The Repertoire of ICE in Prokaryotes Underscores the Unity, Diversity, and Ubiquity of Conjugation
Publication Date
August 18, 2011
Journal
PLOS Genetics
Authors
Julien Guglielmini, Leonor Quintais, Maria Pilar Garcillán Barcia, Fernando De La Cruz, et al
Volume
7
Issue
8
Pages
e1002222
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002222
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosgenetics/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pgen.1002222
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21876676
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3158045
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/21876676
Web of Science
000294297000019
Scopus
80052333445
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/repertoire-ice-prokaryotes-underscores-unity-diversity-ubiquity-conjugation
Events
Loading … Spinner

Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"The repertoire of ice in prokaryotes underscores the unity, diversity, and ubiquity of conjugation", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Julien", "last_name"=>"Guglielmini", "scopus_author_id"=>"24461638900"}, {"first_name"=>"Leonor", "last_name"=>"Quintais", "scopus_author_id"=>"51161800400"}, {"first_name"=>"Maria Pilar", "last_name"=>"Garcillán-Barcia", "scopus_author_id"=>"8074133700"}, {"first_name"=>"Fernando", "last_name"=>"de la Cruz", "scopus_author_id"=>"22974628400"}, {"first_name"=>"Eduardo P.C.", "last_name"=>"Rocha", "scopus_author_id"=>"56031901800"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS Genetics", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"15537390", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-80052333445", "pui"=>"362475569", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pgen.1002222", "isbn"=>"1553-7404 (Electronic)\\r1553-7390 (Linking)", "sgr"=>"80052333445", "pmid"=>"21876676"}, "id"=>"d6df9b56-717f-3ed0-a96d-8d13742d3583", "abstract"=>"Horizontal gene transfer shapes the genomes of prokaryotes by allowing rapid acquisition of novel adaptive functions. Conjugation allows the broadest range and the highest gene transfer input per transfer event. While conjugative plasmids have been studied for decades, the number and diversity of integrative conjugative elements (ICE) in prokaryotes remained unknown. We defined a large set of protein profiles of the conjugation machinery to scan over 1,000 genomes of prokaryotes. We found 682 putative conjugative systems among all major phylogenetic clades and showed that ICEs are the most abundant conjugative elements in prokaryotes. Nearly half of the genomes contain a type IV secretion system (T4SS), with larger genomes encoding more conjugative systems. Surprisingly, almost half of the chromosomal T4SS lack co-localized relaxases and, consequently, might be devoted to protein transport instead of conjugation. This class of elements is preponderant among small genomes, is less commonly associated with integrases, and is rarer in plasmids. ICEs and conjugative plasmids in proteobacteria have different preferences for each type of T4SS, but all types exist in both chromosomes and plasmids. Mobilizable elements outnumber self-conjugative elements in both ICEs and plasmids, which suggests an extensive use of T4SS in trans. Our evolutionary analysis indicates that switch of plasmids to and from ICEs were frequent and that extant elements began to differentiate only relatively recently. According to the present results, ICEs are the most abundant conjugative elements in practically all prokaryotic clades and might be far more frequently domesticated into non-conjugative protein transport systems than previously thought. While conjugative plasmids and ICEs have different means of genomic stabilization, their mechanisms of mobility by conjugation show strikingly conserved patterns, arguing for a unitary view of conjugation in shaping the genomes of prokaryotes by horizontal gene transfer.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/repertoire-ice-prokaryotes-underscores-unity-diversity-ubiquity-conjugation", "reader_count"=>168, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>11, "Researcher"=>48, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>54, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>26, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>11, "Researcher"=>48, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>54, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>26, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>6, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>25, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>113, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>3, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>2, "Computer Science"=>4, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>7, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>3}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>7}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>113}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>4}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>25}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>6}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "Belgium"=>1, "United States"=>2, "Brazil"=>1, "Denmark"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "France"=>3, "Germany"=>1, "Spain"=>6, "India"=>1}, "group_count"=>6}

CrossRef

Scopus | Further Information

{"@_fa"=>"true", "link"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"self", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/80052333445"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"author-affiliation", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/80052333445?field=author,affiliation"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=80052333445&origin=inward"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus-citedby", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=80052333445&origin=inward"}], "prism:url"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/80052333445", "dc:identifier"=>"SCOPUS_ID:80052333445", "eid"=>"2-s2.0-80052333445", "dc:title"=>"The repertoire of ice in prokaryotes underscores the unity, diversity, and ubiquity of conjugation", "dc:creator"=>"Guglielmini J.", "prism:publicationName"=>"PLoS Genetics", "prism:issn"=>"15537390", "prism:eIssn"=>"15537404", "prism:volume"=>"7", "prism:issueIdentifier"=>"8", "prism:pageRange"=>nil, "prism:coverDate"=>"2011-08-01", "prism:coverDisplayDate"=>"August 2011", "prism:doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pgen.1002222", "citedby-count"=>"169", "affiliation"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"CNRS Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique", "affiliation-city"=>"Paris", "affiliation-country"=>"France"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"Institut Pasteur, Paris", "affiliation-city"=>"Paris", "affiliation-country"=>"France"}], "pubmed-id"=>"21876676", "prism:aggregationType"=>"Journal", "subtype"=>"ar", "subtypeDescription"=>"Article", "article-number"=>"e1002222", "source-id"=>"4000151808", "openaccess"=>"1", "openaccessFlag"=>true}

Facebook

  • {"url"=>"http%3A%2F%2Fjournals.plos.org%2Fplosgenetics%2Farticle%3Fid%3D10.1371%252Fjournal.pgen.1002222", "share_count"=>0, "like_count"=>0, "comment_count"=>0, "click_count"=>0, "total_count"=>0}

Counter

  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"110", "xml_views"=>"10", "html_views"=>"541"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"150", "xml_views"=>"7", "html_views"=>"792"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"36", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"121"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"36", "xml_views"=>"5", "html_views"=>"81"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"26", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"65"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"23", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"103"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"29", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"114"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"24", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"79"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"61"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"58"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"51"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"47"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"6", "html_views"=>"84"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"23", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"60"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"46"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"62"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"69"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"75"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"207"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"50"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"82"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"53"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"52"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"56"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"33"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"69"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"87"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"138"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"116"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"105"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"119"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"136"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"85"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"103"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"100"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"75"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"102"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"119"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"310"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"168"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"5", "html_views"=>"114"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"134"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"23", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"103"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"86"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"60"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"83"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"21", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"75"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"59"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"32"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"64"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"58"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"55"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"27", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"58"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"45"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"35", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"57"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"72"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"133"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"94"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"48"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"28"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"56"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"48", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"68"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"68", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"90"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"61"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"28", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"73"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"79"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"72"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"54"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"70"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"79"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"51"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"64"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"49"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"40"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"60"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"63"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"36"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"31"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"31"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"43"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"44"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"35"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"18"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"6", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"31"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"14"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"26"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"21", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"53"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"23"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"25"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"24", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"26"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"47"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"20"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"26"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"36"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"23", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"40"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"26", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"36"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"28"}

Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/744152"], "description"=>"<p>The integration/excision reaction (1) occurs by recombination across two recombination sites (yellow squares) located at the termini of the inserted element. As a result, a circular (most commonly non-replicating) DNA molecule is produced. Conjugation (2) is carried out by mobility systems. The relaxase (red circle) cleaves a specific site within <i>oriT</i>, and this step starts conjugation. The DNA strand that contains the relaxase protein covalently bound to its 5′-end is displaced by an ongoing conjugative DNA replication process (dotted lines). The relaxase interacts with the T4CP (green oval) and then with other components of the T4SS (blue rectangle). As a result, the relaxase-DNA complex is transported to the recipient cell <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002222#pgen.1002222-delaCruz2\" target=\"_blank\">[13]</a>. Since ICEs are supposed not to replicate autonomously, the process terminates necessarily by integration of the transferred DNA circle in the recipient chromosome.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["interactions", "ices"], "article_id"=>414528, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Microbiology"], "users"=>["Julien Guglielmini", "Leonor Quintais", "Maria Pilar Garcillán-Barcia", "Fernando de la Cruz", "Eduardo P. C. Rocha"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002222.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Scheme_of_some_essential_interactions_in_the_process_of_ICEs_movement_/414528", "title"=>"Scheme of some essential interactions in the process of ICEs movement.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-08-18 01:15:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/744216"], "description"=>"<p>Upper. Diagram of the method used in the detection of the major representatives of the conjugation machinery: VirB4, T4CP, relaxases (rel) and the T4SS type-specific products. From expert datasets for the different proteins, we made multiple alignments and built HMM profiles that were used to scan chromosomes and plasmids. The numbers correspond to the number of hits. Lower. We then clustered co-localizing genes that are found within a maximum distance of 60 ORFs. A cluster containing a VirB4, a T4CP and a relaxase is considered as a putative conjugative system (CONJ). A cluster containing a VirB4 (plus or minus T4CP) but lacking a relaxase is considered as a putative protein-exporting T4SS. A cluster containing a relaxase but lacking a VirB4 is considered as a mobilizable element (MOB). The table shows the number of each type of clusters.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genetics and genomics", "microbiology"], "article_id"=>414592, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Microbiology"], "users"=>["Julien Guglielmini", "Leonor Quintais", "Maria Pilar Garcillán-Barcia", "Fernando de la Cruz", "Eduardo P. C. Rocha"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002222.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Methods_and_results_of_the_identification_pipeline_/414592", "title"=>"Methods and results of the identification pipeline.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-08-18 01:16:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/375312", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/375338"], "description"=>"<div><p>Horizontal gene transfer shapes the genomes of prokaryotes by allowing rapid acquisition of novel adaptive functions. Conjugation allows the broadest range and the highest gene transfer input per transfer event. While conjugative plasmids have been studied for decades, the number and diversity of integrative conjugative elements (ICE) in prokaryotes remained unknown. We defined a large set of protein profiles of the conjugation machinery to scan over 1,000 genomes of prokaryotes. We found 682 putative conjugative systems among all major phylogenetic clades and showed that ICEs are the most abundant conjugative elements in prokaryotes. Nearly half of the genomes contain a type IV secretion system (T4SS), with larger genomes encoding more conjugative systems. Surprisingly, almost half of the chromosomal T4SS lack co-localized relaxases and, consequently, might be devoted to protein transport instead of conjugation. This class of elements is preponderant among small genomes, is less commonly associated with integrases, and is rarer in plasmids. ICEs and conjugative plasmids in proteobacteria have different preferences for each type of T4SS, but all types exist in both chromosomes and plasmids. Mobilizable elements outnumber self-conjugative elements in both ICEs and plasmids, which suggests an extensive use of T4SS in <em>trans</em>. Our evolutionary analysis indicates that switch of plasmids to and from ICEs were frequent and that extant elements began to differentiate only relatively recently. According to the present results, ICEs are the most abundant conjugative elements in practically all prokaryotic clades and might be far more frequently domesticated into non-conjugative protein transport systems than previously thought. While conjugative plasmids and ICEs have different means of genomic stabilization, their mechanisms of mobility by conjugation show strikingly conserved patterns, arguing for a unitary view of conjugation in shaping the genomes of prokaryotes by horizontal gene transfer.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["repertoire", "prokaryotes", "underscores", "ubiquity", "conjugation"], "article_id"=>134121, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Microbiology"], "users"=>["Julien Guglielmini", "Leonor Quintais", "Maria Pilar Garcillán-Barcia", "Fernando de la Cruz", "Eduardo P. C. Rocha"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002222.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002222.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>8, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/The_Repertoire_of_ICE_in_Prokaryotes_Underscores_the_Unity_Diversity_and_Ubiquity_of_Conjugation/134121", "title"=>"The Repertoire of ICE in Prokaryotes Underscores the Unity, Diversity, and Ubiquity of Conjugation", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-08-18 01:08:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/744390"], "description"=>"<p>(See also <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002222#pgen-1002222-g006\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 6</a>.) The figure shows the percentage of each MOB type (color code at the right) associated to each MPF type.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mob"], "article_id"=>414765, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Microbiology"], "users"=>["Julien Guglielmini", "Leonor Quintais", "Maria Pilar Garcillán-Barcia", "Fernando de la Cruz", "Eduardo P. C. Rocha"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002222.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_the_different_MOB_families_among_clades_/414765", "title"=>"Distribution of the different MOB families among clades.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-08-18 01:19:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/744345"], "description"=>"<p>(See also <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002222#pgen-1002222-g006\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 6</a>.) The VirB4 families correspond to the four previously described proteobacterial MPF types (T, G, F and I) plus four additional families, associated with either host phyla (bacteroidetes, cyanobacteria) or mixtures of phyla (FA = firmicutes plus actinobacteria) or FATA (firmicutes, actinobacteria, tenericutes and archaea).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ices", "conjugative", "plasmids", "groups", "virb4", "phylogenetic"], "article_id"=>414711, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Microbiology"], "users"=>["Julien Guglielmini", "Leonor Quintais", "Maria Pilar Garcillán-Barcia", "Fernando de la Cruz", "Eduardo P. C. Rocha"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002222.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_ICEs_and_conjugative_plasmids_in_the_different_groups_of_the_VirB4_phylogenetic_tree_/414711", "title"=>"Distribution of ICEs and conjugative plasmids in the different groups of the VirB4 phylogenetic tree.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-08-18 01:18:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/744446"], "description"=>"<p>Top: phylogeny of VirB4 with groups cartooned together. Bootstrap values above 75% are depicted. Bottom: phylogeny of VirB4 within MPF<sub>T</sub> (in gray an outgroup to root the tree) with an indication if the gene is encoded in a chromosome (black circles) or in a plasmid (red).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["non-redundant", "subset", "virb4", "proteins", "was"], "article_id"=>414817, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Microbiology"], "users"=>["Julien Guglielmini", "Leonor Quintais", "Maria Pilar Garcillán-Barcia", "Fernando de la Cruz", "Eduardo P. C. Rocha"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002222.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Phylogenetic_analysis_of_a_non_redundant_subset_of_VirB4_proteins_only_one_protein_per_cluster_of_proteins_gt_90_identical_was_used_/414817", "title"=>"Phylogenetic analysis of a non-redundant subset of VirB4 proteins (only one protein per cluster of proteins >90% identical was used).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-08-18 01:20:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/744502"], "description"=>"<p>The x-axis represents the pairwise evolutionary distances between VirB4 proteins (as taken from the tree in <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002222#pgen-1002222-g006\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 6</a>). The histogram represents the counts in each bin of evolutionary distance (<i>e.g.</i> 5488 comparisons for proteins at an evolutionary distance less than 1). The line represents the frequency with which each of the two VirB4s at a given evolutionary distance belong to the same type of replicon, <i>i.e.</i> a plasmid or a chromosome. The line is a spline fit on the graph of pairwise evolutionary distances versus the frequency with each the two VirB4 are in the same type of replicon (<i>i.e.</i> both chromosomal or both plasmidic). For closely related sequences (smallest distances), the y-value is close to 100%, indicating that sequences belong to the same type of replicon. When the distance increases, the variable falls to 50%, indicating that the probability of finding a pair of VirB4 at these evolutionary distances in two chromosomes or in two plasmids is the same to that of finding them in a pair constituted by one ICE and one conjugative plasmid.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["phylogenetic", "associations", "conjugative"], "article_id"=>414880, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Microbiology"], "users"=>["Julien Guglielmini", "Leonor Quintais", "Maria Pilar Garcillán-Barcia", "Fernando de la Cruz", "Eduardo P. C. Rocha"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002222.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Analysis_of_phylogenetic_associations_between_conjugative_systems_/414880", "title"=>"Analysis of phylogenetic associations between conjugative systems.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-08-18 01:21:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/744287"], "description"=>"<p>Red: MOBless T4SS clusters T4SS+MOB-, Blue: ICE, Green: conjugative plasmids.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genomes", "containing", "t4ss", "genome"], "article_id"=>414665, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Microbiology"], "users"=>["Julien Guglielmini", "Leonor Quintais", "Maria Pilar Garcillán-Barcia", "Fernando de la Cruz", "Eduardo P. C. Rocha"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002222.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Percentage_of_genomes_containing_T4SS_in_function_of_genome_size_/414665", "title"=>"Percentage of genomes containing T4SS in function of genome size.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-08-18 01:17:45"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"month"=>"9", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"42", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"29", "unique-ip"=>"41", "figure"=>"11", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"5"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"10", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"36", "unique-ip"=>"33", "pdf"=>"20", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"13", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"7"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"2", "full-text"=>"37", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"23", "unique-ip"=>"39", "figure"=>"9", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"12", "cited-by"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"22", "unique-ip"=>"20", "pdf"=>"18", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"4"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"37", "unique-ip"=>"31", "pdf"=>"18", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"6"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"20", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"8", "unique-ip"=>"17", "figure"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"20", "unique-ip"=>"15", "pdf"=>"10", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "abstract"=>"2", "full-text"=>"22", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"15", "unique-ip"=>"24", "figure"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"1", "abstract"=>"2", "full-text"=>"10", "unique-ip"=>"15", "pdf"=>"7", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"14", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"5", "unique-ip"=>"12", "figure"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"16", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"14", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"13", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"12", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"6", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"6", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"9", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"3", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"6", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"6", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2011-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2011-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Biochemistry", "average_usage"=>[290, 559, 698, 813, 927, 1028, 1121, 1206, 1289, 1360, 1433, 1501, 1569, 1637, 1707, 1774, 1841, 1911, 1974, 2038, 2103, 2161, 2219, 2280, 2345, 2406, 2466, 2529, 2592, 2654, 2713, 2772, 2835, 2893, 2954, 3020, 3071]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Cell biology", "average_usage"=>[289, 559, 699, 817, 931, 1031, 1127, 1214, 1297, 1370, 1444, 1515, 1584, 1656, 1726, 1797, 1862, 1930, 1996, 2061, 2125, 2190, 2250, 2311, 2373, 2435, 2496, 2563, 2630, 2692, 2760, 2824, 2898, 2960, 3019, 3089, 3143]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Computational biology", "average_usage"=>[348, 636, 778, 900, 1011, 1120, 1220, 1303, 1392, 1471, 1554, 1628, 1704, 1776, 1855, 1934, 2016, 2084, 2149, 2232, 2303, 2379, 2465, 2539, 2593, 2657, 2722, 2786, 2856, 2918, 2989, 3057, 3124, 3185, 3234, 3300, 3343]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Evolutionary biology", "average_usage"=>[330, 550, 674, 772, 863, 958, 1034, 1108, 1180, 1252, 1324, 1393, 1460, 1526, 1597, 1664, 1725, 1783, 1848, 1901, 1974, 2049, 2125, 2185, 2260, 2326, 2383, 2440, 2511, 2581, 2647, 2711, 2760, 2815, 2874, 2928, 3008]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Genetics", "average_usage"=>[308, 576, 718, 839, 960, 1061, 1156, 1249, 1331, 1408, 1484, 1558, 1625, 1698, 1767, 1842, 1912, 1990, 2058, 2128, 2183, 2259, 2317, 2378, 2436, 2488, 2552, 2627, 2692, 2759, 2820, 2881, 2940, 3001, 3061, 3117, 3164]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Molecular biology", "average_usage"=>[295, 553, 688, 802, 914, 1017, 1108, 1194, 1278, 1351, 1419, 1500, 1570, 1633, 1712, 1774, 1839, 1903, 1970, 2033, 2101, 2162, 2228, 2291, 2352, 2418, 2486, 2547, 2610, 2680, 2737, 2799, 2859, 2919, 2974, 3029, 3082]}]}
Loading … Spinner
There are currently no alerts