrangements that differentiate <i>L. kluyveri</i> from the WGD Ancestor (black dot) as shown in <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002190#pgen-1002190-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 2</a>. Species whose names are underlined are those for which end-to-end complete chromosome sequences are available. The phylogeny used is that of Hedtke et al <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002190#pgen.1002190-Hedtke1\" target=\"_blank\">[88]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["saccharomycetaceae"], "article_id"=>424004, "categories"=>["Genetics"], "users"=>["Jonathan L. Gordon", "Kevin P. Byrne", "Kenneth H. Wolfe"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002190.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>68, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Phylogeny_of_the_Saccharomycetaceae_species_used_in_this_study_/424004", "title"=>"Phylogeny of the Saccharomycetaceae species used in this study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-07-21 01:06:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/753693"], "description"=>"<p>Monocolored chromosomes belong to the WGD Ancestor. Chromosomes in gray boxes are extant <i>L. kluyveri</i> chromosomes. Events encircled by a color correspond to events on branches of the same color in <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002190#pgen-1002190-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 1</a>. Black crossed lines between chromosomes represent points of interchromosomal translocations, and square brackets along chromosomes (events c, f and h) represent inversions. Arrows point to the products resulting from each rearrangement. The rearrangement for event o (marked with two asterisks) is not shown as it involves a reciprocal translocation located one gene from the edge of the Ancestral inference, which essentially swaps the telomeres of Anc3 and Anc8 at the ends of Lklu3 and Lklu4.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rearrangements", "indicated", "lowercase", "letters"], "article_id"=>424065, "categories"=>["Genetics"], "users"=>["Jonathan L. Gordon", "Kevin P. Byrne", "Kenneth H. Wolfe"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002190.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cartoon_showing_the_rearrangements_indicated_by_lowercase_letters_in_Figure_1_/424065", "title"=>"Cartoon showing the rearrangements indicated by lowercase letters in <b>Figure 1</b>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-07-21 01:07:45"}

PMC Usage Stats

  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"8", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"46", "unique-ip"=>"47", "pdf"=>"23", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"17", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"22", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"23", "unique-ip"=>"31", "figure"=>"12", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"10", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"21", "unique-ip"=>"24", "pdf"=>"14", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"10", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"3", "full-text"=>"16", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"11", "unique-ip"=>"23", "figure"=>"9", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"12", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"16", "unique-ip"=>"21", "pdf"=>"10", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"10", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"20", "unique-ip"=>"28", "pdf"=>"28", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"20", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"18", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"8", "unique-ip"=>"22", "figure"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"19", "unique-ip"=>"19", "pdf"=>"6", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"10", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"3", "full-text"=>"11", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"9", "unique-ip"=>"13", "figure"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"2", "full-text"=>"22", "unique-ip"=>"21", "pdf"=>"7", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"12", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"13", "unique-ip"=>"13", "figure"=>"11", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"15", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"10", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"10", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"16", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"39", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"14", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"32", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"39", "full-text"=>"41", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"36", "full-text"=>"32", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"37", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"31", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"12", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"37", "full-text"=>"47", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"45", "full-text"=>"47", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"35", "full-text"=>"35", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"37", "full-text"=>"39", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"34", "full-text"=>"34", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"34", "full-text"=>"36", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"11", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"33", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"46", "full-text"=>"57", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"33", "full-text"=>"36", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"41", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"33", "full-text"=>"33", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"39", "full-text"=>"44", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"52", "full-text"=>"52", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"9", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"47", "full-text"=>"44", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"9", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"44", "full-text"=>"44", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"36", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"65", "full-text"=>"83", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"59", "full-text"=>"63", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"40", "full-text"=>"42", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"41", "full-text"=>"42", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"41", "full-text"=>"43", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"33", "full-text"=>"31", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"46", "full-text"=>"53", "pdf"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"40", "full-text"=>"41", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"59", "full-text"=>"69", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2011-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2011-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[304, 568, 702, 818, 927, 1027, 1118, 1206, 1285, 1357, 1427, 1500, 1564, 1636, 1705, 1773, 1840, 1909, 1974, 2039, 2106, 2170, 2234, 2296, 2358, 2423, 2484, 2546, 2606, 2673, 2734, 2795, 2857, 2921, 2984, 3046, 3100]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Biochemistry", "average_usage"=>[290, 559, 698, 813, 927, 1028, 1121, 1206, 1289, 1360, 1433, 1501, 1569, 1637, 1707, 1774, 1841, 1911, 1974, 2038, 2103, 2161, 2219, 2280, 2345, 2406, 2466, 2529, 2592, 2654, 2713, 2772, 2835, 2893, 2954, 3020, 3071]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Cell biology", "average_usage"=>[289, 559, 699, 817, 931, 1031, 1127, 1214, 1297, 1370, 1444, 1515, 1584, 1656, 1726, 1797, 1862, 1930, 1996, 2061, 2125, 2190, 2250, 2311, 2373, 2435, 2496, 2563, 2630, 2692, 2760, 2824, 2898, 2960, 3019, 3089, 3143]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Evolutionary biology", "average_usage"=>[330, 550, 674, 772, 863, 958, 1034, 1108, 1180, 1252, 1324, 1393, 1460, 1526, 1597, 1664, 1725, 1783, 1848, 1901, 1974, 2049, 2125, 2185, 2260, 2326, 2383, 2440, 2511, 2581, 2647, 2711, 2760, 2815, 2874, 2928, 3008]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Molecular biology", "average_usage"=>[295, 553, 688, 802, 914, 1017, 1108, 1194, 1278, 1351, 1419, 1500, 1570, 1633, 1712, 1774, 1839, 1903, 1970, 2033, 2101, 2162, 2228, 2291, 2352, 2418, 2486, 2547, 2610, 2680, 2737, 2799, 2859, 2919, 2974, 3029, 3082]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences", "average_usage"=>[303, 571, 709, 823, 937, 1038, 1133, 1216, 1298, 1370, 1447, 1518, 1588, 1656, 1725, 1790, 1856, 1926, 1992, 2054, 2118, 2182, 2242, 2301, 2363, 2425, 2484, 2544, 2602, 2662, 2716, 2776, 2841, 2901, 2960, 3016, 3071]}]}
Loading … Spinner
There are currently no alerts