ppk23-Dependent Chemosensory Functions Contribute to Courtship Behavior in Drosophila melanogaster
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{"title"=>"Ppk23-dependent chemosensory functions contribute to courtship behavior in drosophila melanogaster", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Beika", "last_name"=>"Lu", "scopus_author_id"=>"36059586700"}, {"first_name"=>"Angela", "last_name"=>"LaMora", "scopus_author_id"=>"26032170900"}, {"first_name"=>"Yishan", "last_name"=>"Sun", "scopus_author_id"=>"57191647901"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael J.", "last_name"=>"Welsh", "scopus_author_id"=>"35447946600"}, {"first_name"=>"Yehuda", "last_name"=>"Ben-Shahar", "scopus_author_id"=>"55867782200"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS Genetics", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"22438833", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pgen.1002587", "sgr"=>"84859223206", "isbn"=>"1553-7404 (Electronic)\\r1553-7390 (Linking)", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84859223206", "issn"=>"15537390", "pui"=>"364556467"}, "id"=>"9da9e0da-244a-3aa9-9c43-939f5566561c", "abstract"=>"Insects utilize diverse families of ion channels to respond to environmental cues and control mating, feeding, and the response to threats. Although degenerin/epithelial sodium channels (DEG/ENaC) represent one of the largest families of ion channels in Drosophila melanogaster, the physiological functions of these proteins are still poorly understood. We found that the DEG/ENaC channel ppk23 is expressed in a subpopulation of sexually dimorphic gustatory-like chemosensory bristles that are distinct from those expressing feeding-related gustatory receptors. Disrupting ppk23 or inhibiting activity of ppk23-expressing neurons did not alter gustatory responses. Instead, blocking ppk23-positive neurons or mutating the ppk23 gene delayed the initiation and reduced the intensity of male courtship. Furthermore, mutations in ppk23 altered the behavioral response of males to the female-specific aphrodisiac pheromone 7(Z), 11(Z)-Heptacosadiene. Together, these data indicate that ppk23 and the cells expressing it play an important role in the peripheral sensory system that determines sexual behavior in Drosophila.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/ppk23dependent-chemosensory-functions-contribute-courtship-behavior-drosophila-melanogaster", "reader_count"=>79, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>8, "Researcher"=>26, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>26, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>8, "Researcher"=>26, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>26, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>60, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Neuroscience"=>11, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>11}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>60}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>3}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/667842"], "description"=>"<p>(A–B) Larger percent of wild type CS flies exhibited courtship behavior in response to male or female targets laced with 125 ng 7,11-HD (<i>Chi-squared test</i>; only significant contrasts are shown; *, <i>p<0.05</i>; <i>**, p<0,01</i>; ***, <i>p</i><0.001, n = 20–30 for each genotype per treatment). (C–D) Courtship latency was not affected by the <i>ppk23</i> mutation in flies that did court pheromone-laced dummies. (E–F) Significant effects of <i>ppk23</i> mutation on courtship index were observed in males that courted pheromone-laced dummies (<i>Two samples t-test</i> or <i>two samples wilcoxon test</i>, *, <i>p<0.05</i>; <i>**, p<0,01</i>; ***, <i>p</i><0.001, n = 20–30 for each genotype per treatment).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["aphrodisiac", "pheromone", "reduced"], "article_id"=>338331, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Beika Lu", "Angela LaMora", "Yishan Sun", "Michael J. Welsh", "Yehuda Ben-Shahar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002587.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_behavioral_response_to_the_aphrodisiac_pheromone_7_11_HD_is_reduced_in_ppk23_PB_flies_/338331", "title"=>"The behavioral response to the aphrodisiac pheromone 7,11-HD is reduced in <i>ppk23<sup>PB</sup></i> flies.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-03-15 02:18:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/667300"], "description"=>"<p>(A) and (B) The axonal projections of <i>ppk23</i>-positive cells are sexually dimorphic. Left panel is a male (A) and right panel is a female (B). Panels represent brain (top) and thoracic ganglion (bottom) confocal z-stacks that were dissected from a single animal. Note the lack of midline crossings by foreleg <i>ppk23</i>-positive axons in females (white arrows). Scale bars represent 100 µm. Identical dimorphic axonal projection patterns were observed in at least five individuals per sex. (C) <i>ppk23</i> expression co-localizes with <i>fru</i> expression in the forelegs of males. Red marked <i>ppk23</i>-expressing cells and green marked the <i>fru</i> positive cells. The majority of <i>ppk23</i>-expressing cells also show <i>fru</i> expression. Scale bars represent 20 µm. Genotype imaged: <i>w; ppk23-GAL4>UAS-RFP/lexAop-rCD2::GFP; fruP1.LexA/+</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["projections", "cells"], "article_id"=>337786, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Beika Lu", "Angela LaMora", "Yishan Sun", "Michael J. Welsh", "Yehuda Ben-Shahar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002587.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Axonal_projections_of_ppk23_expressing_cells_are_sexually_dimorphic_/337786", "title"=>"Axonal projections of <i>ppk23</i>-expressing cells are sexually dimorphic.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-03-15 02:09:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/667439"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Expression of tetanus toxin light chain (TNT) in <i>ppk23</i> cells resulted in a high proportion of non-courting males over a 10 min observation time (<i>Chi-square test</i>, <i>p<0.001</i>). Flies expressing TNT in <i>ppk23</i> cells showed increased courtship latency (B; <i>Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test</i>, <i>p<0.001</i>) and reduced courtship index relative to control crosses (<i>ppk23</i>>UAS-IMP-TNT) or parental strains (<i>ppk23-Gal4</i>, <i>UAS-TNT-E</i> and <i>UAS-IMP-TNT-V1A</i> [inactive TNT]) (C; <i>Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test</i>, <i>p<0.001</i>). n = 29–36 males per each genotype. Error bars denote the standard error of the means. Letters above bars represent the significantly different groups after <i>post hoc</i> analyses.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cells", "courtship"], "article_id"=>337927, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Beika Lu", "Angela LaMora", "Yishan Sun", "Michael J. Welsh", "Yehuda Ben-Shahar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002587.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_ppk23_expressing_cells_are_required_for_male_courtship_behavior_/337927", "title"=>"<i>ppk23</i>-expressing cells are required for male courtship behavior.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-03-15 02:12:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/667671"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Significantly higher proportion of Δ<i>ppk23</i> males did not show any courtship behavior in a 10-min observation time under dark (“red light”) conditions towards females (<i>Chi-square test; p<0.05</i>). (B) Δ<i>ppk23</i> males that did court showed increased courtship latency towards females relatve to CS controls or Δ<i>ppk28</i> flies (<i>Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test, p<0.05</i>) and (C) reduced courtship index (<i>Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test</i>, <i>p</i><0.001). n = 24–27 flies per genotype. Error bars denote the standard error of the mean. Same letters above bars represent groups that were not statistically different in the <i>post hoc</i> test. All strains tested were in a common CS genetic background. (D–F) The effect of the Δ<i>ppk23</i> allele on courtship index is rescued by overexpression of <i>ppk23</i> cDNA (F, ANOVA, <i>p</i><0001, ***; pairwise comparisons using <i>t</i>-tests with non-pooled SD, n = 25–30 for each genotype). The effects of the Δ<i>ppk23</i> mutations on percent courtship and courtship latency were significantly reduced or absent in the genetic backgrounds of the rescue parental lines relative to flies that carrying Δ<i>ppk23</i> alone, which precluded us from observing a significant rescue of these aspects of the <i>ppk23</i>-induced courtship phenotype (D and E).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["courtship", "gustatory"], "article_id"=>338161, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Beika Lu", "Angela LaMora", "Yishan Sun", "Michael J. Welsh", "Yehuda Ben-Shahar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002587.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_ppk23_effect_on_courtship_is_not_a_general_property_of_gustatory_DEG_ENaC_subunits_/338161", "title"=>"The <i>ppk23</i> effect on courtship is not a general property of gustatory DEG/ENaC subunits.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-03-15 02:16:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/667558"], "description"=>"<p>(A)Significantly higher proportion of <i>ppk23<sup>PB</sup></i> males did not show any courtship behavior in a 10-min observation time under dark (“red light”) conditions towards females (<i>Chi-square test</i>; ***, <i>p<0.001</i>). (B) <i>ppk23<sup>PB</sup></i> males that did court showed increased courtship latency only towards females (<i>Two samples wilcoxon test</i>; *, <i>p<0.05</i>) and (C) reduced courtship index (<i>Two samples wilcoxon test</i>; ***, <i>p<0.001</i>). (D) Under white light conditions, proportion of courting <i>ppk23<sup>PB</sup></i> males was not different than wild types. <i>Chi-square test</i>, <i>N.S.</i>). (E) No courtship latency differences were detected either (<i>Two samples wilcoxon test</i>, <i>N.S.</i>). (F) In contrast, <i>ppk23<sup>PB</sup></i> males exhibited reduced courtship index even under white light conditions (<i>Two samples wilcoxon test</i>; ***, <i>p<0.001</i>). There were no effects of the mutation on any of the measured courtship parameters towards males under white light conditions. (G–I) <i>piggyBac</i> excision rescued the effect of <i>ppk23<sup>PB</sup></i> mutation on male courtship behaviors in all measured parameters under red light conditions (G; Chi-square test, <i>p</i><0.001; H; <i>Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test, p<0.05; I; Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test, p<0.05</i>). n = 24–38 for each genotype and each condition. <i>N.S.</i> indicates no significant difference. Error bars denote the standard errors of the means.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["courtship"], "article_id"=>338050, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Beika Lu", "Angela LaMora", "Yishan Sun", "Michael J. Welsh", "Yehuda Ben-Shahar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002587.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_ppk23_is_required_for_normal_male_courtship_behavior_/338050", "title"=>"<i>ppk23</i> is required for normal male courtship behavior.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-03-15 02:14:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/341704", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/341744", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/341762", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/341804", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/341843", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/341894", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/341929"], "description"=>"<div><p>Insects utilize diverse families of ion channels to respond to environmental cues and control mating, feeding, and the response to threats. Although degenerin/epithelial sodium channels (DEG/ENaC) represent one of the largest families of ion channels in <em>Drosophila melanogaster</em>, the physiological functions of these proteins are still poorly understood. We found that the DEG/ENaC channel <em>ppk23</em> is expressed in a subpopulation of sexually dimorphic gustatory-like chemosensory bristles that are distinct from those expressing feeding-related gustatory receptors. Disrupting <em>ppk23</em> or inhibiting activity of <em>ppk23</em>-expressing neurons did not alter gustatory responses. Instead, blocking <em>ppk23</em>-positive neurons or mutating the <em>ppk23</em> gene delayed the initiation and reduced the intensity of male courtship. Furthermore, mutations in <em>ppk23</em> altered the behavioral response of males to the female-specific aphrodisiac pheromone 7(Z), 11(Z)-Heptacosadiene. Together, these data indicate that <em>ppk23</em> and the cells expressing it play an important role in the peripheral sensory system that determines sexual behavior in <em>Drosophila</em>.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["chemosensory", "functions", "courtship"], "article_id"=>127554, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Beika Lu", "Angela LaMora", "Yishan Sun", "Michael J. Welsh", "Yehuda Ben-Shahar"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002587.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002587.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002587.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002587.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002587.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002587.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002587.s007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>9, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_ppk23_Dependent_Chemosensory_Functions_Contribute_to_Courtship_Behavior_in_Drosophila_melanogaster_/127554", "title"=>"<em>ppk23</em>-Dependent Chemosensory Functions Contribute to Courtship Behavior in <em>Drosophila melanogaster</em>", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-03-15 02:05:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/667164"], "description"=>"<p>(A) <i>ppk23-GAL4 x UAS-CD8::GFP</i> flies show expression in chemosensory neurons in male forelegs. Left panel is a z-stack of confocal GFP images. Right panel is a merge of the left panel with differential interference contrast (DIC) image. Solid arrows point to the base of bract-less chemosensory bristles. Note the sensory cilia projecting to the base of the bristle. Open arrowhead points to a bract associated with a mechanosensory bristle. Scale bar represent 20 µm. (B) <i>ppk23-GAL4 x UAS-CD8::GFP</i> flies show expression in sensory neurons projecting to chemosensory bristles in wings. Images are as in (A) and were obtained from the same animal. Solid arrowheads point to the base of chemosensory bristles. The open arrowhead points to the line of pure mechanosensory bristles found at the most outer rim of the wing. Scale bar represents 20 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["chemosensory", "receptor"], "article_id"=>337651, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Beika Lu", "Angela LaMora", "Yishan Sun", "Michael J. Welsh", "Yehuda Ben-Shahar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002587.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_ppk23_is_expressed_in_adult_chemosensory_receptor_neurons_/337651", "title"=>"<i>ppk23</i> is expressed in adult chemosensory receptor neurons.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-03-15 02:07:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/667010"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis of total RNA extracted from adult appendages (legs and wings) from a mixed sex population. Analysis compared <i>Poxn</i><sup>M22-B5</sup>, which do not have external chemosensory bristles, and <i>CyO</i> balanced siblings, which develop normal sensory bristles <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002587#pgen.1002587-Boll1\" target=\"_blank\">[54]</a>. For illustrative purposes, data are represented as relative expression fold differences in <i>Poxn</i> flies relative to controls <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002587#pgen.1002587-BenShahar3\" target=\"_blank\">[51]</a>. Each data point includes the relative expression of a gene in <i>Poxn</i> homozygous flies relative to balanced <i>Poxn/CyO</i> flies, which develop normal sensory system. <i>CheB42a</i> gene was used as positive controls for chemosensory specific genes expressed in appendages <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002587#pgen.1002587-BenShahar1\" target=\"_blank\">[16]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002587#pgen.1002587-BenShahar2\" target=\"_blank\">[17]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002587#pgen.1002587-Xu1\" target=\"_blank\">[55]</a>. Statistical analyses were performed on the ΔCt data as previously described <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002587#pgen.1002587-BenShahar1\" target=\"_blank\">[16]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002587#pgen.1002587-BenShahar2\" target=\"_blank\">[17]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002587#pgen.1002587-BenShahar3\" target=\"_blank\">[51]</a>. *, <i>p</i><0.05; **, <i>p</i><0.01 (n = 4 per genotype, one-tail paired <i>t</i>-test) (B) Northern blot analysis of <i>ppk23</i> spatial expression patterns. Lower panel shows ribosomal bands on the RNA gel, indicating equal sample loading. Using RT-PCR coupled with 5′ and 3′ RACE analyses on RNA extracted from male appendages, we were able to identify only a single <i>ppk23</i> transcript (black arrow; <i>ppk23</i>-RX; see also <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002587#pgen.1002587.s001\" target=\"_blank\">Figure S1A</a>). Numbers on right represent RNA size markers (bp). (C) <i>ppk23</i> promoter activity in forelegs of male and female flies (reporter was nuclear GFP). Scale bar represents 50 µm. (D) Quantitative data from (C) showing significantly fewer <i>ppk23</i>-positive cells in the female foreleg (Independent sample <i>t</i>-test; *, p<0.05; n = 10 for each bar).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["reduced", "appendages"], "article_id"=>337503, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Beika Lu", "Angela LaMora", "Yishan Sun", "Michael J. Welsh", "Yehuda Ben-Shahar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002587.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_ppk23_expression_is_reduced_in_appendages_of_the_Poxn_mutant_/337503", "title"=>"<i>ppk23</i> expression is reduced in appendages of the <i>Poxn</i> mutant.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-03-15 02:05:03"}

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