Integrin α PAT-2/CDC-42 Signaling Is Required for Muscle-Mediated Clearance of Apoptotic Cells in Caenorhabditis elegans
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{"title"=>"Integrin α PAT-2/CDC-42 signaling is required for muscle-mediated clearance of apoptotic cells in Caenorhabditis elegans", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Hsiao Han", "last_name"=>"Hsieh", "scopus_author_id"=>"36673098900"}, {"first_name"=>"Tsung Yuan", "last_name"=>"Hsu", "scopus_author_id"=>"36186882400"}, {"first_name"=>"Hang Shiang", "last_name"=>"Jiang", "scopus_author_id"=>"55307556700"}, {"first_name"=>"Yi Chun", "last_name"=>"Wu", "scopus_author_id"=>"7406892052"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS Genetics", "identifiers"=>{"isbn"=>"1553-7404 (Electronic)\\n1553-7390 (Linking)", "issn"=>"15537390", "pui"=>"365220699", "pmid"=>"22615577", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pgen.1002663", "sgr"=>"84863714678", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84863714678"}, "id"=>"6dda0f4a-3411-3d7b-af9a-82d51f968181", "abstract"=>"Clearance of apoptotic cells by engulfment plays an important role in the homeostasis and development of multicellular organisms. Despite the fact that the recognition of apoptotic cells by engulfment receptors is critical in inducing the engulfment process, the molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here, we characterize a novel cell corpse engulfment pathway mediated by the integrin α subunit PAT-2 in Caenorhabditis elegans and show that it specifically functions in muscle-mediated engulfment during embryogenesis. Inactivation of pat-2 results in a defect in apoptotic cell internalization. The PAT-2 extracellular region binds to the surface of apoptotic cells in vivo, and the intracellular region may mediate signaling for engulfment. We identify essential roles of small GTPase CDC-42 and its activator UIG-1, a guanine-nucleotide exchange factor, in PAT-2-mediated cell corpse removal. PAT-2 and CDC-42 both function in muscle cells for apoptotic cell removal and are co-localized in growing muscle pseudopods around apoptotic cells. Our data suggest that PAT-2 functions through UIG-1 for CDC-42 activation, which in turn leads to cytoskeletal rearrangement and apoptotic cell internalization by muscle cells. Moreover, in contrast to PAT-2, the other integrin α subunit INA-1 and the engulfment receptor CED-1, which signal through the conserved signaling molecules CED-5 (DOCK180)/CED-12 (ELMO) or CED-6 (GULP) respectively, preferentially act in epithelial cells to mediate cell corpse removal during mid-embryogenesis. Our results show that different engulfing cells utilize distinct repertoires of receptors for engulfment at the whole organism level.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/integrin-%CE%B1-pat2cdc42-signaling-required-musclemediated-clearance-apoptotic-cells-caenorhabditis-eleg", "reader_count"=>10, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>2, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>2, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>7, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>7}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}}, "group_count"=>2}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/636777"], "description"=>"a<p>The number of cell corpses in each genotype was scored at the indicated embryonic stage.</p>b<p>Homozygous progeny of <i>unc-79(e1068) pat-2(st567); Ex[P<sub>pat-2</sub>pat-2::gfp]</i> mothers.</p>c<p>Homozygous progeny of <i>unc-79(e1068) pat-2(st567); Ex[P<sub>pat-2</sub>pat-2::mcherry]</i> mothers.</p>d<p>Homozygous progeny of <i>unc-79(e1068) pat-2(st567)/dpy-17(e164)</i> heterozygous mothers.</p>e<p>The number of cell corpses was scored in the F1 transgenic progeny of the injected worms, n = 10 at each stage. Transgenic embryos were generated and heat-shocked as described in <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002663#s4\" target=\"_blank\">Materials and Methods</a>. Mutants carrying the transgene were compared to the wild-type (*<i>p</i><0.05 and **<i>p</i><0.001) or to mutants without the transgene (<sup>#</sup><i>p</i><0.05 and <sup>##</sup><i>p</i><0.001) at each stage. Wild-type carrying the transgene were compared to the wild-type (*<i>p</i><0.05 and **<i>p</i><0.001). All comparisons were performed using the unpaired t test. Data are presented as the mean ± standard deviation (SD) for >20 (unless noted above) embryos at each stage.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["acts", "cells", "mediate", "apoptotic"], "article_id"=>307264, "categories"=>["Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["Hsiao-Han Hsieh", "Tsung-Yuan Hsu", "Hang-Shiang Jiang", "Yi-Chun Wu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002663.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_pat_2_acts_in_muscle_cells_to_mediate_apoptotic_cell_engulfment_/307264", "title"=>"<i>pat-2</i> acts in muscle cells to mediate apoptotic cell engulfment.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-05-17 02:01:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/636339"], "description"=>"<p>(A) <i>pat-2</i> loss of function does not affect the number of cell death events. Embryonic cell deaths that occurred in the 200 min following the first cell death (up to about the 1.5-fold stage) were followed in wild-type (white rhombi) and <i>pat-2(st567)</i> (black squares) embryos. The y axis shows the total number of cell death events at the different time points shown on the x axis. The data shown are the average for two embryos for each genotype. The times corresponding to the comma and 1.5-fold stages are indicated. (B–C) Cell corpses in <i>pat-2(st567)</i> (B) and <i>cdc-42 (gk388)</i> (C) mutants persist longer than in the wild-type. The persistence of cell corpses that appeared 360–410 min after the first cleavage was recorded using four-dimensional Nomarski microscopy. The y axis shows the percentage of cell corpses that persisted for the time indicated on the x axis. Forty corpses were analyzed for each genotype. The data of wild-type (white bars), <i>pat-2(st567)</i> (gray bars); wild-type; <i>Ex[P<sub>pat-2</sub>pat-2Δcyto::gfp]</i> (black bars) and <i>pat-2(st567); Ex[P<sub>pat-2</sub>pat-2Δcyto::gfp]</i> (slashed bars) are shown in (B) and those of the wild-type (white bars) and <i>cdc-42(gk388)</i> (gray bars) in (C).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mutants", "defective", "apoptotic"], "article_id"=>306829, "categories"=>["Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["Hsiao-Han Hsieh", "Tsung-Yuan Hsu", "Hang-Shiang Jiang", "Yi-Chun Wu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002663.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_pat_2_and_cdc_42_mutants_are_defective_in_apoptotic_cell_removal_/306829", "title"=>"<i>pat-2</i> and <i>cdc-42</i> mutants are defective in apoptotic cell removal.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-05-17 01:53:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/329082", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/329129", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/329175", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/329248", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/329292", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/329332", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/329387", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/329469", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/329546", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/329615", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/329683", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/329723", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/329801"], "description"=>"<div><p>Clearance of apoptotic cells by engulfment plays an important role in the homeostasis and development of multicellular organisms. Despite the fact that the recognition of apoptotic cells by engulfment receptors is critical in inducing the engulfment process, the molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here, we characterize a novel cell corpse engulfment pathway mediated by the integrin α subunit PAT-2 in <em>Caenorhabditis elegans</em> and show that it specifically functions in muscle-mediated engulfment during embryogenesis. Inactivation of <em>pat-2</em> results in a defect in apoptotic cell internalization. The PAT-2 extracellular region binds to the surface of apoptotic cells <em>in vivo</em>, and the intracellular region may mediate signaling for engulfment. We identify essential roles of small GTPase CDC-42 and its activator UIG-1, a guanine-nucleotide exchange factor, in PAT-2–mediated cell corpse removal. PAT-2 and CDC-42 both function in muscle cells for apoptotic cell removal and are co-localized in growing muscle pseudopods around apoptotic cells. Our data suggest that PAT-2 functions through UIG-1 for CDC-42 activation, which in turn leads to cytoskeletal rearrangement and apoptotic cell internalization by muscle cells. Moreover, in contrast to PAT-2, the other integrin α subunit INA-1 and the engulfment receptor CED-1, which signal through the conserved signaling molecules CED-5 (DOCK180)/CED-12 (ELMO) or CED-6 (GULP) respectively, preferentially act in epithelial cells to mediate cell corpse removal during mid-embryogenesis. Our results show that different engulfing cells utilize distinct repertoires of receptors for engulfment at the whole organism level.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["integrin", "signaling", "muscle-mediated", "clearance", "apoptotic", "cells"], "article_id"=>124987, "categories"=>["Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["Hsiao-Han Hsieh", "Tsung-Yuan Hsu", "Hang-Shiang Jiang", "Yi-Chun Wu"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002663.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002663.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002663.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002663.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002663.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002663.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002663.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002663.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002663.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002663.s010", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002663.s011", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002663.s012", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002663.s013"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>27, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Integrin_PAT_2_CDC_42_Signaling_Is_Required_for_Muscle_Mediated_Clearance_of_Apoptotic_Cells_in_Caenorhabditis_elegans_/124987", "title"=>"Integrin α PAT-2/CDC-42 Signaling Is Required for Muscle-Mediated Clearance of Apoptotic Cells in <em>Caenorhabditis elegans</em>", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-05-17 01:23:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/636734"], "description"=>"a<p>Percentage of embryos with the MSpppaaa cell corpse at the indicated developmental stage, with the number of embryos scored in parentheses.</p>b<p>Percentage of MSpppaaa cell corpses labeled with the MYRI::mRFP or PAT-2Δcyto::GFPcircle at the indicated developmental stage, with the number of embryos scored in parentheses.</p>c<p>Embryos at the stage when pharyngeal grinder formation had just finished were scored.</p>d<p>Homozygous progeny of <i>unc-79(e1068) pat-2(st567); Ex[P<sub>pat-2</sub>pat-2::gfp]</i> mothers.</p>e<p>Homozygous progeny of the heterozygous <i>cdc-42(gk388)/mIn1[mIs14 dpy-10(e128)]</i> mothers. The transgenic worms were generated as described in <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002663#s4\" target=\"_blank\">Materials and Methods</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["functions", "muscle-mediated", "clearance", "apoptotic", "mspppaaa"], "article_id"=>307220, "categories"=>["Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["Hsiao-Han Hsieh", "Tsung-Yuan Hsu", "Hang-Shiang Jiang", "Yi-Chun Wu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002663.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_pat_2_functions_in_the_muscle_mediated_clearance_of_apoptotic_MSpppaaa_cells_/307220", "title"=>"<i>pat-2</i> functions in the muscle-mediated clearance of apoptotic MSpppaaa cells.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-05-17 02:00:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/636491"], "description"=>"<p>(A–H) PAT-2::GFP, MOESIN::GFP, and GFP::CDC-42 are localized to pseudopods around apoptotic cells. GFP (A–D) and DIC (E–H) images of wild-type embryos expressing PAT-2::GFP (A–B), MOESIN::GFP (C), or GFP::CDC-42 (D) under the control of the indicated promoter. Apoptotic cells are indicated by arrows and shown enlarged in the insets. The arrowheads indicate hypodermal cells. (I–K) <i>P<sub>pat-2</sub>nls::gfp</i> is not expressed in apoptotic MSpppaaa cells. GFP (I), membrane-bound mRFP (J), and DIC (K) images of an embryo co-expressing <i>P<sub>unc-54</sub>ced-1::mrfp</i> and <i>P<sub>pat-2</sub>nls::gfp</i>. MSpppaaa cell corpses are indicated by the arrows and shown enlarged in the insets. The arrowheads indicate the nucleus of the engulfing muscle cell. (L–M) The extracellular region of PAT-2 binds to the surface of apoptotic cells. DIC (L) and PAT-2(ex)::mCherry (M) images of a <i>ced-1(e1735); ced-5(n1812)</i> double mutant embryo expressing PAT-2(ex)::mCherry under the control of the heat-shock promoter. Apoptotic cells are indicated by arrows. (N–Q) GFP::CDC-42 and PAT-2::mCherry are co-localized to the pseudopods around apoptotic MSpppaaa cells. DIC (N), GFP::CDC-42 (O), PAT-2::mCherry (P), and merged (Q) images of a wild-type embryo co-expressing the transgenes <i>P<sub>unc-54</sub> gfp:cdc-42</i> and <i>P<sub>pat-2</sub>pat-2::mcherry</i>. The MSpppaaa cells are indicated by arrows and shown in the insets. All scale bars represent 5 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cells", "clusters", "apoptotic"], "article_id"=>306982, "categories"=>["Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["Hsiao-Han Hsieh", "Tsung-Yuan Hsu", "Hang-Shiang Jiang", "Yi-Chun Wu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002663.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_PAT_2_is_strongly_expressed_in_muscle_cells_and_clusters_around_apoptotic_cells_/306982", "title"=>"PAT-2 is strongly expressed in muscle cells and clusters around apoptotic cells.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-05-17 01:56:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/636696"], "description"=>"a<p>The number of cell corpses in each genotype was scored at the indicated embryonic stage.</p>b<p>Non-transgenic progeny of <i>ced-1(e1735); unc-79(e1068) pat-2(st567); Ex[P<sub>pat-2</sub>pat-2::gfp]</i> mothers.</p>c<p>Non-transgenic progeny of <i>unc-79(e1068) pat-2(st567); ced-5(n1812); Ex[P<sub>pat-2</sub>pat-2::gfp]</i> mothers.</p>d<p>Non-transgenic progeny of <i>ced-1(e1735); unc-79(e1068) pat-2(st567); ced-5(n1812); Ex[P<sub>pat-2</sub>pat-2::gfp]</i> mothers.</p>e<p>Homozygous progeny of <i>pat-3(st564)/qC1 dpy-19(e1259) glp-1(q339)</i> heterozygous mothers.</p>f<p>Homozygous progeny of <i>cdc-42(gk388)/mIn1[mIs14 dpy-10(e128)]</i> heterozygous mothers. Double mutants were compared to the corresponding single mutants (*<i>p</i><0.05 and ** <i>p</i><0.001), and triple mutants were compared to the corresponding double mutants (<sup>##</sup><i>p</i><0.001) at each stage. All comparisons were performed using the unpaired t test. Data are presented as the mean ± standard deviation (SD) for >15 embryos per stage.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["apoptotic", "engulfment", "pathway"], "article_id"=>307188, "categories"=>["Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["Hsiao-Han Hsieh", "Tsung-Yuan Hsu", "Hang-Shiang Jiang", "Yi-Chun Wu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002663.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_pat_2_promotes_apoptotic_cell_engulfment_in_a_pathway_distinct_from_previously_known_pathways_/307188", "title"=>"<i>pat-2</i> promotes apoptotic cell engulfment in a pathway distinct from previously known pathways.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-05-17 01:59:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/636662"], "description"=>"a<p>The number of cell corpses in each genotype was scored at the indicated embryonic stage.</p>b<p>Homozygous progeny of the heterozygous <i>cdc-42(gk388)/mIn1[mIs14 dpy-10(e128)]</i> mothers.</p>c<p>Homozygous progeny of the heterozygous <i>unc-79(e1068) pat-2(st567)/dpy-17(e164)</i> mothers.</p>d<p>The number of cell corpses was scored in the F1 transgenic progeny of the injected worms, n = 10 at each stage. Mutants carrying the transgene were compared to mutants without the transgene (*<i>p</i><0.05 and ** <i>p</i><0.001). The transgenic worms were generated as described in <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002663#s4\" target=\"_blank\">Materials and Methods</a>. Statistical analysis was performed using the unpaired t test. The data are presented as the mean ± standard deviation (SD), n>15 (unless noted above).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["acts", "downstream", "cell-corpse"], "article_id"=>307151, "categories"=>["Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["Hsiao-Han Hsieh", "Tsung-Yuan Hsu", "Hang-Shiang Jiang", "Yi-Chun Wu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002663.t006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_cdc_42_acts_downstream_of_pat_2_during_cell_corpse_engulfment_/307151", "title"=>"<i>cdc-42</i> acts downstream of <i>pat-2</i> during cell-corpse engulfment.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-05-17 01:59:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/636818"], "description"=>"a<p>The number of cell corpses in each genotype was scored at the indicated embryonic stage.</p>b<p>Embryos that showed normal embryogenesis were scored as nonPat, and those paralyzed at the 2-fold stage were scored as Pat.</p>c<p>Non-transgenic progeny of <i>unc-79(e1068) pat-2(st567); Ex[P<sub>pat-2</sub>pat-2::gfp]</i> mothers. Transgenic embryos were generated and heat-shocked as described in <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002663#s4\" target=\"_blank\">Materials and Methods</a>. Mutants carrying the transgene were compared to the wild-type (*<i>p</i><0.05 and **<i>p</i><0.001) or to mutants without the transgene (<sup>#</sup><i>p</i><0.05 and <sup>##</sup><i>p</i><0.001) at each stage. Wild-type carrying the transgene were compared to the wild-type (*<i>p</i><0.05 and **<i>p</i><0.001). All comparisons were performed using the unpaired t test. Data are presented as the mean ± standard deviation (SD) for >20 embryos at each stage.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mutant", "transgenes", "ced"], "article_id"=>307310, "categories"=>["Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["Hsiao-Han Hsieh", "Tsung-Yuan Hsu", "Hang-Shiang Jiang", "Yi-Chun Wu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002663.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_mutant_pat_2_transgenes_on_the_Ced_and_Pat_phenotypes_/307310", "title"=>"Effects of mutant <i>pat-2</i> transgenes on the Ced and Pat phenotypes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-05-17 02:01:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/636855"], "description"=>"a<p>The number of cell corpses in each genotype was scored at the indicated embryonic stage.</p>b<p>Embryos that showed normal embryogenesis were scored as nonPat and those paralyzed at the 2-fold stage were scored as Pat.</p>c<p>Homozygous progeny of <i>unc-79(e1068) pat-2(st567)/dpy-17(e164)</i> heterozygous mothers.</p>d<p>Non-transgenic progeny of <i>unc-79(e1068) pat-2(st567); Ex[P<sub>pat-2</sub>pat-2::gfp]</i> mothers.</p>e<p>Non-transgenic progeny of <i>unc-79(e1068) pat-2(st567); ced-3(n717); Ex[P<sub>pat-2</sub>pat-2::gfp]</i> mothers.</p>f<p>Homozygous progeny of <i>pat-3(st564)/qC1 dpy-19(e1259) glp-1(q339)</i> heterozygous mothers. <i>pat-2</i>, <i>ina-1</i>, and <i>pat-3</i> single mutants were compared to the wild-type (<sup>**</sup><i>p</i><0.001) and double mutants were compared to the corresponding single mutants (<sup>#</sup><i>p</i><0.05 and <sup>##</sup><i>p</i><0.001) at each stage. All comparisons were performed using the unpaired t test. The cell corpse numbers of homozygous <i>pat-2(st567)<sup>d</sup></i> embryos treated with <i>pat-2</i> RNAi are not distinguishable from those of <i>pat-2(st567)<sup>d</sup></i> or <i>pat-2</i>(RNAi) embryos at the same stage. Data are presented as the mean ± standard deviation (SD) for >15 embryos per stage.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mutants", "apoptotic", "cells", "mid-embryogenesis"], "article_id"=>307339, "categories"=>["Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["Hsiao-Han Hsieh", "Tsung-Yuan Hsu", "Hang-Shiang Jiang", "Yi-Chun Wu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002663.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_pat_2_mutants_contain_more_apoptotic_cells_during_mid_embryogenesis_than_the_wild_type_/307339", "title"=>"<i>pat-2</i> mutants contain more apoptotic cells during mid-embryogenesis than the wild-type.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-05-17 02:02:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/636592"], "description"=>"<p>(A) The formation of MYRI::mRFP circles around cell corpses was followed and time-lapse MYRI::mRFP images of wild-type and <i>pat-2(st567)</i> embryos expressing <i>P<sub>unc-54</sub>myri::mrfp</i> were shown. The time point immediately prior to the appearance of trace amounts of MYRI::mRFP adjacent to cell corpses was set as 0 min. Apoptotic cells are indicated by arrows and shown enlarged in the insets. (B) The DIC and MYRI::mRFP images of the apoptotic MSpppaaa cells in the wild-type and <i>pat-2(st567)</i> embryos expressing <i>P<sub>unc-54</sub>myri::mrfp</i>. The MYRI::mRFP circle around the apoptotic MSpppaaa cell was observed in the wild-type but not <i>pat-2(st567)</i> embryos. MSpppaaa cell corpses are indicated by arrows and shown in enlarged insets. Both scale bars represent 5 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["internalization", "apoptotic"], "article_id"=>307087, "categories"=>["Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["Hsiao-Han Hsieh", "Tsung-Yuan Hsu", "Hang-Shiang Jiang", "Yi-Chun Wu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002663.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_PAT_2_is_required_for_the_internalization_of_apoptotic_cells_/307087", "title"=>"PAT-2 is required for the internalization of apoptotic cells.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-05-17 01:58:07"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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