A Rice Plastidial Nucleotide Sugar Epimerase Is Involved in Galactolipid Biosynthesis and Improves Photosynthetic Efficiency
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{"title"=>"A rice plastidial Nucleotide sugar epimerase is involved in Galactolipid biosynthesis and improves photosynthetic efficiency", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Chunlai", "last_name"=>"Li", "scopus_author_id"=>"53879861700"}, {"first_name"=>"Yiqin", "last_name"=>"Wang", "scopus_author_id"=>"55734158600"}, {"first_name"=>"Linchuan", "last_name"=>"Liu", "scopus_author_id"=>"37016598400"}, {"first_name"=>"Yingchun", "last_name"=>"Hu", "scopus_author_id"=>"55927021400"}, {"first_name"=>"Fengxia", "last_name"=>"Zhang", "scopus_author_id"=>"55803852900"}, {"first_name"=>"Sod", "last_name"=>"Mergen", "scopus_author_id"=>"48061372000"}, {"first_name"=>"Guodong", "last_name"=>"Wang", "scopus_author_id"=>"56183046900"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael R.", "last_name"=>"Schläppi", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602884466"}, {"first_name"=>"Chengcai", "last_name"=>"Chu", "scopus_author_id"=>"7404344851"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS Genetics", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"15537390", "pui"=>"362246881", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pgen.1002196", "sgr"=>"79960931847", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-79960931847", "isbn"=>"1553-7390", "pmid"=>"21829379"}, "id"=>"07a3c4d9-d026-368f-b03f-c0af64ce9170", "abstract"=>"Photosynthesis is the final determinator for crop yield. To gain insight into genes controlling photosynthetic capacity, we selected from our large T-DNA mutant population a rice stunted growth mutant with decreased carbon assimilate and yield production named photoassimilate defective1 (phd1). Molecular and biochemical analyses revealed that PHD1 encodes a novel chloroplast-localized UDP-glucose epimerase (UGE), which is conserved in the plant kingdom. The chloroplast localization of PHD1 was confirmed by immunoblots, immunocytochemistry, and UGE activity in isolated chloroplasts, which was approximately 50% lower in the phd1-1 mutant than in the wild type. In addition, the amounts of UDP-glucose and UDP-galactose substrates in chloroplasts were significantly higher and lower, respectively, indicating that PHD1 was responsible for a major part of UGE activity in plastids. The relative amount of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), a major chloroplast membrane galactolipid, was decreased in the mutant, while the digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) amount was not significantly altered, suggesting that PHD1 participates mainly in UDP-galactose supply for MGDG biosynthesis in chloroplasts. The phd1 mutant showed decreased chlorophyll content, photosynthetic activity, and altered chloroplast ultrastructure, suggesting that a correct amount of galactoglycerolipids and the ratio of glycolipids versus phospholipids are necessary for proper chloroplast function. Downregulated expression of starch biosynthesis genes and upregulated expression of sucrose cleavage genes might be a result of reduced photosynthetic activity and account for the decreased starch and sucrose levels seen in phd1 leaves. PHD1 overexpression increased photosynthetic efficiency, biomass, and grain production, suggesting that PHD1 plays an important role in supplying sufficient galactolipids to thylakoid membranes for proper chloroplast biogenesis and photosynthetic activity. These findings will be useful for improving crop yields and for bioenergy crop engineering.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/rice-plastidial-nucleotide-sugar-epimerase-involved-galactolipid-biosynthesis-improves-photosyntheti", "reader_count"=>28, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Engineering"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>23}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>23}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Colombia"=>1, "Malaysia"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/751034"], "description"=>"<p>(A) RNA gel blot analysis of the <i>PHD1</i> gene in roots, culms, flowers, leaf blades, and leaf sheaths just before the anthesis stage. (B–F) <i>PHD1</i> expression patterns detected by mRNA <i>in situ</i> hybridization. The <i>PHD1</i> signal was detected in the shoot apical meristem and young leaves (B), leaf mesophyll cells around vascular bundles (C), young inflorescences (D), and axillary buds (E). (F) Negative control preparation made with a <i>PHD1</i> sense probe. Bars = 150 µm in (B), (C), (E), and (F), and 500 µm in (D).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>[], "article_id"=>421410, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Chunlai Li", "Yiqin Wang", "Linchuan Liu", "Yingchun Hu", "Fengxia Zhang", "Sod Mergen", "Guodong Wang", "Michael R. Schläppi", "Chengcai Chu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002196.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Expression_analysis_of_PHD1_/421410", "title"=>"Expression analysis of <i>PHD1</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-07-28 00:23:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/751766"], "description"=>"<p>The substrates of the reaction catalyzed by PHD1 are in bold. AGP, ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase; SS and GBSS, starch synthases; UGP, UDP-Glc pyrophosphorylase; CyUGE, cytosolic UDP-Glucose 4-epimerase; SPS, sucrose phosphate synthase; SPP, sucrose phosphate phosphatase; SuSy, sucrose synthase; Glc-1-P, glucose-1-phosphate; Pi, inorganic phosphate; PPi, pyrophosphate; ATP, adenosine-triphosphate. Intermediates linked by a single reaction are represented by an unbroken line.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["phd1", "galactolipid", "biosynthetic", "pathway", "chloroplast"], "article_id"=>422124, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Chunlai Li", "Yiqin Wang", "Linchuan Liu", "Yingchun Hu", "Fengxia Zhang", "Sod Mergen", "Guodong Wang", "Michael R. Schläppi", "Chengcai Chu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002196.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>25, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Proposed_model_for_the_role_of_PHD1_in_the_galactolipid_biosynthetic_pathway_for_chloroplast_membranes_/422124", "title"=>"Proposed model for the role of PHD1 in the galactolipid biosynthetic pathway for chloroplast membranes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-07-28 00:35:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/751212"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Confocal micrographs showing chloroplast targeting of PHD1. Rice protoplasts transformed with 35S::<i>PHD1</i>-GFP (upper panel) and 35S::GFP (lower panel) plasmids are shown. Chlorophyll autofluorescence (middle); GFP fluorescence (left); merged images (right). Bars = 5 µm. (B) PHD1 protein distribution in chloroplast subfractions. Percoll-purified intact chloroplasts were lysed and subjected to differential centrifugation fractionation into envelope, stroma, and thylakoid fractions. Proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE, and blotted against the PHD1 antibody and specific chloroplast subcompartment protein antibodies. Tic 40 is an envelope membrane protein, RbcL a stroma protein, and PsbA a thylakoid membrane protein. HSP82 was used as a cytosolic protein marker. About 15 µg of total proteins from extrachloroplast (Ep), purified chloroplast (Cp), envelope (E), stroma (S), and thylakoid (T) subfractions were loaded per line. RbcL seen in the Ep fraction is most likely due to leakage from the stroma of broken chloroplasts. (C–F) Immunogold localization of PHD1. Thin sections of chloroplasts in leaf mesophyll cells were incubated with PHD1 antibodies (C and D) and preimmune serum (E and F). The gold label is found preferentially associated with thylakoids of the chloroplasts as seen in (D). Chl, chloroplast; Cyt, cytosol; Mit, mitochondria; CW, cell wall. Bar = 0.5 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["localization"], "article_id"=>421581, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Chunlai Li", "Yiqin Wang", "Linchuan Liu", "Yingchun Hu", "Fengxia Zhang", "Sod Mergen", "Guodong Wang", "Michael R. Schläppi", "Chengcai Chu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002196.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>40, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Subcellular_localization_of_PHD1_/421581", "title"=>"Subcellular localization of PHD1.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-07-28 00:26:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/750699"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Two-week-old seedlings grown on MS medium. (B and C) Growth phenotype of 2-month-old (B) and 4-month-old (C) plants grown in a paddy field. (D) The harvested panicles showed a reduced seed-setting ratio for <i>phd1</i>-<i>1</i>. (A–D) wild type (left) and <i>phd1</i>-<i>1</i> (right). (E–G) Quantification of the agricultural traits of tiller number (E), seed setting ratio (F), and grain weight per plant (G). Each bar is the mean ± SD from 30 replicate samples. (H, I) Diurnal changes in sucrose (H) and starch (I) content of <i>phd1</i>-<i>1</i> and wild type. Mature leaves of individual wild type and <i>phd1-1</i> plants at the anthesis stage were harvested and immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen. Each point is the mean ± SD from ten replicate samples.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mutant"], "article_id"=>421071, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Chunlai Li", "Yiqin Wang", "Linchuan Liu", "Yingchun Hu", "Fengxia Zhang", "Sod Mergen", "Guodong Wang", "Michael R. Schläppi", "Chengcai Chu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002196.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_phd1_mutant_phenotypes_/421071", "title"=>"<i>phd1</i> mutant phenotypes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-07-28 00:17:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/751544"], "description"=>"<p>(A) The expression of genes involved in the UDP-Gal biosynthesis pathway was upregulated in <i>phd1-1</i>. (B) The expression of starch biosynthesis genes was downregulated in <i>phd1-1</i>. (C) The expression of sucrose cleavage genes was upregulated in <i>phd1-1</i>. Expression values are displayed as the ratio of expression to rice 18S RNA (mean ± SE). All assays were carried out with three biological replicates.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genes", "udp-gal", "biosynthesis", "allocation", "leaves"], "article_id"=>421905, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Chunlai Li", "Yiqin Wang", "Linchuan Liu", "Yingchun Hu", "Fengxia Zhang", "Sod Mergen", "Guodong Wang", "Michael R. Schläppi", "Chengcai Chu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002196.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Expression_analysis_of_key_genes_involved_in_UDP_Gal_biosynthesis_and_carbohydrate_allocation_in_leaves_of_phd1_1_plants_/421905", "title"=>"Expression analysis of key genes involved in UDP-Gal biosynthesis and carbohydrate allocation in leaves of <i>phd1</i>-<i>1</i> plants.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-07-28 00:31:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/751644"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Phenotypic differences of wild type, <i>phd1</i>-<i>1</i>, and transgenic line S3 at the grain-filling stage grown in paddy fields. (B) Immunoblot analysis of PHD1 protein expression in wild type, <i>phd1</i>-<i>1</i>, and <i>PHD1</i> overexpressing transgenic lines (S3, S5, and S8). Tubulin is shown as loading control. Increased accumulation of PHD1 protein was observed in transgenic lines. (C, D) Grain yield per plant (C) and dry weight of vegetative organs after harvesting (D) were increased in transgenic plants. Values are means ± SD from at least 30 plants/line. Asterisks indicate a statistically significant difference from the wild type (*<i>P</i><0.05, Student's <i>t</i>-test).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["transgenic", "lines", "overexpressing"], "article_id"=>422002, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Chunlai Li", "Yiqin Wang", "Linchuan Liu", "Yingchun Hu", "Fengxia Zhang", "Sod Mergen", "Guodong Wang", "Michael R. Schläppi", "Chengcai Chu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002196.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Agricultural_traits_of_transgenic_rice_lines_overexpressing_PHD1_/422002", "title"=>"Agricultural traits of transgenic rice lines overexpressing <i>PHD1</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-07-28 00:33:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/751352"], "description"=>"<p>Intact chloroplasts were isolated from leaves of wild type, <i>phd1</i>-<i>1</i>, and <i>PHD1</i>-complemented plants by step-wise density gradient centrifugation, and UDP-sugar levels were determined as described in <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002196#s4\" target=\"_blank\">Materials and Methods</a>. Values are the mean of three experiments ± SDs. Asterisks indicate a statistically significant difference from the wild type (*<i>P</i><0.05, Student's <i>t</i>-test).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["udp-gal", "levels", "chloroplasts", "transgenic"], "article_id"=>421715, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Chunlai Li", "Yiqin Wang", "Linchuan Liu", "Yingchun Hu", "Fengxia Zhang", "Sod Mergen", "Guodong Wang", "Michael R. Schläppi", "Chengcai Chu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002196.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_UDP_Glc_and_UDP_Gal_levels_in_isolated_chloroplasts_from_wild_type_phd1_1_and_PHD1_complemented_transgenic_lines_/421715", "title"=>"UDP-Glc and UDP-Gal levels in isolated chloroplasts from wild type, <i>phd1</i>-<i>1</i>, and <i>PHD1</i>-complemented transgenic lines.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-07-28 00:28:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/378299", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/378308", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/378323", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/378360", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/378376", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/378386", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/378424", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/378455", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/378470"], "description"=>"<div><p>Photosynthesis is the final determinator for crop yield. To gain insight into genes controlling photosynthetic capacity, we selected from our large T-DNA mutant population a rice stunted growth mutant with decreased carbon assimilate and yield production named <em>photoassimilate defective1</em> (<em>phd1</em>). Molecular and biochemical analyses revealed that <em>PHD1</em> encodes a novel chloroplast-localized UDP-glucose epimerase (UGE), which is conserved in the plant kingdom. The chloroplast localization of PHD1 was confirmed by immunoblots, immunocytochemistry, and UGE activity in isolated chloroplasts, which was approximately 50% lower in the <em>phd1</em>-<em>1</em> mutant than in the wild type. In addition, the amounts of UDP-glucose and UDP-galactose substrates in chloroplasts were significantly higher and lower, respectively, indicating that PHD1 was responsible for a major part of UGE activity in plastids. The relative amount of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), a major chloroplast membrane galactolipid, was decreased in the mutant, while the digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) amount was not significantly altered, suggesting that <em>PHD1</em> participates mainly in UDP-galactose supply for MGDG biosynthesis in chloroplasts. The <em>phd1</em> mutant showed decreased chlorophyll content, photosynthetic activity, and altered chloroplast ultrastructure, suggesting that a correct amount of galactoglycerolipids and the ratio of glycolipids versus phospholipids are necessary for proper chloroplast function. Downregulated expression of starch biosynthesis genes and upregulated expression of sucrose cleavage genes might be a result of reduced photosynthetic activity and account for the decreased starch and sucrose levels seen in <em>phd1</em> leaves. <em>PHD1</em> overexpression increased photosynthetic efficiency, biomass, and grain production, suggesting that PHD1 plays an important role in supplying sufficient galactolipids to thylakoid membranes for proper chloroplast biogenesis and photosynthetic activity. These findings will be useful for improving crop yields and for bioenergy crop engineering.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["plastidial", "nucleotide", "epimerase", "galactolipid", "biosynthesis", "improves", "photosynthetic"], "article_id"=>134773, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Chunlai Li", "Yiqin Wang", "Linchuan Liu", "Yingchun Hu", "Fengxia Zhang", "Sod Mergen", "Guodong Wang", "Michael R. Schläppi", "Chengcai Chu"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002196.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002196.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002196.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002196.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002196.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002196.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002196.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002196.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002196.s009"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>14, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/A_Rice_Plastidial_Nucleotide_Sugar_Epimerase_Is_Involved_in_Galactolipid_Biosynthesis_and_Improves_Photosynthetic_Efficiency/134773", "title"=>"A Rice Plastidial Nucleotide Sugar Epimerase Is Involved in Galactolipid Biosynthesis and Improves Photosynthetic Efficiency", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-07-28 01:19:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/751452"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Polar lipid composition in leaves of wild type, <i>phd1</i>-<i>1</i>, and <i>PHD1</i>-complemented plants grown in paddy fields. Glycerolipids were quantified by GC/MS of leaf lipids separated by TLC. The bars show lipid composition in mol% and indicate means ± SD of three measurements. PC, phosphatidylcholine; PE, phosphatidylethanolamine; PG, phosphatidylglycerol; PI, phosphatidylinositol; SQDG, sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol. (B) Fatty acid composition of MGDG from wild type, <i>phd1</i>-<i>1</i>, and <i>PHD1</i>-complemented plant leaves. The data are presented as the average mole percent of fatty acid for the indicated fatty acids along the x axis. The error bars represent the standard deviations of three biological replicates. Asterisks indicate a statistically significant difference from the wild type (*<i>P</i><0.05, Student's <i>t</i>-test).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["lipid", "fatty", "profiles", "leaves"], "article_id"=>421814, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Chunlai Li", "Yiqin Wang", "Linchuan Liu", "Yingchun Hu", "Fengxia Zhang", "Sod Mergen", "Guodong Wang", "Michael R. Schläppi", "Chengcai Chu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002196.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Polar_lipid_composition_and_fatty_acid_profiles_in_leaves_of_wild_type_phd1_1_and_PHD1_complemented_plants_/421814", "title"=>"Polar lipid composition and fatty acid profiles in leaves of wild type, <i>phd1</i>-<i>1</i>, and <i>PHD1</i>-complemented plants.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-07-28 00:30:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/750933"], "description"=>"<p>MEGA4 Neighbor-Joining tree was inferred from the amino acid sequences of the PHD1 (Os01g0367100) homologs among green plants. Bootstrap values are based on 1 000 replications and are indicated in their respective nodes. The scale bar indicates genetic distance based on branch length. An alignment for the constructed tree is shown in <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002196#pgen.1002196.s003\" target=\"_blank\">Figure S3</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>[], "article_id"=>421303, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Chunlai Li", "Yiqin Wang", "Linchuan Liu", "Yingchun Hu", "Fengxia Zhang", "Sod Mergen", "Guodong Wang", "Michael R. Schläppi", "Chengcai Chu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002196.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Phylogenetic_analysis_of_PHD1_/421303", "title"=>"Phylogenetic analysis of PHD1.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-07-28 00:21:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/750833"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Structure of the <i>PHD1</i> gene and its mutation sites in three <i>phd1</i> alleles. The <i>PHD1</i> gene consists of nine exons (green boxes) and eight introns (gray lines). Nucleotide insertion and substitutions in the three <i>phd1</i> alleles are indicated. (B, C) Functional complementation of the <i>phd1</i> mutant. (B) Upper panel: Phenotypes of wild type, <i>phd1</i>-<i>1</i>, and complemented <i>phd1</i>-<i>1</i>+<i>PHD1</i> plants at the tillering stage. Lower panel: Expression levels of <i>PHD1</i> transcripts as detected by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. (C) Sucrose and starch content in flag leaves of wild type, <i>phd1</i>-<i>1</i>, and complemented <i>phd1</i>-<i>1</i>+<i>PHD1</i> plants at noon of the day at the anthesis stage. Error bars represent SD of eight different individuals. *significant difference between <i>phd1</i>-<i>1</i> mutant and wild type (<i>P</i> = 0.05).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>[], "article_id"=>421208, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Chunlai Li", "Yiqin Wang", "Linchuan Liu", "Yingchun Hu", "Fengxia Zhang", "Sod Mergen", "Guodong Wang", "Michael R. Schläppi", "Chengcai Chu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002196.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Molecular_identification_of_PHD1_/421208", "title"=>"Molecular identification of <i>PHD1</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-07-28 00:20:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/751838"], "description"=>"<p>Samples were collected from fully expanded leaves of 4-month-old plants grown in paddy fields. Values represent means (± SD) of six to ten independent determinations.</p>*<p>Significant difference between mutant and wild type (<i>P</i><0.05).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["contents", "photosynthetic", "parameters"], "article_id"=>422203, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Chunlai Li", "Yiqin Wang", "Linchuan Liu", "Yingchun Hu", "Fengxia Zhang", "Sod Mergen", "Guodong Wang", "Michael R. Schläppi", "Chengcai Chu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002196.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>12, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pigment_contents_mg_g_8722_1_fresh_weight_and_photosynthetic_parameters_of_wild_type_phd1_1_and_PHD1_complemented_plants_/422203", "title"=>"Pigment contents (mg·g<sup>−1</sup> fresh weight) and photosynthetic parameters of wild type, <i>phd1</i>-<i>1</i>, and <i>PHD1</i>-complemented plants.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-07-28 00:36:43"}

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