A Genome-Wide Metabolic QTL Analysis in Europeans Implicates Two Loci Shaped by Recent Positive Selection
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{"title"=>"A genome-wide metabolic QTL analysis in europeans implicates two Loci shaped by recent positive selection", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"George", "last_name"=>"Nicholson", "scopus_author_id"=>"56533252600"}, {"first_name"=>"Mattias", "last_name"=>"Rantalainen", "scopus_author_id"=>"22951645000"}, {"first_name"=>"Jia V.", "last_name"=>"Li", "scopus_author_id"=>"35237886400"}, {"first_name"=>"Anthony D.", "last_name"=>"Maher", "scopus_author_id"=>"17346083800"}, {"first_name"=>"Daniel", "last_name"=>"Malmodin", "scopus_author_id"=>"8960732500"}, {"first_name"=>"Kourosh R.", "last_name"=>"Ahmadi", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701371940"}, {"first_name"=>"Johan H.", "last_name"=>"Faber", "scopus_author_id"=>"36829688200"}, {"first_name"=>"Amy", "last_name"=>"Barrett", "scopus_author_id"=>"57200265535"}, {"first_name"=>"Josine L.", "last_name"=>"Min", "scopus_author_id"=>"14052521500"}, {"first_name"=>"N. William", "last_name"=>"Rayner", "scopus_author_id"=>"15052409700"}, {"first_name"=>"Henrik", "last_name"=>"Toft", "scopus_author_id"=>"56592517700"}, {"first_name"=>"Maria", "last_name"=>"Krestyaninova", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506639765"}, {"first_name"=>"Juris", "last_name"=>"Viksna", "scopus_author_id"=>"12765038700"}, {"first_name"=>"Sudeshna Guha", "last_name"=>"Neogi", "scopus_author_id"=>"16029214100"}, {"first_name"=>"Marc Emmanuel", "last_name"=>"Dumas", "scopus_author_id"=>"36171639700"}, {"first_name"=>"Ugis", "last_name"=>"Sarkans", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602348753"}, {"first_name"=>"Peter", "last_name"=>"Donnelly", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102545461"}, {"first_name"=>"Thomas", "last_name"=>"Illig", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701823086"}, {"first_name"=>"Jerzy", "last_name"=>"Adamski", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004973111"}, {"first_name"=>"Karsten", "last_name"=>"Suhre", "scopus_author_id"=>"56188100500"}, {"first_name"=>"Maxine", "last_name"=>"Allen", "scopus_author_id"=>"57198934653"}, {"first_name"=>"Krina T.", "last_name"=>"Zondervan", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003864514"}, {"first_name"=>"Tim D.", "last_name"=>"Spector", "scopus_author_id"=>"35351391300"}, {"first_name"=>"Jeremy K.", "last_name"=>"Nicholson", "scopus_author_id"=>"36037157800"}, {"first_name"=>"John C.", "last_name"=>"Lindon", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102747902"}, {"first_name"=>"Dorrit", "last_name"=>"Baunsgaard", "scopus_author_id"=>"57195572635"}, {"first_name"=>"Elaine", "last_name"=>"Holmes", "scopus_author_id"=>"7201667063"}, {"first_name"=>"Mark I.", "last_name"=>"McCarthy", "scopus_author_id"=>"7402061249"}, {"first_name"=>"Chris C.", "last_name"=>"Holmes", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202410721"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS Genetics", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"15537390", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-80053456207", "sgr"=>"80053456207", "pui"=>"362681121", "isbn"=>"1553-7404 (Electronic)\\n1553-7390 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"21931564", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pgen.1002270"}, "id"=>"8d0b6e51-8d88-3c88-81d8-c17275de0f1b", "abstract"=>"We have performed a metabolite quantitative trait locus (mQTL) study of the (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR) metabolome in humans, building on recent targeted knowledge of genetic drivers of metabolic regulation. Urine and plasma samples were collected from two cohorts of individuals of European descent, with one cohort comprised of female twins donating samples longitudinally. Sample metabolite concentrations were quantified by (1)H NMR and tested for association with genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Four metabolites' concentrations exhibited significant, replicable association with SNP variation (8.6×10(-11)<p<2.8×10(-23)). Three of these-trimethylamine, 3-amino-isobutyrate, and an N-acetylated compound-were measured in urine. The other-dimethylamine-was measured in plasma. Trimethylamine and dimethylamine mapped to a single genetic region (hence we report a total of three implicated genomic regions). Two of the three hit regions lie within haplotype blocks (at 2p13.1 and 10q24.2) that carry the genetic signature of strong, recent, positive selection in European populations. Genes NAT8 and PYROXD2, both with relatively uncharacterized functional roles, are good candidates for mediating the corresponding mQTL associations. The study's longitudinal twin design allowed detailed variance-components analysis of the sources of population variation in metabolite levels. The mQTLs explained 40%-64% of biological population variation in the corresponding metabolites' concentrations. These effect sizes are stronger than those reported in a recent, targeted mQTL study of metabolites in serum using the targeted-metabolomics Biocrates platform. By re-analysing our plasma samples using the Biocrates platform, we replicated the mQTL findings of the previous study and discovered a previously uncharacterized yet substantial familial component of variation in metabolite levels in addition to the heritability contribution from the corresponding mQTL effects.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/genomewide-metabolic-qtl-analysis-europeans-implicates-two-loci-shaped-recent-positive-selection", "reader_count"=>159, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>10, "Researcher"=>52, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>46, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>12, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>4, "Professor"=>16}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>10, "Researcher"=>52, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>46, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>12, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>4, "Professor"=>16}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>12, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>77, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Chemistry"=>6, "Computer Science"=>8, "Decision Sciences"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>21, "Mathematics"=>3, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>20, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Sports and Recreations"=>2, "Psychology"=>3, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>20}, "Decision Sciences"=>{"Decision Sciences"=>1}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>2}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>3}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>12}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>6}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>77}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>8}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>21}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "Austria"=>1, "Netherlands"=>1, "United States"=>3, "Denmark"=>2, "Italy"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "France"=>1, "Switzerland"=>2, "Germany"=>2, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>11}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/738289"], "description"=>"<p>Each point represents, for a single study participant, their concentration of TMAu (vertical axis), their expression of <i>PYROXD2</i> in adipose tissue (horizontal axis), and their mQTL genotype (point colour). The intensity data, , on each of the vertical and horizontal axes have been transformed . This transformation sets the minimum observation to zero on log<sub>2</sub> scale, and presents log<sub>2</sub>(fold change) relative to the minimum value.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mqtl", "mediated", "mrna", "transcription"], "article_id"=>408620, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Chemistry", "Genetics", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["George Nicholson", "Mattias Rantalainen", "Jia V. Li", "Anthony D. Maher", "Daniel Malmodin", "Kourosh R. Ahmadi", "Johan H. Faber", "Amy Barrett", "Josine L. Min", "N. William Rayner", "Henrik Toft", "Maria Krestyaninova", "Juris Viksna", "Sudeshna Guha Neogi", "Marc-Emmanuel Dumas", "Ugis Sarkans", "Peter Donnelly", "Thomas Illig", "Jerzy Adamski", "Karsten Suhre", "Maxine Allen", "Krina T. Zondervan", "Tim D. Spector", "Jeremy K. Nicholson", "John C. Lindon", "Dorrit Baunsgaard", "Elaine Holmes", "Mark I. McCarthy", "Chris C. Holmes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002270.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_TMAu_s_mQTL_effect_may_be_mediated_by_variation_in_mRNA_transcription_at_PYROXD2_/408620", "title"=>"TMAu's mQTL effect may be mediated by variation in mRNA transcription at <i>PYROXD2</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-09-08 02:23:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/372370", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/372445", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/372504", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/372559", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/372634", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/372687", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/372736", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/372820", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/372845", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/372921"], "description"=>"<div><p>We have performed a metabolite quantitative trait locus (mQTL) study of the <sup>1</sup>H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (<sup>1</sup>H NMR) metabolome in humans, building on recent targeted knowledge of genetic drivers of metabolic regulation. Urine and plasma samples were collected from two cohorts of individuals of European descent, with one cohort comprised of female twins donating samples longitudinally. Sample metabolite concentrations were quantified by <sup>1</sup>H NMR and tested for association with genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Four metabolites' concentrations exhibited significant, replicable association with SNP variation (8.6×10<sup>−11</sup><<em>p</em><2.8×10<sup>−23</sup>). Three of these—trimethylamine, 3-amino-isobutyrate, and an <em>N</em>-acetylated compound—were measured in urine. The other—dimethylamine—was measured in plasma. Trimethylamine and dimethylamine mapped to a single genetic region (hence we report a total of three implicated genomic regions). Two of the three hit regions lie within haplotype blocks (at 2p13.1 and 10q24.2) that carry the genetic signature of strong, recent, positive selection in European populations. Genes <em>NAT8</em> and <em>PYROXD2</em>, both with relatively uncharacterized functional roles, are good candidates for mediating the corresponding mQTL associations. The study's longitudinal twin design allowed detailed variance-components analysis of the sources of population variation in metabolite levels. The mQTLs explained 40%–64% of biological population variation in the corresponding metabolites' concentrations. These effect sizes are stronger than those reported in a recent, targeted mQTL study of metabolites in serum using the targeted-metabolomics Biocrates platform. By re-analysing our plasma samples using the Biocrates platform, we replicated the mQTL findings of the previous study and discovered a previously uncharacterized yet substantial familial component of variation in metabolite levels in addition to the heritability contribution from the corresponding mQTL effects.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genome-wide", "metabolic", "qtl", "europeans", "implicates", "loci", "shaped"], "article_id"=>133543, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Chemistry", "Genetics", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["George Nicholson", "Mattias Rantalainen", "Jia V. Li", "Anthony D. Maher", "Daniel Malmodin", "Kourosh R. Ahmadi", "Johan H. Faber", "Amy Barrett", "Josine L. Min", "N. William Rayner", "Henrik Toft", "Maria Krestyaninova", "Juris Viksna", "Sudeshna Guha Neogi", "Marc-Emmanuel Dumas", "Ugis Sarkans", "Peter Donnelly", "Thomas Illig", "Jerzy Adamski", "Karsten Suhre", "Maxine Allen", "Krina T. Zondervan", "Tim D. Spector", "Jeremy K. Nicholson", "John C. Lindon", "Dorrit Baunsgaard", "Elaine Holmes", "Mark I. McCarthy", "Chris C. Holmes"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002270.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002270.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002270.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002270.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002270.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002270.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002270.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002270.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002270.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002270.s010"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/A_Genome_Wide_Metabolic_QTL_Analysis_in_Europeans_Implicates_Two_Loci_Shaped_by_Recent_Positive_Selection/133543", "title"=>"A Genome-Wide Metabolic QTL Analysis in Europeans Implicates Two Loci Shaped by Recent Positive Selection", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-09-08 00:59:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/738113"], "description"=>"<p>The effect size is parameterized by , which is the proportion of total population variance in metabolite concentration explained by the mQTL genotype (or, equivalently, the squared correlation between genotype and trait). It is assumed that the family-wise error rate in each study is controlled at 0.05 using the Bonferroni method. The number of tests performed is calculated as the product of the SNP and metabolite counts, as shown in the legend. Dashed lines relate the actual sample size of each study to that study's detectable effect size.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["detectable"], "article_id"=>408454, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Chemistry", "Genetics", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["George Nicholson", "Mattias Rantalainen", "Jia V. Li", "Anthony D. Maher", "Daniel Malmodin", "Kourosh R. Ahmadi", "Johan H. Faber", "Amy Barrett", "Josine L. Min", "N. William Rayner", "Henrik Toft", "Maria Krestyaninova", "Juris Viksna", "Sudeshna Guha Neogi", "Marc-Emmanuel Dumas", "Ugis Sarkans", "Peter Donnelly", "Thomas Illig", "Jerzy Adamski", "Karsten Suhre", "Maxine Allen", "Krina T. Zondervan", "Tim D. Spector", "Jeremy K. Nicholson", "John C. Lindon", "Dorrit Baunsgaard", "Elaine Holmes", "Mark I. McCarthy", "Chris C. Holmes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002270.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relationship_between_sample_size_and_the_size_of_effect_detectable_with_80_power_in_each_study_shown_by_solid_lines_/408454", "title"=>"Relationship between sample size and the size of effect detectable with 80% power in each study (shown by solid lines).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-09-08 02:20:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/738762"], "description"=>"a<p>Estimate and p-value from the discovery stage of <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002270#pgen.1002270-Illig1\" target=\"_blank\">[14]</a> (their KORA cohort).</p>b<p>Significant at a level of 0.0033 (significance level of 0.05 adjusted for conducting 15 tests by the Bonferroni method).</p>c<p>NCBI build 37 coordinates.</p>d<p>Reference/alternative Allele.</p>e<p>Minor allele frequency, from <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002270#pgen-1002270-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a> of <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002270#pgen.1002270-Illig1\" target=\"_blank\">[14]</a>.</p>f<p>Supplementary material of <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002270#pgen.1002270-Illig1\" target=\"_blank\">[14]</a> has details of the metabolites targeted by the Biocrates platform, and their abbreviations.</p>g<p>Beta is the estimate of the additive effect of one copy of the reference allele, normalized by the mean of the metabolic trait.</p>h<p>Significant in the replication stage of <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002270#pgen.1002270-Illig1\" target=\"_blank\">[14]</a> (their TwinsUK cohort); see <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002270#pgen-1002270-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a> of <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002270#pgen.1002270-Illig1\" target=\"_blank\">[14]</a> for details.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["replication", "illig", "et", "mqtl", "associations"], "article_id"=>409091, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Chemistry", "Genetics", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["George Nicholson", "Mattias Rantalainen", "Jia V. Li", "Anthony D. Maher", "Daniel Malmodin", "Kourosh R. Ahmadi", "Johan H. Faber", "Amy Barrett", "Josine L. Min", "N. William Rayner", "Henrik Toft", "Maria Krestyaninova", "Juris Viksna", "Sudeshna Guha Neogi", "Marc-Emmanuel Dumas", "Ugis Sarkans", "Peter Donnelly", "Thomas Illig", "Jerzy Adamski", "Karsten Suhre", "Maxine Allen", "Krina T. Zondervan", "Tim D. Spector", "Jeremy K. Nicholson", "John C. Lindon", "Dorrit Baunsgaard", "Elaine Holmes", "Mark I. McCarthy", "Chris C. Holmes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002270.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_the_current_study_s_replication_of_Illig_et_al_s_14_mQTL_associations_Biocrates_platform_/409091", "title"=>"Summary of the current study's replication of Illig et al.'s [14] mQTL associations (Biocrates platform).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-09-08 02:31:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/738540"], "description"=>"a<p>Additive genetic effect with increasing number of copies of the minor allele (minor/major alleles are shown in <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002270#pgen-1002270-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>).</p>b<p>Significant at a level of 0.0125 (significance level of 0.05 adjusted for conducting 4 tests by the Bonferroni method).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["characterization", "nmr", "mqtl"], "article_id"=>408881, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Chemistry", "Genetics", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["George Nicholson", "Mattias Rantalainen", "Jia V. Li", "Anthony D. Maher", "Daniel Malmodin", "Kourosh R. Ahmadi", "Johan H. Faber", "Amy Barrett", "Josine L. Min", "N. William Rayner", "Henrik Toft", "Maria Krestyaninova", "Juris Viksna", "Sudeshna Guha Neogi", "Marc-Emmanuel Dumas", "Ugis Sarkans", "Peter Donnelly", "Thomas Illig", "Jerzy Adamski", "Karsten Suhre", "Maxine Allen", "Krina T. Zondervan", "Tim D. Spector", "Jeremy K. Nicholson", "John C. Lindon", "Dorrit Baunsgaard", "Elaine Holmes", "Mark I. McCarthy", "Chris C. Holmes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002270.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Statistical_characterization_of_1_H_NMR_mQTL_effects_/408881", "title"=>"Statistical characterization of <sup>1</sup>H NMR mQTL effects.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-09-08 02:28:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/737969"], "description"=>"<p>Results from the current paper's replication of <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002270#pgen.1002270-Illig1\" target=\"_blank\">[14]</a> on the Biocrates platform are shown in the bottom section of the plot. Results for <sup>1</sup>H NMR mQTLs identified in the current study are shown in the upper section. For each metabolic trait (labelled right), the plot displays estimates of the proportion of biological variance explained by five complementary sources (labelled top; see <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002270#s4\" target=\"_blank\"><i>Materials and Methods</i></a> for explanation), including the mQTL SNP genotypes, familial variation excluding the mQTL SNP variation, individual environmental variation, and two types of visit variation (individual and common). Posterior distributions for proportions are represented as follows: the central tick in a box marks the posterior mean, the ends of a box mark the posterior quartiles, and the whiskers represent a 95% credible interval (extending to the 2.5 and 97.5 posterior percentiles).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["variance", "decomposition", "metabolic", "driven", "mqtls", "featuring"], "article_id"=>408290, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Chemistry", "Genetics", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["George Nicholson", "Mattias Rantalainen", "Jia V. Li", "Anthony D. Maher", "Daniel Malmodin", "Kourosh R. Ahmadi", "Johan H. Faber", "Amy Barrett", "Josine L. Min", "N. William Rayner", "Henrik Toft", "Maria Krestyaninova", "Juris Viksna", "Sudeshna Guha Neogi", "Marc-Emmanuel Dumas", "Ugis Sarkans", "Peter Donnelly", "Thomas Illig", "Jerzy Adamski", "Karsten Suhre", "Maxine Allen", "Krina T. Zondervan", "Tim D. Spector", "Jeremy K. Nicholson", "John C. Lindon", "Dorrit Baunsgaard", "Elaine Holmes", "Mark I. McCarthy", "Chris C. Holmes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002270.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Biological_variance_decomposition_for_metabolic_traits_driven_by_mQTLs_featuring_in_the_current_paper_/408290", "title"=>"Biological variance decomposition for metabolic traits driven by mQTLs featuring in the current paper.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-09-08 02:18:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/737636"], "description"=>"<p>Top: location of genes, with rectangles denoting the position of exons. Middle: log-transformed p-values () for the test of association of the metabolite's concentration with each SNP in the region. Bottom: LD between each pair of SNPs in the region, with the colour scale for superimposed.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genetics and genomics", "chemistry", "public health and epidemiology", "mathematics"], "article_id"=>407952, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Chemistry", "Genetics", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["George Nicholson", "Mattias Rantalainen", "Jia V. Li", "Anthony D. Maher", "Daniel Malmodin", "Kourosh R. Ahmadi", "Johan H. Faber", "Amy Barrett", "Josine L. Min", "N. William Rayner", "Henrik Toft", "Maria Krestyaninova", "Juris Viksna", "Sudeshna Guha Neogi", "Marc-Emmanuel Dumas", "Ugis Sarkans", "Peter Donnelly", "Thomas Illig", "Jerzy Adamski", "Karsten Suhre", "Maxine Allen", "Krina T. Zondervan", "Tim D. Spector", "Jeremy K. Nicholson", "John C. Lindon", "Dorrit Baunsgaard", "Elaine Holmes", "Mark I. McCarthy", "Chris C. Holmes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002270.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Hit_region_for_TMAu_/407952", "title"=>"Hit region for TMAu.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-09-08 02:12:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/737834"], "description"=>"<p>Each point corresponds to a study participant's mQTL genotype and corresponding metabolite concentration. Metabolite identifiers are labelled at top. Genotypic classes for each mQTL are shown on the horizontal axis (random horizontal variation within each genotypic class is introduced for clarity); dbSNP identifiers are labelled at bottom. At each metabolite peak, the transformed data vector shown in the plot is , where denotes the vector of normalized peak heights at that peak (prior to any logarithmic transformation, as described in <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002270#s4\" target=\"_blank\"><i>Materials and Methods</i></a>). So, the transformation maps to zero the lowest observed concentration of each metabolite, and log<sub>2</sub>(fold change) can be visually quantified relative to this baseline level. In particular, the maximum observed log<sub>2</sub>(fold change) in a metabolite's concentration is easily accessible from the plot. Within-participant replicate observations (biological and technical) were averaged on log<sub>2</sub> scale.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["metabolite", "concentrations", "genotypes", "mqtl"], "article_id"=>408156, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Chemistry", "Genetics", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["George Nicholson", "Mattias Rantalainen", "Jia V. Li", "Anthony D. Maher", "Daniel Malmodin", "Kourosh R. Ahmadi", "Johan H. Faber", "Amy Barrett", "Josine L. Min", "N. William Rayner", "Henrik Toft", "Maria Krestyaninova", "Juris Viksna", "Sudeshna Guha Neogi", "Marc-Emmanuel Dumas", "Ugis Sarkans", "Peter Donnelly", "Thomas Illig", "Jerzy Adamski", "Karsten Suhre", "Maxine Allen", "Krina T. Zondervan", "Tim D. Spector", "Jeremy K. Nicholson", "John C. Lindon", "Dorrit Baunsgaard", "Elaine Holmes", "Mark I. McCarthy", "Chris C. Holmes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002270.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relative_metabolite_concentrations_against_genotypes_at_their_most_significantly_associated_mQTL_SNP_/408156", "title"=>"Relative metabolite concentrations against genotypes at their most significantly associated mQTL SNP.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-09-08 02:15:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/738620"], "description"=>"a<p>Frequency of minor allele (where minor/major alleles are defined by their frequency in the Northern European HapMap-CEU population <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002270#pgen.1002270-Altshuler1\" target=\"_blank\">[29]</a>).</p>b<p>NCBI build 37 coordinates.</p>c<p>Minor/major allele in HapMap-CEU.</p>d<p>Frequency in Northern European (HapMap-CEU) population.</p>e<p>Frequency in African (HapMap-YRI) population <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002270#pgen.1002270-Altshuler1\" target=\"_blank\">[29]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["details", "nmr", "mqtl"], "article_id"=>408951, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Chemistry", "Genetics", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["George Nicholson", "Mattias Rantalainen", "Jia V. Li", "Anthony D. Maher", "Daniel Malmodin", "Kourosh R. Ahmadi", "Johan H. Faber", "Amy Barrett", "Josine L. Min", "N. William Rayner", "Henrik Toft", "Maria Krestyaninova", "Juris Viksna", "Sudeshna Guha Neogi", "Marc-Emmanuel Dumas", "Ugis Sarkans", "Peter Donnelly", "Thomas Illig", "Jerzy Adamski", "Karsten Suhre", "Maxine Allen", "Krina T. Zondervan", "Tim D. Spector", "Jeremy K. Nicholson", "John C. Lindon", "Dorrit Baunsgaard", "Elaine Holmes", "Mark I. McCarthy", "Chris C. Holmes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002270.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Genetic_details_of_1_H_NMR_mQTL_regions_/408951", "title"=>"Genetic details of <sup>1</sup>H NMR mQTL regions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-09-08 02:29:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/738470"], "description"=>"a<p>We observed frequency shifts in TMA peaks between the MolTWIN and MolOBB data sets, attributable to inter-study differences in experimental conditions, such as sample pH or temperature. To align the peaks across cohorts, a different peak interval was used for TMAu in the MolOBB data: (2.86 – 2.88).</p>b<p>The metabolite was partially identified as an <i>N</i>-acetylated compound: X.NH.CO.CH<sub>3</sub>, with X unknown.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mqtl-driven", "nmr-detectable"], "article_id"=>408805, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Chemistry", "Genetics", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["George Nicholson", "Mattias Rantalainen", "Jia V. Li", "Anthony D. Maher", "Daniel Malmodin", "Kourosh R. Ahmadi", "Johan H. Faber", "Amy Barrett", "Josine L. Min", "N. William Rayner", "Henrik Toft", "Maria Krestyaninova", "Juris Viksna", "Sudeshna Guha Neogi", "Marc-Emmanuel Dumas", "Ugis Sarkans", "Peter Donnelly", "Thomas Illig", "Jerzy Adamski", "Karsten Suhre", "Maxine Allen", "Krina T. Zondervan", "Tim D. Spector", "Jeremy K. Nicholson", "John C. Lindon", "Dorrit Baunsgaard", "Elaine Holmes", "Mark I. McCarthy", "Chris C. Holmes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002270.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Annotation_of_mQTL_driven_1_H_NMR_detectable_metabolites_/408805", "title"=>"Annotation of mQTL-driven <sup>1</sup>H NMR-detectable metabolites.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-09-08 02:26:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/738686"], "description"=>"a<p>See <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002270#s4\" target=\"_blank\"><i>Materials and Methods</i></a> for the definition of each component of variance. Posterior mean estimates are shown with parenthesized central 95% posterior credible intervals.</p>b<p>Supplementary material of <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002270#pgen.1002270-Illig1\" target=\"_blank\">[14]</a> has details of the metabolites targeted by the Biocrates platform, and their abbreviations.</p>c<p>Variation attributable to familial (i.e. heritable and common-environmental) sources, but not to the mQTL SNP itself.</p>d<p>Individual environment.</p>e<p>Individual visit.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["metabolic"], "article_id"=>409028, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Chemistry", "Genetics", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["George Nicholson", "Mattias Rantalainen", "Jia V. Li", "Anthony D. Maher", "Daniel Malmodin", "Kourosh R. Ahmadi", "Johan H. Faber", "Amy Barrett", "Josine L. Min", "N. William Rayner", "Henrik Toft", "Maria Krestyaninova", "Juris Viksna", "Sudeshna Guha Neogi", "Marc-Emmanuel Dumas", "Ugis Sarkans", "Peter Donnelly", "Thomas Illig", "Jerzy Adamski", "Karsten Suhre", "Maxine Allen", "Krina T. Zondervan", "Tim D. Spector", "Jeremy K. Nicholson", "John C. Lindon", "Dorrit Baunsgaard", "Elaine Holmes", "Mark I. McCarthy", "Chris C. Holmes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002270.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Decomposition_of_biological_population_variation_in_metabolic_traits_/409028", "title"=>"Decomposition of biological population variation in metabolic traits.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-09-08 02:30:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/737466"], "description"=>"<p>Top: location of genes, with rectangles denoting the position of exons. Middle: log-transformed p-values () for the test of association of the metabolite's concentration with each SNP in the region. Bottom: LD between each pair of SNPs in the region, with the colour scale for superimposed.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genetics and genomics", "chemistry", "public health and epidemiology", "mathematics"], "article_id"=>407775, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Chemistry", "Genetics", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["George Nicholson", "Mattias Rantalainen", "Jia V. Li", "Anthony D. Maher", "Daniel Malmodin", "Kourosh R. Ahmadi", "Johan H. Faber", "Amy Barrett", "Josine L. Min", "N. William Rayner", "Henrik Toft", "Maria Krestyaninova", "Juris Viksna", "Sudeshna Guha Neogi", "Marc-Emmanuel Dumas", "Ugis Sarkans", "Peter Donnelly", "Thomas Illig", "Jerzy Adamski", "Karsten Suhre", "Maxine Allen", "Krina T. Zondervan", "Tim D. Spector", "Jeremy K. Nicholson", "John C. Lindon", "Dorrit Baunsgaard", "Elaine Holmes", "Mark I. McCarthy", "Chris C. Holmes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002270.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Hit_region_for_N_ACu_/407775", "title"=>"Hit region for N-ACu.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-09-08 02:09:35"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"37", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"36", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"49", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"36", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"19", "supp-data"=>"6", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"8", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"34", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"12", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"36", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2011-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2011-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Anatomy", "average_usage"=>[301, 558, 690, 806, 916, 1018, 1112, 1197, 1275, 1349, 1421, 1495, 1561, 1631, 1697, 1762, 1835, 1895, 1954, 2020, 2078, 2142, 2197, 2258, 2313, 2376, 2437, 2494, 2557, 2618, 2682, 2744, 2818, 2880, 2940, 3000, 3056]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Genetics", "average_usage"=>[308, 576, 718, 839, 960, 1061, 1156, 1249, 1331, 1408, 1484, 1558, 1625, 1698, 1767, 1842, 1912, 1990, 2058, 2128, 2183, 2259, 2317, 2378, 2436, 2488, 2552, 2627, 2692, 2759, 2820, 2881, 2940, 3001, 3061, 3117, 3164]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Molecular biology", "average_usage"=>[295, 553, 688, 802, 914, 1017, 1108, 1194, 1278, 1351, 1419, 1500, 1570, 1633, 1712, 1774, 1839, 1903, 1970, 2033, 2101, 2162, 2228, 2291, 2352, 2418, 2486, 2547, 2610, 2680, 2737, 2799, 2859, 2919, 2974, 3029, 3082]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Physiology", "average_usage"=>[296, 551, 687, 800, 903, 1001, 1095, 1184, 1259, 1327, 1406, 1473, 1535, 1600, 1669, 1736, 1794, 1857, 1922, 1983, 2046, 2109, 2169, 2223, 2278, 2344, 2402, 2457, 2517, 2574, 2621, 2688, 2756, 2811, 2872, 2936, 2985]}]}
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