Evidence of Inbreeding Depression on Human Height
Publication Date
July 19, 2012
Journal
PLOS Genetics
Authors
Ruth Mc Quillan, Niina Eklund, Nicola Pirastu, Maris Kuningas, et al
Volume
8
Issue
7
Pages
e1002655
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002655
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosgenetics/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pgen.1002655
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22829771
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3400549
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/22829771
Web of Science
000306840400001
Scopus
84864581394
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/evidence-inbreeding-depression-human-height
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Mendeley | Further Information

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{"first_name"=>"James F.", "last_name"=>"Wilson", "scopus_author_id"=>"35273994800"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS Genetics", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84864581394", "pmid"=>"22829771", "isbn"=>"1553-7404 (Electronic)\\r1553-7390 (Linking)", "pui"=>"365384846", "issn"=>"15537390", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84864581394", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pgen.1002655"}, "id"=>"4150e188-3814-33c3-b899-febf0ac6e71c", "abstract"=>"Stature is a classical and highly heritable complex trait, with 80%-90% of variation explained by genetic factors. In recent years, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified many common additive variants influencing human height; however, little attention has been given to the potential role of recessive genetic effects. Here, we investigated genome-wide recessive effects by an analysis of inbreeding depression on adult height in over 35,000 people from 21 different population samples. We found a highly significant inverse association between height and genome-wide homozygosity, equivalent to a height reduction of up to 3 cm in the offspring of first cousins compared with the offspring of unrelated individuals, an effect which remained after controlling for the effects of socio-economic status, an important confounder (χ(2) = 83.89, df = 1; p = 5.2 × 10(-20)). There was, however, a high degree of heterogeneity among populations: whereas the direction of the effect was consistent across most population samples, the effect size differed significantly among populations. It is likely that this reflects true biological heterogeneity: whether or not an effect can be observed will depend on both the variance in homozygosity in the population and the chance inheritance of individual recessive genotypes. These results predict that multiple, rare, recessive variants influence human height. Although this exploratory work focuses on height alone, the methodology developed is generally applicable to heritable quantitative traits (QT), paving the way for an investigation into inbreeding effects, and therefore genetic architecture, on a range of QT of biomedical importance.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/evidence-inbreeding-depression-human-height", "reader_count"=>153, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>12, "Librarian"=>3, "Researcher"=>47, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>9, "Student > Ph. D. 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  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"44"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"90"}
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  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"344"}
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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/316886", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/316908", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/316937"], "description"=>"<div><p>Stature is a classical and highly heritable complex trait, with 80%–90% of variation explained by genetic factors. In recent years, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified many common additive variants influencing human height; however, little attention has been given to the potential role of recessive genetic effects. Here, we investigated genome-wide recessive effects by an analysis of inbreeding depression on adult height in over 35,000 people from 21 different population samples. We found a highly significant inverse association between height and genome-wide homozygosity, equivalent to a height reduction of up to 3 cm in the offspring of first cousins compared with the offspring of unrelated individuals, an effect which remained after controlling for the effects of socio-economic status, an important confounder (χ<sup>2</sup> = 83.89, df = 1; <em>p</em> = 5.2×10<sup>−20</sup>). There was, however, a high degree of heterogeneity among populations: whereas the direction of the effect was consistent across most population samples, the effect size differed significantly among populations. It is likely that this reflects true biological heterogeneity: whether or not an effect can be observed will depend on both the variance in homozygosity in the population and the chance inheritance of individual recessive genotypes. These results predict that multiple, rare, recessive variants influence human height. Although this exploratory work focuses on height alone, the methodology developed is generally applicable to heritable quantitative traits (QT), paving the way for an investigation into inbreeding effects, and therefore genetic architecture, on a range of QT of biomedical importance.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["inbreeding"], "article_id"=>122487, "categories"=>["Genetics"], "users"=>["Ruth McQuillan", "Niina Eklund", "Nicola Pirastu", "Maris Kuningas", "Brian P. McEvoy", "Tõnu Esko", "Tanguy Corre", "Gail Davies", "Marika Kaakinen", "Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen", "Kati Kristiansson", "Aki S. Havulinna", "Martin Gögele", "Veronique Vitart", "Albert Tenesa", "Yurii Aulchenko", "Caroline Hayward", "Åsa Johansson", "Mladen Boban", "Sheila Ulivi", "Antonietta Robino", "Vesna Boraska", "Wilmar Igl", "Sarah H. Wild", "Lina Zgaga", "Najaf Amin", "Evropi Theodoratou", "Ozren Polašek", "Giorgia Girotto", "Lorna M. Lopez", "Cinzia Sala", "Jari Lahti", "Tiina Laatikainen", "Inga Prokopenko", "Mart Kals", "Jorma Viikari", "Jian Yang", "Anneli Pouta", "Karol Estrada", "Albert Hofman", "Nelson Freimer", "Nicholas G. Martin", "Mika Kähönen", "Lili Milani", "Markku Heliövaara", "Erkki Vartiainen", "Katri Räikkönen", "Corrado Masciullo", "John M. Starr", "Andrew A. Hicks", "Laura Esposito", "Ivana Kolčić", "Susan M. Farrington", "Ben Oostra", "Tatijana Zemunik", "Harry Campbell", "Mirna Kirin", "Marina Pehlic", "Flavio Faletra", "David Porteous", "Giorgio Pistis", "Elisabeth Widen", "Veikko Salomaa", "Seppo Koskinen", "Krista Fischer", "Terho Lehtimäki", "Andrew Heath", "Mark I. McCarthy", "Fernando Rivadeneira", "Grant W. Montgomery", "Henning Tiemeier", "Anna-Liisa Hartikainen", "Pamela A. F. Madden", "Pio d'Adamo", "Nicholas D. Hastie", "Ulf Gyllensten", "Alan F. Wright", "Cornelia M. van Duijn", "Malcolm Dunlop", "Igor Rudan", "Paolo Gasparini", "Peter P. Pramstaller", "Ian J. Deary", "Daniela Toniolo", "Johan G. Eriksson", "Antti Jula", "Olli T. Raitakari", "Andres Metspalu", "Markus Perola", "Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin", "André Uitterlinden", "Peter M. Visscher", "James F. Wilson"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002655.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002655.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002655.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Evidence_of_Inbreeding_Depression_on_Human_Height/122487", "title"=>"Evidence of Inbreeding Depression on Human Height", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-07-19 00:41:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/605695"], "description"=>"<p>(A) shows mean F<sub>ROH</sub> by population sample. F<sub>ROH</sub> is defined as the percentage of the genotyped autosomal genome in ROH measuring at least 1.5 Mb. Mean values of F<sub>ROH</sub> per population (with 95% confidence intervals) are: CROATIA-Korčula = 1.27 (1.18, 1.36); CROATIA-Split = 0.65 (0.59, 0.71); CROATIA-Vis = 0.94 (0.87,1.01); EGCUT = 0.56 (0.54, 0.58); ERF = 1.12 (1.04, 1.20); FINRISK = 0.79 (0.77, 0.82); HBCS = 0.63 (0.60, 0.65); H2000 = 0.84 (0.82, 0.86); INGI-CARL = 0.78 (0.65, 0.91); INGI-FVG = 1.49 (1.40, 1.58); INGI-VB = 0.76 (0.71, 0.81); LBC1921 = 0.30 (0.25, 0.35); LBC1936 = 0.26 (0.24, 0.28); MICROS = 0.93 (0.87, 0.99); NFBC1966 = 1.02 (1.00, 1.04); NSPHS = 2.83 (2.64, 3.02); ORCADES = 0.81 (0.75, 0.87); QIMR = 0.22 (0.21, 0.23); RS = 0.29 (0.28, 0.30); SOCCS = 0.30 (0.28, 0.32); YFS = 0.81 (0.79, 0.83). (B) shows mean F<sub>ROHLD</sub> by population sample. F<sub>ROHLD</sub> is defined as the percentage of the genotyped autosomal genome in ROH measuring at least 1.0 Mb, derived from a panel of independent SNPs. Mean values of F<sub>ROHLD</sub> per population (with 95% confidence intervals) are: CROATIA-Korčula = 0.67 (0.61, 0.73); CROATIA-Split = 0.13 (0.11, 0.15); CROATIA-Vis = 0.48 (0.43, 0.53); EGCUT = 0.10 (0.09, 0.10); ERF = 0.53 (0.48, 0.58); FINRISK = 0.21 (0.20, 0.23); HBCS = 0.13 (0.11, 0.14); H2000 = 0.23 (0.22, 0.24); INGI-CARL = 0.44 (0.34, 0.54); INGI-FVG = 0.93 (0.86, 0.99); INGI-VB = 0.41 (037, 0.45); LBC1921 = 0.05 (0.02, 0.09); LBC1936 = 0.02 (0.01, 0.03); MICROS = 0.47 (0.43, 0.51); NFBC1966 = 0.32 (0.31, 0.33); NSPHS = 1.17 (1.07, 1.27); ORCADES = 0.35 (0.31, 0.39); QIMR = 0.013 (0.011, 0.015); RS = 0.04 (0.01, 0.07); SOCCS = 0.03 (0.02, 0.04); YFS = 0.20 (0.19, 0.21). (C) shows mean F<sub>hom</sub> by population sample. F<sub>hom</sub> is defined as the percentage of genotyped autosomal SNPs that are homozygous. Mean values of F<sub>hom</sub> per population (with 95% confidence intervals) are: CROATIA-Korčula = 65.47 (65.43, 65.51); CROATIA-Split = 65.28 (65.25, 65.31); CROATIA-Vis = 65.61 (65.58, 65.64); EGCUT = 65.69 (65.68, 65.70); ERF = 65.32 (65.29, 65.35); FINRISK = 65.25 (65.23, 65.27); HBCS = 65.13 (65.12, 65.14); H2000 = 65.24 (65.23, 65.25); INGI-CARL = 65.20 (65.14, 65.26); INGI-FVG = 65.53 (65.49, 65.57); INGI-VB = 65.18 (65.16, 65.20); LBC1921 = 65.00 (64.97, 65.03); LBC1936 = 65.00 (64.99, 65.01); MICROS = 65.26 (65.23, 65.29); NFBC1966 = 65.27 (65.26, 65.28); NSPHS = 66.09 (66.01, 66.17); ORCADES = 65.37 (65.34, 65.40); QIMR = 64.75 (64.74, 64.76); RS = 65.00 (64.99, 65.01); SOCCS = 64.97 (64.95, 64.99); YFS = 65.26 (65.25, 65.27).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["measures"], "article_id"=>276065, "categories"=>["Genetics"], "users"=>["Ruth McQuillan", "Niina Eklund", "Nicola Pirastu", "Maris Kuningas", "Brian P. McEvoy", "Tõnu Esko", "Tanguy Corre", "Gail Davies", "Marika Kaakinen", "Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen", "Kati Kristiansson", "Aki S. Havulinna", "Martin Gögele", "Veronique Vitart", "Albert Tenesa", "Yurii Aulchenko", "Caroline Hayward", "Åsa Johansson", "Mladen Boban", "Sheila Ulivi", "Antonietta Robino", "Vesna Boraska", "Wilmar Igl", "Sarah H. Wild", "Lina Zgaga", "Najaf Amin", "Evropi Theodoratou", "Ozren Polašek", "Giorgia Girotto", "Lorna M. Lopez", "Cinzia Sala", "Jari Lahti", "Tiina Laatikainen", "Inga Prokopenko", "Mart Kals", "Jorma Viikari", "Jian Yang", "Anneli Pouta", "Karol Estrada", "Albert Hofman", "Nelson Freimer", "Nicholas G. Martin", "Mika Kähönen", "Lili Milani", "Markku Heliövaara", "Erkki Vartiainen", "Katri Räikkönen", "Corrado Masciullo", "John M. Starr", "Andrew A. Hicks", "Laura Esposito", "Ivana Kolčić", "Susan M. Farrington", "Ben Oostra", "Tatijana Zemunik", "Harry Campbell", "Mirna Kirin", "Marina Pehlic", "Flavio Faletra", "David Porteous", "Giorgio Pistis", "Elisabeth Widen", "Veikko Salomaa", "Seppo Koskinen", "Krista Fischer", "Terho Lehtimäki", "Andrew Heath", "Mark I. McCarthy", "Fernando Rivadeneira", "Grant W. Montgomery", "Henning Tiemeier", "Anna-Liisa Hartikainen", "Pamela A. F. Madden", "Pio d'Adamo", "Nicholas D. Hastie", "Ulf Gyllensten", "Alan F. Wright", "Cornelia M. van Duijn", "Malcolm Dunlop", "Igor Rudan", "Paolo Gasparini", "Peter P. Pramstaller", "Ian J. Deary", "Daniela Toniolo", "Johan G. Eriksson", "Antti Jula", "Olli T. Raitakari", "Andres Metspalu", "Markus Perola", "Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin", "André Uitterlinden", "Peter M. Visscher", "James F. Wilson"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002655.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Three_alternative_measures_of_mean_homozygosity_with_95_confidence_intervals_by_population_sample_/276065", "title"=>"Three alternative measures of mean homozygosity, with 95% confidence intervals, by population sample.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-07-19 01:41:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/605883"], "description"=>"<p>Results of a meta-analysis of the association between F<sub>ROHLD</sub> and height are shown for twenty-one population samples. The model was adjusted for age and sex in all samples. Additionally, it was adjusted for genomic kinship in samples with pairs of related individuals (CROATIA-Korčula, CROATIA-Split, CROATIA-Vis, ERF, FINRISK, HBCS, H2000, INGI-CARL, INGI-FVG, INGI-VB, MICROS, NFBC1966, NSPHS, ORCADES and YFS). The plot shows estimated effect sizes (solid squares) for each population, with 95% confidence intervals (horizontal lines). Each sample estimate is weighted by the inverse of the squared standard error of the regression coefficient, so that the smaller the standard error of the study, the greater the contribution it makes to the pooled regression coefficient. The area of the solid squares is proportional to the weighting given to each study in the meta-analysis. Effect sizes in z-score units (with 95% confidence intervals) are: CROATIA-Korčula = −0.02 (−0.09, 0.04); CROATIA-Split = −0.06 (−0.1, −0.002); CROATIA-Vis = −0.07 (−0.1, −0.01); EGCUT = −0.09 (−0.04, 0.2); ERF = −0.08 (−0.1, −0.05); FINRISK = −0.1 (−0.2, −0.07); HBCS = −0.04 (−0.2, 0.1); H2000 = −0.2 (−0.5, 0.04); INGI-CARL = 0.02 (−0.03, 0.07); INGI-FVG = −0.0001 (−0.08, 0.08); INGI-VB = 0.005 (−0.03, 0.04); LBC1921 = −0.1 (−0.3, 0.04); LBC1936 = 0.2 (−0.1, 0.4); MICROS = −0.06 (−0.08, −0.05); NFBC1966 = −0.1 (−0.2, −0.1); NSPHS = −0.07 (−0.07, −0.06); ORCADES = −0.04 (−0.08, 0.001); QIMR = −0.07 (−0.5, 0.3); RS = −0.02 (−0.1, 0.08); SOCCS = −0.05 (−0.4, 0.3); YFS = −0.3 (−1.2, 0.7).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genetics and genomics"], "article_id"=>276255, "categories"=>["Genetics"], "users"=>["Ruth McQuillan", "Niina Eklund", "Nicola Pirastu", "Maris Kuningas", "Brian P. McEvoy", "Tõnu Esko", "Tanguy Corre", "Gail Davies", "Marika Kaakinen", "Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen", "Kati Kristiansson", "Aki S. Havulinna", "Martin Gögele", "Veronique Vitart", "Albert Tenesa", "Yurii Aulchenko", "Caroline Hayward", "Åsa Johansson", "Mladen Boban", "Sheila Ulivi", "Antonietta Robino", "Vesna Boraska", "Wilmar Igl", "Sarah H. Wild", "Lina Zgaga", "Najaf Amin", "Evropi Theodoratou", "Ozren Polašek", "Giorgia Girotto", "Lorna M. Lopez", "Cinzia Sala", "Jari Lahti", "Tiina Laatikainen", "Inga Prokopenko", "Mart Kals", "Jorma Viikari", "Jian Yang", "Anneli Pouta", "Karol Estrada", "Albert Hofman", "Nelson Freimer", "Nicholas G. Martin", "Mika Kähönen", "Lili Milani", "Markku Heliövaara", "Erkki Vartiainen", "Katri Räikkönen", "Corrado Masciullo", "John M. Starr", "Andrew A. Hicks", "Laura Esposito", "Ivana Kolčić", "Susan M. Farrington", "Ben Oostra", "Tatijana Zemunik", "Harry Campbell", "Mirna Kirin", "Marina Pehlic", "Flavio Faletra", "David Porteous", "Giorgio Pistis", "Elisabeth Widen", "Veikko Salomaa", "Seppo Koskinen", "Krista Fischer", "Terho Lehtimäki", "Andrew Heath", "Mark I. McCarthy", "Fernando Rivadeneira", "Grant W. Montgomery", "Henning Tiemeier", "Anna-Liisa Hartikainen", "Pamela A. F. Madden", "Pio d'Adamo", "Nicholas D. Hastie", "Ulf Gyllensten", "Alan F. Wright", "Cornelia M. van Duijn", "Malcolm Dunlop", "Igor Rudan", "Paolo Gasparini", "Peter P. Pramstaller", "Ian J. Deary", "Daniela Toniolo", "Johan G. Eriksson", "Antti Jula", "Olli T. Raitakari", "Andres Metspalu", "Markus Perola", "Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin", "André Uitterlinden", "Peter M. Visscher", "James F. Wilson"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002655.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Forest_plot_of_the_effect_of_F_ROHLD_on_height_/276255", "title"=>"Forest plot of the effect of F<sub>ROHLD</sub> on height.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-07-19 01:44:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/606087"], "description"=>"<p>Results of a meta-analysis of the association between F<sub>ROHLD</sub> and height are shown for the eleven population samples which collected data on educational attainment. (A) shows the model adjusted for age, sex and educational attainment in all samples and additionally for genomic kinship in samples with pairs of related individuals (CROATIA-Korčula, CROATIA-Split, CROATIA-Vis, FINRISK, H2000, INGI-FVG, INGI-VB NFBC1966 and ORCADES). Effect sizes in z-score units (with 95% confidence intervals) are: CROATIA-Korčula = −0.02 (−0.07, 0.04); CROATIA-Split = −0.05 (−0.08, −0.01); CROATIA-Vis = −0.06 (−0.1, 0.02); EGCUT = −0.08 (−0.5, 0.4); FINRISK = −0.1 (−0.2, −0.03); H2000 = −0.2 (−0.8, 0.4); INGI-FVG = 0.1 (−1.0, 1.2); INGI-VB = 0.009 (−0.02, 0.04); NFBC1966 = −0.1 (−0.2, −0.1); ORCADES = −0.06 (−0.1, −0.007); RS = −0.02 (−0.1, 0.08). (B) shows the model adjusted for age and sex in all samples and additionally for genomic kinship in samples with pairs of related individuals (CROATIA-Korčula, CROATIA-Split, CROATIA-Vis, FINRISK, H2000, INGI-FVG, INGI-VB, NFBC1966 and ORCADES). Effect sizes and 95% confidence intervals are as in <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002655#pgen-1002655-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 2</a>. The plots show estimated effect sizes (solid squares) for each population, with 95% confidence intervals (horizontal lines). Each sample estimate is weighted by the inverse of the squared standard error of the regression coefficient, so that the smaller the standard error of the study, the greater the contribution it makes to the pooled regression coefficient. The area of the solid squares is proportional to the weighting given to each study in the meta-analysis.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["adjusted"], "article_id"=>276465, "categories"=>["Genetics"], "users"=>["Ruth McQuillan", "Niina Eklund", "Nicola Pirastu", "Maris Kuningas", "Brian P. McEvoy", "Tõnu Esko", "Tanguy Corre", "Gail Davies", "Marika Kaakinen", "Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen", "Kati Kristiansson", "Aki S. Havulinna", "Martin Gögele", "Veronique Vitart", "Albert Tenesa", "Yurii Aulchenko", "Caroline Hayward", "Åsa Johansson", "Mladen Boban", "Sheila Ulivi", "Antonietta Robino", "Vesna Boraska", "Wilmar Igl", "Sarah H. Wild", "Lina Zgaga", "Najaf Amin", "Evropi Theodoratou", "Ozren Polašek", "Giorgia Girotto", "Lorna M. Lopez", "Cinzia Sala", "Jari Lahti", "Tiina Laatikainen", "Inga Prokopenko", "Mart Kals", "Jorma Viikari", "Jian Yang", "Anneli Pouta", "Karol Estrada", "Albert Hofman", "Nelson Freimer", "Nicholas G. Martin", "Mika Kähönen", "Lili Milani", "Markku Heliövaara", "Erkki Vartiainen", "Katri Räikkönen", "Corrado Masciullo", "John M. Starr", "Andrew A. Hicks", "Laura Esposito", "Ivana Kolčić", "Susan M. Farrington", "Ben Oostra", "Tatijana Zemunik", "Harry Campbell", "Mirna Kirin", "Marina Pehlic", "Flavio Faletra", "David Porteous", "Giorgio Pistis", "Elisabeth Widen", "Veikko Salomaa", "Seppo Koskinen", "Krista Fischer", "Terho Lehtimäki", "Andrew Heath", "Mark I. McCarthy", "Fernando Rivadeneira", "Grant W. Montgomery", "Henning Tiemeier", "Anna-Liisa Hartikainen", "Pamela A. F. Madden", "Pio d'Adamo", "Nicholas D. Hastie", "Ulf Gyllensten", "Alan F. Wright", "Cornelia M. van Duijn", "Malcolm Dunlop", "Igor Rudan", "Paolo Gasparini", "Peter P. Pramstaller", "Ian J. Deary", "Daniela Toniolo", "Johan G. Eriksson", "Antti Jula", "Olli T. Raitakari", "Andres Metspalu", "Markus Perola", "Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin", "André Uitterlinden", "Peter M. Visscher", "James F. Wilson"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002655.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Forest_plot_of_the_effect_of_F_ROHLD_on_height_adjusted_for_educational_attainment_/276465", "title"=>"Forest plot of the effect of F<sub>ROHLD</sub> on height, adjusted for educational attainment.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-07-19 01:47:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/606295"], "description"=>"<p>SES variables are educational attainment (EA) and occupational status (OS).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["assessing", "confounding", "ses", "variables"], "article_id"=>276656, "categories"=>["Genetics"], "users"=>["Ruth McQuillan", "Niina Eklund", "Nicola Pirastu", "Maris Kuningas", "Brian P. McEvoy", "Tõnu Esko", "Tanguy Corre", "Gail Davies", "Marika Kaakinen", "Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen", "Kati Kristiansson", "Aki S. Havulinna", "Martin Gögele", "Veronique Vitart", "Albert Tenesa", "Yurii Aulchenko", "Caroline Hayward", "Åsa Johansson", "Mladen Boban", "Sheila Ulivi", "Antonietta Robino", "Vesna Boraska", "Wilmar Igl", "Sarah H. Wild", "Lina Zgaga", "Najaf Amin", "Evropi Theodoratou", "Ozren Polašek", "Giorgia Girotto", "Lorna M. Lopez", "Cinzia Sala", "Jari Lahti", "Tiina Laatikainen", "Inga Prokopenko", "Mart Kals", "Jorma Viikari", "Jian Yang", "Anneli Pouta", "Karol Estrada", "Albert Hofman", "Nelson Freimer", "Nicholas G. Martin", "Mika Kähönen", "Lili Milani", "Markku Heliövaara", "Erkki Vartiainen", "Katri Räikkönen", "Corrado Masciullo", "John M. Starr", "Andrew A. Hicks", "Laura Esposito", "Ivana Kolčić", "Susan M. Farrington", "Ben Oostra", "Tatijana Zemunik", "Harry Campbell", "Mirna Kirin", "Marina Pehlic", "Flavio Faletra", "David Porteous", "Giorgio Pistis", "Elisabeth Widen", "Veikko Salomaa", "Seppo Koskinen", "Krista Fischer", "Terho Lehtimäki", "Andrew Heath", "Mark I. McCarthy", "Fernando Rivadeneira", "Grant W. Montgomery", "Henning Tiemeier", "Anna-Liisa Hartikainen", "Pamela A. F. Madden", "Pio d'Adamo", "Nicholas D. Hastie", "Ulf Gyllensten", "Alan F. Wright", "Cornelia M. van Duijn", "Malcolm Dunlop", "Igor Rudan", "Paolo Gasparini", "Peter P. Pramstaller", "Ian J. Deary", "Daniela Toniolo", "Johan G. Eriksson", "Antti Jula", "Olli T. Raitakari", "Andres Metspalu", "Markus Perola", "Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin", "André Uitterlinden", "Peter M. Visscher", "James F. Wilson"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002655.t003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Meta_analysis_assessing_potential_confounding_of_SES_variables_on_the_association_between_F_ROHLD_and_height_/276656", "title"=>"Meta-analysis assessing potential confounding of SES variables on the association between F<sub>ROHLD</sub> and height.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-07-19 01:50:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/606440"], "description"=>"<p>Meta-analysis of the association between height and genome-wide homozygosity, adjusted for age and sex only.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genome-wide", "adjusted"], "article_id"=>276823, "categories"=>["Genetics"], "users"=>["Ruth McQuillan", "Niina Eklund", "Nicola Pirastu", "Maris Kuningas", "Brian P. McEvoy", "Tõnu Esko", "Tanguy Corre", "Gail Davies", "Marika Kaakinen", "Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen", "Kati Kristiansson", "Aki S. Havulinna", "Martin Gögele", "Veronique Vitart", "Albert Tenesa", "Yurii Aulchenko", "Caroline Hayward", "Åsa Johansson", "Mladen Boban", "Sheila Ulivi", "Antonietta Robino", "Vesna Boraska", "Wilmar Igl", "Sarah H. Wild", "Lina Zgaga", "Najaf Amin", "Evropi Theodoratou", "Ozren Polašek", "Giorgia Girotto", "Lorna M. Lopez", "Cinzia Sala", "Jari Lahti", "Tiina Laatikainen", "Inga Prokopenko", "Mart Kals", "Jorma Viikari", "Jian Yang", "Anneli Pouta", "Karol Estrada", "Albert Hofman", "Nelson Freimer", "Nicholas G. Martin", "Mika Kähönen", "Lili Milani", "Markku Heliövaara", "Erkki Vartiainen", "Katri Räikkönen", "Corrado Masciullo", "John M. Starr", "Andrew A. Hicks", "Laura Esposito", "Ivana Kolčić", "Susan M. Farrington", "Ben Oostra", "Tatijana Zemunik", "Harry Campbell", "Mirna Kirin", "Marina Pehlic", "Flavio Faletra", "David Porteous", "Giorgio Pistis", "Elisabeth Widen", "Veikko Salomaa", "Seppo Koskinen", "Krista Fischer", "Terho Lehtimäki", "Andrew Heath", "Mark I. McCarthy", "Fernando Rivadeneira", "Grant W. Montgomery", "Henning Tiemeier", "Anna-Liisa Hartikainen", "Pamela A. F. Madden", "Pio d'Adamo", "Nicholas D. Hastie", "Ulf Gyllensten", "Alan F. Wright", "Cornelia M. van Duijn", "Malcolm Dunlop", "Igor Rudan", "Paolo Gasparini", "Peter P. Pramstaller", "Ian J. Deary", "Daniela Toniolo", "Johan G. Eriksson", "Antti Jula", "Olli T. Raitakari", "Andres Metspalu", "Markus Perola", "Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin", "André Uitterlinden", "Peter M. Visscher", "James F. Wilson"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002655.t002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Meta_analysis_of_the_association_between_height_and_genome_wide_homozygosity_adjusted_for_age_and_sex_only_/276823", "title"=>"Meta-analysis of the association between height and genome-wide homozygosity, adjusted for age and sex only.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-07-19 01:53:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/606590"], "description"=>"1<p>All data were analysed using Illumina SNP arrays. 300 refers to the Illumina HumanHap 300 panel, 370 to the Illumina HumanHap 370 Duo/Quad panels, 610 to the Illumina Human 610 Quad panel and 670 to the Illumina Human 670 Quad panel. In order to harmonise the data, the analysis was conducted using only those SNPs present in the HumanHap 300 panel.</p>2<p>Population-based studies.</p>3<p>Population-based studies in isolated populations.</p>4<p>Birth cohort studies.</p>5<p>Case control studies.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genetics and genomics"], "article_id"=>276965, "categories"=>["Genetics"], "users"=>["Ruth McQuillan", "Niina Eklund", "Nicola Pirastu", "Maris Kuningas", "Brian P. McEvoy", "Tõnu Esko", "Tanguy Corre", "Gail Davies", "Marika Kaakinen", "Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen", "Kati Kristiansson", "Aki S. Havulinna", "Martin Gögele", "Veronique Vitart", "Albert Tenesa", "Yurii Aulchenko", "Caroline Hayward", "Åsa Johansson", "Mladen Boban", "Sheila Ulivi", "Antonietta Robino", "Vesna Boraska", "Wilmar Igl", "Sarah H. Wild", "Lina Zgaga", "Najaf Amin", "Evropi Theodoratou", "Ozren Polašek", "Giorgia Girotto", "Lorna M. Lopez", "Cinzia Sala", "Jari Lahti", "Tiina Laatikainen", "Inga Prokopenko", "Mart Kals", "Jorma Viikari", "Jian Yang", "Anneli Pouta", "Karol Estrada", "Albert Hofman", "Nelson Freimer", "Nicholas G. Martin", "Mika Kähönen", "Lili Milani", "Markku Heliövaara", "Erkki Vartiainen", "Katri Räikkönen", "Corrado Masciullo", "John M. Starr", "Andrew A. Hicks", "Laura Esposito", "Ivana Kolčić", "Susan M. Farrington", "Ben Oostra", "Tatijana Zemunik", "Harry Campbell", "Mirna Kirin", "Marina Pehlic", "Flavio Faletra", "David Porteous", "Giorgio Pistis", "Elisabeth Widen", "Veikko Salomaa", "Seppo Koskinen", "Krista Fischer", "Terho Lehtimäki", "Andrew Heath", "Mark I. McCarthy", "Fernando Rivadeneira", "Grant W. Montgomery", "Henning Tiemeier", "Anna-Liisa Hartikainen", "Pamela A. F. Madden", "Pio d'Adamo", "Nicholas D. Hastie", "Ulf Gyllensten", "Alan F. Wright", "Cornelia M. van Duijn", "Malcolm Dunlop", "Igor Rudan", "Paolo Gasparini", "Peter P. Pramstaller", "Ian J. Deary", "Daniela Toniolo", "Johan G. Eriksson", "Antti Jula", "Olli T. Raitakari", "Andres Metspalu", "Markus Perola", "Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin", "André Uitterlinden", "Peter M. Visscher", "James F. Wilson"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002655.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sample_details_/276965", "title"=>"Sample details.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-07-19 01:56:05"}

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Relative Metric

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