Preventing Dangerous Nonsense: Selection for Robustness to Transcriptional Error in Human Genes
Events
Loading … Spinner

Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Preventing dangerous nonsense: Selection for robustness to transcriptional error in human genes", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Brian P.", "last_name"=>"Cusack", "scopus_author_id"=>"8531036900"}, {"first_name"=>"Peter F.", "last_name"=>"Arndt", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004504978"}, {"first_name"=>"Laurent", "last_name"=>"Duret", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004615902"}, {"first_name"=>"Hugues Roest", "last_name"=>"Crollius", "scopus_author_id"=>"55664982300"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS Genetics", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"362834396", "sgr"=>"80055073378", "issn"=>"15537390", "pmid"=>"22022272", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-80055073378", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pgen.1002276", "isbn"=>"1553-7404 (Electronic)\\r1553-7390 (Linking)"}, "id"=>"01861030-ecf8-32cf-a555-08a0fb6368e6", "abstract"=>"Nonsense Mediated Decay (NMD) degrades transcripts that contain a premature STOP codon resulting from mistranscription or missplicing. However NMD's surveillance of gene expression varies in efficiency both among and within human genes. Previous work has shown that the intron content of human genes is influenced by missplicing events invisible to NMD. Given the high rate of transcriptional errors in eukaryotes, we hypothesized that natural selection has promoted a dual strategy of \"prevention and cure\" to alleviate the problem of nonsense transcriptional errors. A prediction of this hypothesis is that NMD's inefficiency should leave a signature of \"transcriptional robustness\" in human gene sequences that reduces the frequency of nonsense transcriptional errors. For human genes we determined the usage of \"fragile\" codons, prone to mistranscription into STOP codons, relative to the usage of \"robust\" codons that do not generate nonsense errors. We observe that single-exon genes have evolved to become robust to mistranscription, because they show a significant tendency to avoid fragile codons relative to robust codons when compared to multi-exon genes. A similar depletion is evident in last exons of multi-exon genes. Histone genes are particularly depleted of fragile codons and thus highly robust to transcriptional errors. Finally, the protein products of single-exon genes show a strong tendency to avoid those amino acids that can only be encoded using fragile codons. Each of these observations can be attributed to NMD deficiency. Thus, in the human genome, wherever the \"cure\" for nonsense (i.e. NMD) is inefficient, there is increased reliance on the strategy of nonsense \"prevention\" (i.e. transcriptional robustness). This study shows that human genes are exposed to the deleterious influence of transcriptional errors. Moreover, it suggests that gene expression errors are an underestimated phenomenon, in molecular evolution in general and in selection for genomic robustness in particular.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/preventing-dangerous-nonsense-selection-robustness-transcriptional-error-human-genes", "reader_count"=>80, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>8, "Researcher"=>27, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>18, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>8, "Researcher"=>27, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>18, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>10, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>53, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>7, "Philosophy"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>7}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>53}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>10}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>6}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>6, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1, "Portugal"=>2, "Russia"=>1, "Canada"=>1, "Netherlands"=>2, "Sweden"=>1, "Belgium"=>1, "Italy"=>1, "Uganda"=>1, "France"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

Scopus | Further Information

{"@_fa"=>"true", "link"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"self", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/80055073378"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"author-affiliation", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/80055073378?field=author,affiliation"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=80055073378&origin=inward"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus-citedby", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=80055073378&origin=inward"}], "prism:url"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/80055073378", "dc:identifier"=>"SCOPUS_ID:80055073378", "eid"=>"2-s2.0-80055073378", "dc:title"=>"Preventing dangerous nonsense: Selection for robustness to transcriptional error in human genes", "dc:creator"=>"Cusack B.", "prism:publicationName"=>"PLoS Genetics", "prism:issn"=>"15537390", "prism:eIssn"=>"15537404", "prism:volume"=>"7", "prism:issueIdentifier"=>"10", "prism:pageRange"=>nil, "prism:coverDate"=>"2011-10-01", "prism:coverDisplayDate"=>"October 2011", "prism:doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pgen.1002276", "citedby-count"=>"23", "affiliation"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics", "affiliation-city"=>"Berlin", "affiliation-country"=>"Germany"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"CNRS Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique", "affiliation-city"=>"Paris", "affiliation-country"=>"France"}], "pubmed-id"=>"22022272", "prism:aggregationType"=>"Journal", "subtype"=>"ar", "subtypeDescription"=>"Article", "article-number"=>"e1002276", "source-id"=>"4000151808", "openaccess"=>"1", "openaccessFlag"=>true}

Facebook

  • {"url"=>"http%3A%2F%2Fjournals.plos.org%2Fplosgenetics%2Farticle%3Fid%3D10.1371%252Fjournal.pgen.1002276", "share_count"=>1, "like_count"=>0, "comment_count"=>0, "click_count"=>0, "total_count"=>1}

Counter

  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"344", "xml_views"=>"17", "html_views"=>"1548"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"161", "xml_views"=>"17", "html_views"=>"794"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"69", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"210"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"27", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"145"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"21", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"90"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"28", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"133"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"103"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"98"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"61"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"71"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"5", "html_views"=>"57"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"84"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"69"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"60"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"64"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"97"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"195"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"55"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"59"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"52"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"44"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"33"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"39"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"39"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"95"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"21", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"46"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"28"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"36"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"59"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"34"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"41"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"56"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"39"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"44"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"70"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"61"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"108"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"83"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"50"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"41"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"35"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"31"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"18"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"30"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"24"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"28"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"32"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"28"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"41"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"49"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"24", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"33"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"38"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"43"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"30"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"17"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"20"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"34"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"38"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"33"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"13"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"27"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"46"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"31"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"27"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"28"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"17"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"16"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"27"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"23"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"20"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"12"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"13"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"8"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"13"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"15"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"8"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"6", "html_views"=>"13"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"4"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"13"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"2"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"8"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"11"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"12"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"2"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"9"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"20"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"6"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"9"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"7"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"5"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"5"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"2"}

Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/366556", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/366594", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/366631", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/366685", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/366741"], "description"=>"<div><p>Nonsense Mediated Decay (NMD) degrades transcripts that contain a premature STOP codon resulting from mistranscription or missplicing. However NMD's surveillance of gene expression varies in efficiency both among and within human genes. Previous work has shown that the intron content of human genes is influenced by missplicing events invisible to NMD. Given the high rate of transcriptional errors in eukaryotes, we hypothesized that natural selection has promoted a dual strategy of “prevention and cure” to alleviate the problem of nonsense transcriptional errors. A prediction of this hypothesis is that NMD's inefficiency should leave a signature of “transcriptional robustness” in human gene sequences that reduces the frequency of nonsense transcriptional errors. For human genes we determined the usage of “fragile” codons, prone to mistranscription into STOP codons, relative to the usage of “robust” codons that do not generate nonsense errors. We observe that single-exon genes have evolved to become robust to mistranscription, because they show a significant tendency to avoid fragile codons relative to robust codons when compared to multi-exon genes. A similar depletion is evident in last exons of multi-exon genes. Histone genes are particularly depleted of fragile codons and thus highly robust to transcriptional errors. Finally, the protein products of single-exon genes show a strong tendency to avoid those amino acids that can only be encoded using fragile codons. Each of these observations can be attributed to NMD deficiency. Thus, in the human genome, wherever the “cure” for nonsense (i.e. NMD) is inefficient, there is increased reliance on the strategy of nonsense “prevention” (i.e. transcriptional robustness). This study shows that human genes are exposed to the deleterious influence of transcriptional errors. Moreover, it suggests that gene expression errors are an underestimated phenomenon, in molecular evolution in general and in selection for genomic robustness in particular.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["preventing", "robustness", "transcriptional", "genes"], "article_id"=>132437, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Brian P. Cusack", "Peter F. Arndt", "Laurent Duret", "Hugues Roest Crollius"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002276.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002276.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002276.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002276.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002276.s005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Preventing_Dangerous_Nonsense_Selection_for_Robustness_to_Transcriptional_Error_in_Human_Genes/132437", "title"=>"Preventing Dangerous Nonsense: Selection for Robustness to Transcriptional Error in Human Genes", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-10-13 00:40:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/724127"], "description"=>"<p>The Standard Genetic Code contains 18 fragile codons (shaded) that can be changed into a STOP codon by a single point-mutation and whose mistranscription can therefore generate nonsense errors. The remaining 43 sense codons are “robust” to such errors. Six amino acids are encoded exclusively by fragile codons (“fragile amino acids”, shaded), ten amino acids are encoded exclusively by robust codons (“robust amino acids”, unshaded) and four amino acids can be encoded either by robust or fragile codons (“facultative amino acids”, hatched shading).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["codons", "propensity"], "article_id"=>394480, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Brian P. Cusack", "Peter F. Arndt", "Laurent Duret", "Hugues Roest Crollius"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002276.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sense_codons_differ_in_their_propensity_for_conversion_to_STOP_codons_/394480", "title"=>"Sense codons differ in their propensity for conversion to STOP codons.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-10-13 01:14:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/724210"], "description"=>"<p>Pairwise correlation between normalized fragile codon usage (NFCU) and normalized fragile amino-acid usage (NFAU) for 17421 human genes with an ortholog in mouse. Human genes were binned by selective constraint (K<sub>a</sub>/K<sub>s</sub>) estimated using the pairwise alignment with their mouse ortholog and for each quartile of K<sub>a</sub>/K<sub>s</sub> (Q1, lowest, to Q4, highest), Spearman's correlation between normalized fragile codon usage and normalized fragile amino-acid usage (r<sub>NFCU.NFAU</sub>) was calculated. The vertical extent of the bar indicates the 95% confidence interval for each correlation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genome-wide", "transcriptional", "robustness", "strategies", "depends", "selective"], "article_id"=>394561, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Brian P. Cusack", "Peter F. Arndt", "Laurent Duret", "Hugues Roest Crollius"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002276.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_genome_wide_correlation_between_transcriptional_robustness_strategies_depends_on_selective_constraint_/394561", "title"=>"The genome-wide correlation between transcriptional robustness strategies depends on selective constraint.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-10-13 01:16:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/724349"], "description"=>"<p>Normalized fragile codon usage (NFCU) in “NMD-competent” and “NMD-compromised” regions of multi-exon genes. The schematic depicts a generic mammalian mature mRNA. The arrowhead shows the position of the last exon-exon junction. The relative efficiency of each mammalian NMD pathway predicted in three distinct regions is shown using ‘+’ symbols. Predicted inactivity of NMD is shown using a ‘-’ symbol. EJC-dependent NMD is expected to be active >50–55 nts 5′ of the last exon-exon junction and inactive 3′ of the last exon-exon junction. Its activity is uncertain in the intervening 50–55 nts region (hatched shading). PABP-dependent NMD is expected to increase in efficiency with distance from the poly-A tail. Note that the efficiency of PABP-dependent NMD is predicted to be much lower than that of EJC-dependent NMD. NFCU was determined in two windows of 50 codons positioned on either side of the last exon-exon junction. The example shows the last intron in “phase 0” (i.e. the intron is positioned between codons) and the depicted nucleotide coordinates for each window are specific to this case.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["depletion", "codons", "commences", "nmd"], "article_id"=>394700, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Brian P. Cusack", "Peter F. Arndt", "Laurent Duret", "Hugues Roest Crollius"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002276.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Intragenic_depletion_of_fragile_codons_commences_beyond_the_boundary_of_EJC_8211_dependent_NMD_activity_/394700", "title"=>"Intragenic depletion of fragile codons commences beyond the boundary of EJC–dependent NMD activity.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-10-13 01:18:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/724431"], "description"=>"<p>Normalized fragile codon usage (NFCU) of human single- (S) and multi-exon (M) genes binned by transcript CDS length. For each quartile of transcript length (Q1, shortest, to Q4, longest) NFCU for single and multi-exon genes is plotted separately. The width of each bin is proportional to the square root of the number of genes it contains.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["codon", "depletion", "reduced", "nmd", "shorter"], "article_id"=>394783, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Brian P. Cusack", "Peter F. Arndt", "Laurent Duret", "Hugues Roest Crollius"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002276.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Fragile_codon_depletion_is_not_due_to_reduced_efficiency_of_PABP_8211_dependent_NMD_in_shorter_mRNAs_/394783", "title"=>"Fragile codon depletion is not due to reduced efficiency of PABP–dependent NMD in shorter mRNAs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-10-13 01:19:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/724510"], "description"=>"<p>NFCU, median (first and third quartiles) of fragile codon content normalized for GC-content and amino acid usage; <i>P</i>-value, significance of the comparison of upstream and last exons determined by two-sided Wilcoxon-rank sum test that tests for a linear shift in distribution locations; Ratio, median NFCU relative to the median NFCU for upstream exons.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["codon", "usage", "exons", "upstream", "multi-exon", "genes"], "article_id"=>394856, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Brian P. Cusack", "Peter F. Arndt", "Laurent Duret", "Hugues Roest Crollius"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002276.t004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Normalized_fragile_codon_usage_NFCU_of_last_exons_and_upstream_exons_of_multi_exon_genes_in_the_human_mouse_and_fly_genomes_/394856", "title"=>"Normalized fragile codon usage (NFCU) of last exons and upstream exons of multi-exon genes in the human, mouse, and fly genomes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-10-13 01:20:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/724554"], "description"=>"<p>Single-exon genes were first treated as a single group to determine the impact of EJC-dependent NMD on fragile codon content and subsequently subdivided into histone and non-histone genes to consider the impact of PABP-dependent NMD on fragile codon content. NFCU, median (first and third quartiles) of fragile codon content normalized for GC-content and amino acid usage; <i>P</i>-value, significance of the comparison with multi-exon genes determined by two-sided Wilcoxon-rank sum test that tests for a linear shift in distribution locations; Ratio, median NFCU relative to the median NFCU for multi-exon genes.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["codon", "gc-content", "amino-acid", "multi-exon", "genes", "single-exon"], "article_id"=>394905, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Brian P. Cusack", "Peter F. Arndt", "Laurent Duret", "Hugues Roest Crollius"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002276.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Normalized_fragile_codon_content_NFCU_controlling_for_GC_content_and_amino_acid_usage_of_multi_exon_genes_and_single_exon_genes_in_the_human_mouse_and_fly_genomes_/394905", "title"=>"Normalized fragile codon content (NFCU) (controlling for GC-content and amino-acid usage) of multi-exon genes and single-exon genes in the human, mouse, and fly genomes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-10-13 01:21:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/724590"], "description"=>"<p>FAU, median (first and third quartiles) of fragile amino acid content of encoded proteins; <i>P</i>-value, significance of the comparison with multi-exon genes determined by two-sided Wilcoxon-rank sum test that tests for a linear shift in distribution locations; Ratio, median FAU relative to the median FAU for multi-exon genes.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["amino", "usage", "proteins", "encoded", "multi-exon", "genes", "single-exon"], "article_id"=>394942, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Brian P. Cusack", "Peter F. Arndt", "Laurent Duret", "Hugues Roest Crollius"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002276.t002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Fragile_amino_acid_usage_FAU_of_proteins_encoded_by_multi_exon_genes_and_single_exon_genes_in_the_human_mouse_and_fly_genomes_/394942", "title"=>"Fragile amino acid usage (FAU) of proteins encoded by multi-exon genes and single-exon genes in the human, mouse, and fly genomes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-10-13 01:22:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/724635"], "description"=>"<p>NFAU, median (first and third quartiles) of normalized fragile amino acid content of encoded proteins; <i>P</i>-value, significance of the comparison with multi-exon genes determined by two-sided Wilcoxon-rank sum test that tests for a linear shift in distribution locations; Ratio, median NFAU relative to the median NFAU for multi-exon genes.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["amino", "usage", "proteins", "encoded", "multi-exon", "genes", "single-exon"], "article_id"=>394983, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Brian P. Cusack", "Peter F. Arndt", "Laurent Duret", "Hugues Roest Crollius"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002276.t003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Normalized_fragile_amino_acid_usage_NFAU_controlling_for_GC_content_of_proteins_encoded_by_multi_exon_genes_and_single_exon_genes_in_the_human_mouse_and_fly_genomes_/394983", "title"=>"Normalized fragile amino acid usage (NFAU) (controlling for GC-content) of proteins encoded by multi-exon genes and single-exon genes in the human, mouse, and fly genomes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-10-13 01:23:03"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"10", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"12", "unique-ip"=>"15", "pdf"=>"9", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"2", "full-text"=>"36", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"44", "unique-ip"=>"39", "figure"=>"9", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"12", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"11", "unique-ip"=>"12", "pdf"=>"7", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"12", "unique-ip"=>"12", "pdf"=>"3", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"23", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"18", "unique-ip"=>"26", "figure"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"8", "unique-ip"=>"13", "pdf"=>"9", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"2", "full-text"=>"7", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"4", "unique-ip"=>"10", "figure"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"5", "unique-ip"=>"9", "pdf"=>"3", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"4", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"2", "unique-ip"=>"4", "figure"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"6", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"3", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2011-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2011-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[304, 568, 702, 818, 927, 1027, 1118, 1206, 1285, 1357, 1427, 1500, 1564, 1636, 1705, 1773, 1840, 1909, 1974, 2039, 2106, 2170, 2234, 2296, 2358, 2423, 2484, 2546, 2606, 2673, 2734, 2795, 2857, 2921, 2984, 3046, 3100]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Biochemistry", "average_usage"=>[290, 559, 698, 813, 927, 1028, 1121, 1206, 1289, 1360, 1433, 1501, 1569, 1637, 1707, 1774, 1841, 1911, 1974, 2038, 2103, 2161, 2219, 2280, 2345, 2406, 2466, 2529, 2592, 2654, 2713, 2772, 2835, 2893, 2954, 3020, 3071]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Evolutionary biology", "average_usage"=>[330, 550, 674, 772, 863, 958, 1034, 1108, 1180, 1252, 1324, 1393, 1460, 1526, 1597, 1664, 1725, 1783, 1848, 1901, 1974, 2049, 2125, 2185, 2260, 2326, 2383, 2440, 2511, 2581, 2647, 2711, 2760, 2815, 2874, 2928, 3008]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Molecular biology", "average_usage"=>[295, 553, 688, 802, 914, 1017, 1108, 1194, 1278, 1351, 1419, 1500, 1570, 1633, 1712, 1774, 1839, 1903, 1970, 2033, 2101, 2162, 2228, 2291, 2352, 2418, 2486, 2547, 2610, 2680, 2737, 2799, 2859, 2919, 2974, 3029, 3082]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Organisms", "average_usage"=>[316, 571, 699, 812, 915, 1008, 1095, 1180, 1255, 1319, 1393, 1461, 1528, 1595, 1662, 1729, 1802, 1868, 1937, 1997, 2062, 2130, 2192, 2254, 2324, 2386, 2450, 2510, 2579, 2642, 2716, 2778, 2842, 2908, 2979, 3042, 3095]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Population biology", "average_usage"=>[323, 535, 656, 759, 849, 938, 1016, 1092, 1160, 1209, 1271, 1328, 1396, 1463, 1520, 1587, 1666, 1725, 1797, 1864, 1912, 1974, 2027, 2096, 2144, 2221, 2277, 2332, 2394, 2431, 2479, 2553, 2630, 2668, 2734, 2770, 2821]}]}
Loading … Spinner
There are currently no alerts