KATNAL1 Regulation of Sertoli Cell Microtubule Dynamics Is Essential for Spermiogenesis and Male Fertility
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{"title"=>"KATNAL1 regulation of sertoli cell microtubule dynamics is essential for spermiogenesis and male fertility", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Lee B.", "last_name"=>"Smith", "scopus_author_id"=>"7410392470"}, {"first_name"=>"Laura", "last_name"=>"Milne", "scopus_author_id"=>"15754109600"}, {"first_name"=>"Nancy", "last_name"=>"Nelson", "scopus_author_id"=>"57196543123"}, {"first_name"=>"Sharon", "last_name"=>"Eddie", "scopus_author_id"=>"35092297400"}, {"first_name"=>"Pamela", "last_name"=>"Brown", "scopus_author_id"=>"55627701500"}, {"first_name"=>"Nina", "last_name"=>"Atanassova", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701851958"}, {"first_name"=>"Moira K.", "last_name"=>"O'Bryan", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003581441"}, {"first_name"=>"Liza", "last_name"=>"O'Donnell", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006394825"}, {"first_name"=>"Danielle", "last_name"=>"Rhodes", "scopus_author_id"=>"55308514500"}, {"first_name"=>"Sara", "last_name"=>"Wells", "scopus_author_id"=>"8790204200"}, {"first_name"=>"Diane", "last_name"=>"Napper", "scopus_author_id"=>"55307901900"}, {"first_name"=>"Patrick", "last_name"=>"Nolan", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202342550"}, {"first_name"=>"Zuzanna", "last_name"=>"Lalanne", "scopus_author_id"=>"6505488523"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael", "last_name"=>"Cheeseman", "scopus_author_id"=>"15046472400"}, {"first_name"=>"Josephine", "last_name"=>"Peters", "scopus_author_id"=>"35373499200"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS Genetics", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84863669865", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pgen.1002697", "pui"=>"365220719", "pmid"=>"22654668", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84863669865", "issn"=>"15537390", "isbn"=>"1553-7404 (Electronic) 1553-7390 (Linking)"}, "id"=>"b568d9c6-1c16-3d50-a44d-6fad6bd679aa", "abstract"=>"Spermatogenesis is a complex process reliant upon interactions between germ cells (GC) and supporting somatic cells. Testicular Sertoli cells (SC) support GCs during maturation through physical attachment, the provision of nutrients, and protection from immunological attack. This role is facilitated by an active cytoskeleton of parallel microtubule arrays that permit transport of nutrients to GCs, as well as translocation of spermatids through the seminiferous epithelium during maturation. It is well established that chemical perturbation of SC microtubule remodelling leads to premature GC exfoliation demonstrating that microtubule remodelling is an essential component of male fertility, yet the genes responsible for this process remain unknown. Using a random ENU mutagenesis approach, we have identified a novel mouse line displaying male-specific infertility, due to a point mutation in the highly conserved ATPase domain of the novel KATANIN p60-related microtubule severing protein Katanin p60 subunit A-like1 (KATNAL1). We demonstrate that Katnal1 is expressed in testicular Sertoli cells (SC) from 15.5 days post-coitum (dpc) and that, consistent with chemical disruption models, loss of function of KATNAL1 leads to male-specific infertility through disruption of SC microtubule dynamics and premature exfoliation of spermatids from the seminiferous epithelium. The identification of KATNAL1 as an essential regulator of male fertility provides a significant novel entry point into advancing our understanding of how SC microtubule dynamics promotes male fertility. Such information will have resonance both for future treatment of male fertility and the development of non-hormonal male contraceptives.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/katnal1-regulation-sertoli-cell-microtubule-dynamics-essential-spermiogenesis-male-fertility", "reader_count"=>47, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>6, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>25, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>5, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1, "Psychology"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>5}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>25}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>6}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "France"=>2}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/633747"], "description"=>"<p>At d35, immunohistochemical localisation of the Sertoli cell-specific isoform of beta-tubulin TUBB3 reveals an apparent disruption to the microtubule network in <i>Katnal1<sup>1H/1H</sup></i> testes, (a, b). In Wild-Type animals, KATNAL1 localisation (arrows) tracks the SC microtubule network from basal to apical regions (c, e). Conversely, the mutant KATNAL1 protein is restricted to the basal region of Sertoli cells in <i>Katnal1<sup>1H/1H</sup></i> animals (d, f). Images representative of stage VI of the spermatogenic cycle. Bars = 20 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["co-localises", "sertoli", "restricted", "basal", "regions", "mutant"], "article_id"=>304224, "categories"=>["Developmental Biology", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Lee B. Smith", "Laura Milne", "Nancy Nelson", "Sharon Eddie", "Pamela Brown", "Nina Atanassova", "Moira K. O'Bryan", "Liza O'Donnell", "Danielle Rhodes", "Sara Wells", "Diane Napper", "Patrick Nolan", "Zuzanna Lalanne", "Michael Cheeseman", "Josephine Peters"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002697.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Katnal1_co_localises_with_Sertoli_cell_microtubules_but_is_restricted_to_basal_regions_in_mutant_testes_/304224", "title"=>"Katnal1 co-localises with Sertoli cell microtubules, but is restricted to basal regions in mutant testes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-05-24 01:10:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/633117"], "description"=>"<p>Testicular Katnal1 expression is detected from 15.5 dpc and is SC-specific within the seminiferous epithelium throughout life. (a) RT-PCR analysis identified Katnal1 gene expression in a wide panel of tissues including the testis. To establish the cellular localisation of KATNAL1, a custom antibody was designed to specifically recognise KATNAL1. Using this antibody, an immunohistochemical time-course analysis confirmed testicular Sertoli cell (arrowed) expression of KATNAL1 from 15.5dpc onwards (b), and that KATNAL1 protein is restricted to Sertoli cells of the seminiferous epithelium throughout postnatal life where it is localised at a number of discrete foci (c) (dotted box enlarged in (d)). Immunohistochemical interrogation of adult human testis sections using the KATNAL1 antibody (e) (dotted box enlarged in (f)), confirmed a similar localization for KATNAL1 in both human and mouse testis. (B = Brain, H = Heart, Lu = Lung, K = Kidney, Li = Liver, Sp = Spleen, Sv = Seminal Vesicle, T = Testis, O = Ovary, W = water control. Bars in (c, d, e and f) = 20 µm; Neg = peptide blocked control).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genetics and genomics", "developmental biology"], "article_id"=>303596, "categories"=>["Developmental Biology", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Lee B. Smith", "Laura Milne", "Nancy Nelson", "Sharon Eddie", "Pamela Brown", "Nina Atanassova", "Moira K. O'Bryan", "Liza O'Donnell", "Danielle Rhodes", "Sara Wells", "Diane Napper", "Patrick Nolan", "Zuzanna Lalanne", "Michael Cheeseman", "Josephine Peters"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002697.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Katnal1_is_widely_expressed_/303596", "title"=>"Katnal1 is widely expressed.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-05-24 00:59:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/632694"], "description"=>"<p>A screen for ENU-induced recessive mutations that cause male-specific infertility was undertaken. (a) In one pedigree (PED-JP5), six infertile males were identified through matings to a total of four or more CD1 females each. A significant reduction in testis weight in mutant animals was noted (b, c), which was first observed at day 35 and remained consistently 60% of wild-type weight when compared at both day 70 (adulthood) and at around one year of age (days 300–365) (c). (+/+ = Wild-type, m/m = recessive mutant, bar = 2 mm, ** p = 0.0022).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["male-specific"], "article_id"=>303177, "categories"=>["Developmental Biology", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Lee B. Smith", "Laura Milne", "Nancy Nelson", "Sharon Eddie", "Pamela Brown", "Nina Atanassova", "Moira K. O'Bryan", "Liza O'Donnell", "Danielle Rhodes", "Sara Wells", "Diane Napper", "Patrick Nolan", "Zuzanna Lalanne", "Michael Cheeseman", "Josephine Peters"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002697.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/A_novel_mouse_model_of_male_specific_infertility_/303177", "title"=>"A novel mouse model of male-specific infertility.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-05-24 00:52:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/633576"], "description"=>"<p>Sections of epididymides from homozygous mutant and WT littermates were examined. In WT animals the epididymal lumen was filled with spermatozoa throughout the length of the epididymis (a, - boxed area enlarged in c). However, in homozygous <i>Katnal1<sup>1H/1H</sup></i> littermates, recognisable spermatozoa were almost absent, instead the caput and corpa epididymides contained immature, non-condensed, germ cells (b), which collected as a plug of proteinaceous cellular debris (*) in the cauda epididymis (b, boxed area enlarged in d). Bars = 20 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["post-meiotic", "germ", "cells", "premature", "sloughing", "seminiferous"], "article_id"=>304039, "categories"=>["Developmental Biology", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Lee B. Smith", "Laura Milne", "Nancy Nelson", "Sharon Eddie", "Pamela Brown", "Nina Atanassova", "Moira K. O'Bryan", "Liza O'Donnell", "Danielle Rhodes", "Sara Wells", "Diane Napper", "Patrick Nolan", "Zuzanna Lalanne", "Michael Cheeseman", "Josephine Peters"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002697.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Reduction_in_post_meiotic_germ_cells_is_due_to_premature_sloughing_from_the_seminiferous_epithelium_/304039", "title"=>"Reduction in post-meiotic germ cells is due to premature sloughing from the seminiferous epithelium.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-05-24 01:07:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/634053"], "description"=>"<p>Comparison of Sertoli and Germ cell composition of the testes from Wild-type (+/+) and homozygous <i>Katnal1<sup>1H/1H</sup></i> (1H/1H) mutant mice at d22, d35 and d70. (n = 5 per group; Mean ± SEM).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["germ"], "article_id"=>304533, "categories"=>["Developmental Biology", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Lee B. Smith", "Laura Milne", "Nancy Nelson", "Sharon Eddie", "Pamela Brown", "Nina Atanassova", "Moira K. O'Bryan", "Liza O'Donnell", "Danielle Rhodes", "Sara Wells", "Diane Napper", "Patrick Nolan", "Zuzanna Lalanne", "Michael Cheeseman", "Josephine Peters"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002697.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Sertoli_Cell_and_Germ_Cell_composition_of_the_testes_/304533", "title"=>"Sertoli Cell and Germ Cell composition of the testes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-05-24 01:15:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/633384"], "description"=>"<p>(a) Testes from wild-type and <i>Katnal1<sup>1H/1H</sup></i> animals appear similar at day 22 when examined by light microscopy. However, at day 35 disruption to the seminiferous epithelium is apparent in mutant testes, consistent with a significant reduction in seminiferous tubule diameter. At day 70, the seminiferous epithelium in the <i>Katnal1<sup>1H/1H</sup></i> testis appears disorganised and elongate spermatids (arrowed in WT) are almost absent. (b) The apparent reduction in elongate spermatid numbers was confirmed (arrows) using an antibody against PGK1/2 which marks post-meiotic germ cells from step 8. (c) The reduction in elongate spermatids was associated with a clear reduction in apical ectoplasmic specialisations (marked by Espin) in <i>Katnal1<sup>1H/1H</sup></i> testes (arrows in +/+). (+/+ = Wild-type; neg = no-primary control; Bar = 100 µm unless stated).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["testis", "sections", "reveals", "disruption", "seminiferous", "epithelium", "numbers", "post-meiotic", "germ"], "article_id"=>303846, "categories"=>["Developmental Biology", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Lee B. Smith", "Laura Milne", "Nancy Nelson", "Sharon Eddie", "Pamela Brown", "Nina Atanassova", "Moira K. O'Bryan", "Liza O'Donnell", "Danielle Rhodes", "Sara Wells", "Diane Napper", "Patrick Nolan", "Zuzanna Lalanne", "Michael Cheeseman", "Josephine Peters"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002697.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Histological_analysis_of_testis_sections_reveals_disruption_to_the_seminiferous_epithelium_associated_with_a_reduction_in_numbers_of_post_meiotic_germ_cells_/303846", "title"=>"Histological analysis of testis sections reveals disruption to the seminiferous epithelium associated with a reduction in numbers of post-meiotic germ cells.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-05-24 01:04:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/632766"], "description"=>"<p>Genome-wide SNP linkage analysis identified a single region of distal chromosome 5 as the site of the causal mutation. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis and DNA sequencing analysis of genes within the critical region identified a single point mutational change (Thymine to Guanine) within exon seven of the gene encoding the putative microtubule severing protein Katnal1 (a, b) (The mutated allele was designated <i>Katnal1<sup>1H</sup></i>). The point mutation within <i>Katnal1<sup>1H</sup></i> generates a Leucine to Valine substitution at residue 286, within the conserved ATPase AAA-Core domain of the KATNAL1 protein (a, b). (c) Comparative genome analysis of KATNAL1 peptide sequence across diverse species demonstrated complete conservation of the Leucine residue for at least 400 million years.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["allele", "causal"], "article_id"=>303243, "categories"=>["Developmental Biology", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Lee B. Smith", "Laura Milne", "Nancy Nelson", "Sharon Eddie", "Pamela Brown", "Nina Atanassova", "Moira K. O'Bryan", "Liza O'Donnell", "Danielle Rhodes", "Sara Wells", "Diane Napper", "Patrick Nolan", "Zuzanna Lalanne", "Michael Cheeseman", "Josephine Peters"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002697.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Genetic_mapping_identified_a_loss_of_function_allele_of_i_Katnal1_i_as_the_causal_genetic_lesion_/303243", "title"=>"Genetic mapping identified a loss of function allele of <i>Katnal1</i> as the causal genetic lesion.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-05-24 00:54:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/327324", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/327353"], "description"=>"<div><p>Spermatogenesis is a complex process reliant upon interactions between germ cells (GC) and supporting somatic cells. Testicular Sertoli cells (SC) support GCs during maturation through physical attachment, the provision of nutrients, and protection from immunological attack. This role is facilitated by an active cytoskeleton of parallel microtubule arrays that permit transport of nutrients to GCs, as well as translocation of spermatids through the seminiferous epithelium during maturation. It is well established that chemical perturbation of SC microtubule remodelling leads to premature GC exfoliation demonstrating that microtubule remodelling is an essential component of male fertility, yet the genes responsible for this process remain unknown. Using a random ENU mutagenesis approach, we have identified a novel mouse line displaying male-specific infertility, due to a point mutation in the highly conserved ATPase domain of the novel KATANIN p60-related microtubule severing protein Katanin p60 subunit A-like1 (KATNAL1). We demonstrate that <em>Katnal1</em> is expressed in testicular Sertoli cells (SC) from 15.5 days post-coitum (dpc) and that, consistent with chemical disruption models, loss of function of KATNAL1 leads to male-specific infertility through disruption of SC microtubule dynamics and premature exfoliation of spermatids from the seminiferous epithelium. The identification of KATNAL1 as an essential regulator of male fertility provides a significant novel entry point into advancing our understanding of how SC microtubule dynamics promotes male fertility. Such information will have resonance both for future treatment of male fertility and the development of non-hormonal male contraceptives.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["katnal1", "sertoli", "microtubule", "spermiogenesis", "fertility"], "article_id"=>124599, "categories"=>["Developmental Biology", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Lee B. Smith", "Laura Milne", "Nancy Nelson", "Sharon Eddie", "Pamela Brown", "Nina Atanassova", "Moira K. O'Bryan", "Liza O'Donnell", "Danielle Rhodes", "Sara Wells", "Diane Napper", "Patrick Nolan", "Zuzanna Lalanne", "Michael Cheeseman", "Josephine Peters"], "doi"=>[nil, nil], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/KATNAL1_Regulation_of_Sertoli_Cell_Microtubule_Dynamics_Is_Essential_for_Spermiogenesis_and_Male_Fertility/124599", "title"=>"KATNAL1 Regulation of Sertoli Cell Microtubule Dynamics Is Essential for Spermiogenesis and Male Fertility", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-05-24 01:16:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/633929"], "description"=>"<p>(a) Western blot analysis and (b) quantification of stable (glu) and dynamic (tyr) α-tubulin on d22 testes from wild-type and homozygous mutant animals reveals a significant reduction in numbers of stable microtubules in testes from <i>Katnal1<sup>1H/1H</sup></i> mutants (n = 5–7). (c) Immunohistochemical localisation of glu-α-tubulin on corresponding d22 testis sections localises stable microtubules to SC cytoplasm (arrows) and developing spermatids and in Wild-type animals. Conversely stable microtubules are below detection limits in much of the SC cytoplasm in homozygous mutant testes. (WT1 = Wilms Tumour 1, SC-specific loading control).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["katnal1", "leads", "reduced", "numbers", "microtubules"], "article_id"=>304408, "categories"=>["Developmental Biology", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Lee B. Smith", "Laura Milne", "Nancy Nelson", "Sharon Eddie", "Pamela Brown", "Nina Atanassova", "Moira K. O'Bryan", "Liza O'Donnell", "Danielle Rhodes", "Sara Wells", "Diane Napper", "Patrick Nolan", "Zuzanna Lalanne", "Michael Cheeseman", "Josephine Peters"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002697.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Loss_of_KATNAL1_function_leads_to_reduced_numbers_of_stable_microtubules_in_SCs_/304408", "title"=>"Loss of KATNAL1 function leads to reduced numbers of stable microtubules in SCs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-05-24 01:13:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/632968"], "description"=>"<p>(a, b) Transduction of HT1080 cells with lentiviral particles containing the WT cDNA of <i>Katnal1</i> under the control of the CMV promoter results in a significant increase in numbers of cells arrested in mitosis (arrows) 48 hours post-transduction. Conversely, numbers of cells in mitotic arrest does not differ from controls following transduction of the mutant <i>Katnal1<sup>1H</sup></i> cDNA. (c) The arrest of cells during mitosis is followed by a significant increase in cell death in cells transduced with WT but not mutated <i>Katnal1<sup>1H</sup></i>. Together these data confirm that the observed mutation in <i>Katnal1<sup>1H</sup></i> generates a loss of function allele. Bar = 50 µm (*** = p&lt;0.001).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mutation"], "article_id"=>303446, "categories"=>["Developmental Biology", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Lee B. Smith", "Laura Milne", "Nancy Nelson", "Sharon Eddie", "Pamela Brown", "Nina Atanassova", "Moira K. O'Bryan", "Liza O'Donnell", "Danielle Rhodes", "Sara Wells", "Diane Napper", "Patrick Nolan", "Zuzanna Lalanne", "Michael Cheeseman", "Josephine Peters"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002697.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/The_identified_mutation_in_i_Katnal1_sup_1H_sup_i_results_in_loss_of_function_/303446", "title"=>"The identified mutation in <i>Katnal1<sup>1H</sup></i> results in loss of function.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-05-24 00:57:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/632845"], "description"=>"<p>Hek293 cells were stably transfected with constructs encoding either KATANIN p60 or KATNAL1 protein. Separate wells were treated +/− tetracycline or vehicle for a period of 12 hours, fixed then stained for α-tubulin as a marker of microtubules. This demonstrated that, like KATANIN p60, KATNAL1 functions as a microtubule severing protein. Scale bars = 20 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microtubule", "severing"], "article_id"=>303318, "categories"=>["Developmental Biology", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Lee B. Smith", "Laura Milne", "Nancy Nelson", "Sharon Eddie", "Pamela Brown", "Nina Atanassova", "Moira K. O'Bryan", "Liza O'Donnell", "Danielle Rhodes", "Sara Wells", "Diane Napper", "Patrick Nolan", "Zuzanna Lalanne", "Michael Cheeseman", "Josephine Peters"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002697.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>61, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/KATNAL1_is_a_microtubule_severing_protein_/303318", "title"=>"KATNAL1 is a microtubule severing protein.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-05-24 00:55:18"}

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