A Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Five Loci Influencing Facial Morphology in Europeans
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{"title"=>"A Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Five Loci Influencing Facial Morphology in Europeans", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Fan", "last_name"=>"Liu", "scopus_author_id"=>"56342354400"}, {"first_name"=>"Fedde", "last_name"=>"van der Lijn", "scopus_author_id"=>"23006681100"}, {"first_name"=>"Claudia", "last_name"=>"Schurmann", "scopus_author_id"=>"53981988900"}, {"first_name"=>"Gu", "last_name"=>"Zhu", "scopus_author_id"=>"7402633012"}, {"first_name"=>"M. Mallar", "last_name"=>"Chakravarty", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003747065"}, {"first_name"=>"Pirro G.", "last_name"=>"Hysi", "scopus_author_id"=>"18133899000"}, {"first_name"=>"Andreas", "last_name"=>"Wollstein", "scopus_author_id"=>"14010205900"}, {"first_name"=>"Oscar", "last_name"=>"Lao", "scopus_author_id"=>"56001576300"}, {"first_name"=>"Marleen", "last_name"=>"de Bruijne", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603748680"}, {"first_name"=>"M. Arfan", "last_name"=>"Ikram", "scopus_author_id"=>"57189595440"}, {"first_name"=>"Aad", "last_name"=>"van der Lugt", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004201650"}, {"first_name"=>"Fernando", "last_name"=>"Rivadeneira", "scopus_author_id"=>"7801419664"}, {"first_name"=>"André G.", "last_name"=>"Uitterlinden", "scopus_author_id"=>"35231615000"}, {"first_name"=>"Albert", "last_name"=>"Hofman", "scopus_author_id"=>"36048731400"}, {"first_name"=>"Wiro J.", "last_name"=>"Niessen", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006660813"}, {"first_name"=>"Georg", "last_name"=>"Homuth", "scopus_author_id"=>"56357082900"}, {"first_name"=>"Greig", "last_name"=>"de Zubicaray", "scopus_author_id"=>"54790577700"}, {"first_name"=>"Katie L.", "last_name"=>"McMahon", "scopus_author_id"=>"35555669900"}, {"first_name"=>"Paul M.", "last_name"=>"Thompson", "scopus_author_id"=>"7403220237"}, {"first_name"=>"Amro", "last_name"=>"Daboul", "scopus_author_id"=>"55027306700"}, {"first_name"=>"Ralf", "last_name"=>"Puls", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006237376"}, {"first_name"=>"Katrin", "last_name"=>"Hegenscheid", "scopus_author_id"=>"16425192300"}, {"first_name"=>"Liisa", "last_name"=>"Bevan", "scopus_author_id"=>"24437659900"}, {"first_name"=>"Zdenka", "last_name"=>"Pausova", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701856846"}, {"first_name"=>"Sarah E.", "last_name"=>"Medland", "scopus_author_id"=>"34571085600"}, {"first_name"=>"Grant W.", "last_name"=>"Montgomery", "scopus_author_id"=>"8739667300"}, {"first_name"=>"Margaret J.", "last_name"=>"Wright", "scopus_author_id"=>"7401558228"}, {"first_name"=>"Carol", "last_name"=>"Wicking", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003995587"}, {"first_name"=>"Stefan", "last_name"=>"Boehringer", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602222235"}, {"first_name"=>"Timothy D.", "last_name"=>"Spector", "scopus_author_id"=>"35351391300"}, {"first_name"=>"Tomáš", "last_name"=>"Paus", "scopus_author_id"=>"35451935100"}, {"first_name"=>"Nicholas G.", "last_name"=>"Martin", "scopus_author_id"=>"57195254907"}, {"first_name"=>"Reiner", "last_name"=>"Biffar", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701613888"}, {"first_name"=>"Manfred", "last_name"=>"Kayser", "scopus_author_id"=>"26643477000"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS Genetics", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84866903278", "issn"=>"15537390", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pgen.1002932", "pmid"=>"23028347", "pui"=>"365755978", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84866903278", "isbn"=>"2200820186"}, "id"=>"91d62f20-cfb1-3417-a6d5-073b54cf1512", "abstract"=>"Inter-individual variation in facial shape is one of the most noticeable phenotypes in humans, and it is clearly under genetic regulation; however, almost nothing is known about the genetic basis of normal human facial morphology. We therefore conducted a genome-wide association study for facial shape phenotypes in multiple discovery and replication cohorts, considering almost ten thousand individuals of European descent from several countries. Phenotyping of facial shape features was based on landmark data obtained from three-dimensional head magnetic resonance images (MRIs) and two-dimensional portrait images. We identified five independent genetic loci associated with different facial phenotypes, suggesting the involvement of five candidate genes--PRDM16, PAX3, TP63, C5orf50, and COL17A1--in the determination of the human face. Three of them have been implicated previously in vertebrate craniofacial development and disease, and the remaining two genes potentially represent novel players in the molecular networks governing facial development. Our finding at PAX3 influencing the position of the nasion replicates a recent GWAS of facial features. In addition to the reported GWA findings, we established links between common DNA variants previously associated with NSCL/P at 2p21, 8q24, 13q31, and 17q22 and normal facial-shape variations based on a candidate gene approach. Overall our study implies that DNA variants in genes essential for craniofacial development contribute with relatively small effect size to the spectrum of normal variation in human facial morphology. This observation has important consequences for future studies aiming to identify more genes involved in the human facial morphology, as well as for potential applications of DNA prediction of facial shape such as in future forensic applications.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/genomewide-association-study-identifies-five-loci-influencing-facial-morphology-europeans-8", "reader_count"=>275, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>22, "Researcher"=>69, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>11, "Student > Ph. D. 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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/305043", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/305102", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/305124", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/305152", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/305171", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/305190", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/305210"], "description"=>"<div><p>Inter-individual variation in facial shape is one of the most noticeable phenotypes in humans, and it is clearly under genetic regulation; however, almost nothing is known about the genetic basis of normal human facial morphology. We therefore conducted a genome-wide association study for facial shape phenotypes in multiple discovery and replication cohorts, considering almost ten thousand individuals of European descent from several countries. Phenotyping of facial shape features was based on landmark data obtained from three-dimensional head magnetic resonance images (MRIs) and two-dimensional portrait images. We identified five independent genetic loci associated with different facial phenotypes, suggesting the involvement of five candidate genes—<em>PRDM16</em>, <em>PAX3</em>, <em>TP63</em>, <em>C5orf50</em>, and <em>COL17A1</em>—in the determination of the human face. Three of them have been implicated previously in vertebrate craniofacial development and disease, and the remaining two genes potentially represent novel players in the molecular networks governing facial development. Our finding at <em>PAX3</em> influencing the position of the nasion replicates a recent GWAS of facial features. In addition to the reported GWA findings, we established links between common DNA variants previously associated with NSCL/P at 2p21, 8q24, 13q31, and 17q22 and normal facial-shape variations based on a candidate gene approach. Overall our study implies that DNA variants in genes essential for craniofacial development contribute with relatively small effect size to the spectrum of normal variation in human facial morphology. This observation has important consequences for future studies aiming to identify more genes involved in the human facial morphology, as well as for potential applications of DNA prediction of facial shape such as in future forensic applications.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genome-wide", "identifies", "loci", "influencing", "facial", "morphology", "europeans"], "article_id"=>120158, "categories"=>["Genetics"], "users"=>["Fan Liu", "Fedde van der Lijn", "Claudia Schurmann", "Gu Zhu", "M. Mallar Chakravarty", "Pirro G. Hysi", "Andreas Wollstein", "Oscar Lao", "Marleen de Bruijne", "M. Arfan Ikram", "Aad van der Lugt", "Fernando Rivadeneira", "Andre G. Uitterlinden", "Albert Hofman", "Wiro J. Niessen", "Georg Homuth", "Greig de Zubicaray", "Katie L. McMahon", "Paul M. Thompson", "Amro Daboul", "Ralf Puls", "Katrin Hegenscheid", "Liisa Bevan", "Zdenka Pausova", "Sarah E. Medland", "Grant W. Montgomery", "Margaret J. Wright", "Carol Wicking", "Stefan Boehringer", "Timothy D. Spector", "Tomáš Paus", "Nicholas G. Martin", "Reiner Biffar", "Manfred Kayser"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002932.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002932.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002932.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002932.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002932.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002932.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002932.s007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/A_Genome_Wide_Association_Study_Identifies_Five_Loci_Influencing_Facial_Morphology_in_Europeans/120158", "title"=>"A Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Five Loci Influencing Facial Morphology in Europeans", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-09-13 00:02:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/577008"], "description"=>"<p>An MRI of one of the authors (MK) is used for illustration. A, with the landmark for left zygion (ZygL) highlighted, where a clipping plane was used to uncover the bone; B, with the landmarks for left (EyeL) and right pupils (EyeR) highlighted, where a clipping plane was used to uncover the vitreous humor; C, with the four nasal landmarks highlighted, including the left alare, nasion (Nsn), pronasale (Prn), and subnasale (Sbn).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["facial", "landmarks", "extracted", "registration", "tools", "3d"], "article_id"=>247450, "categories"=>["Genetics"], "users"=>["Fan Liu", "Fedde van der Lijn", "Claudia Schurmann", "Gu Zhu", "M. Mallar Chakravarty", "Pirro G. Hysi", "Andreas Wollstein", "Oscar Lao", "Marleen de Bruijne", "M. Arfan Ikram", "Aad van der Lugt", "Fernando Rivadeneira", "Andre G. Uitterlinden", "Albert Hofman", "Wiro J. Niessen", "Georg Homuth", "Greig de Zubicaray", "Katie L. McMahon", "Paul M. Thompson", "Amro Daboul", "Ralf Puls", "Katrin Hegenscheid", "Liisa Bevan", "Zdenka Pausova", "Sarah E. Medland", "Grant W. Montgomery", "Margaret J. Wright", "Carol Wicking", "Stefan Boehringer", "Timothy D. Spector", "Tomáš Paus", "Nicholas G. Martin", "Reiner Biffar", "Manfred Kayser"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002932.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Nine_facial_landmarks_extracted_via_image_registration_tools_from_3D_MRIs_/247450", "title"=>"Nine facial landmarks extracted via image registration tools from 3D MRIs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-09-13 02:04:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/577142"], "description"=>"<p>A, all raw landmarks before un-scaled PS; and B, after un-scaled PS.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["landmarks", "3d", "mri", "individuals", "cohorts"], "article_id"=>247584, "categories"=>["Genetics"], "users"=>["Fan Liu", "Fedde van der Lijn", "Claudia Schurmann", "Gu Zhu", "M. Mallar Chakravarty", "Pirro G. Hysi", "Andreas Wollstein", "Oscar Lao", "Marleen de Bruijne", "M. Arfan Ikram", "Aad van der Lugt", "Fernando Rivadeneira", "Andre G. Uitterlinden", "Albert Hofman", "Wiro J. Niessen", "Georg Homuth", "Greig de Zubicaray", "Katie L. McMahon", "Paul M. Thompson", "Amro Daboul", "Ralf Puls", "Katrin Hegenscheid", "Liisa Bevan", "Zdenka Pausova", "Sarah E. Medland", "Grant W. Montgomery", "Margaret J. Wright", "Carol Wicking", "Stefan Boehringer", "Timothy D. Spector", "Tomáš Paus", "Nicholas G. Martin", "Reiner Biffar", "Manfred Kayser"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002932.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Facial_landmarks_from_3D_MRI_in_all_5_388_individuals_from_the_discovery_cohorts_RS1_RS2_QTIMS_SHIP_and_SHIP_TREND_/247584", "title"=>"Facial landmarks from 3D MRI in all 5,388 individuals from the discovery cohorts RS1, RS2, QTIMS, SHIP, and SHIP-TREND.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-09-13 02:06:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/577294"], "description"=>"<p>Quantile-Quantile plots for the GWAS of (A) AlrL-Prn, (B) EyeL-Nsn, (C) EyeL-EyeR, and (D) ZygR-Nsn.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["plots"], "article_id"=>247747, "categories"=>["Genetics"], "users"=>["Fan Liu", "Fedde van der Lijn", "Claudia Schurmann", "Gu Zhu", "M. Mallar Chakravarty", "Pirro G. Hysi", "Andreas Wollstein", "Oscar Lao", "Marleen de Bruijne", "M. Arfan Ikram", "Aad van der Lugt", "Fernando Rivadeneira", "Andre G. Uitterlinden", "Albert Hofman", "Wiro J. Niessen", "Georg Homuth", "Greig de Zubicaray", "Katie L. McMahon", "Paul M. Thompson", "Amro Daboul", "Ralf Puls", "Katrin Hegenscheid", "Liisa Bevan", "Zdenka Pausova", "Sarah E. Medland", "Grant W. Montgomery", "Margaret J. Wright", "Carol Wicking", "Stefan Boehringer", "Timothy D. Spector", "Tomáš Paus", "Nicholas G. Martin", "Reiner Biffar", "Manfred Kayser"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002932.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Quantile_Quantile_Q_Q_plots_for_the_GWAS_/247747", "title"=>"Quantile-Quantile (Q-Q) plots for the GWAS.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-09-13 02:09:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/577454"], "description"=>"<p>The association signals (the −log10 P-values) are plotted against physical positions of each SNP in a 400 kb region centered by the most significantly associated SNP (NCBI build 36.3). Known genes in the region are aligned at the bottom. A. 1p36.23-p33 associated with AlrL-Prn, candidate gene <i>PRDM16</i>; B. 2q35 associated with EyeR-Nsn, candidate gene <i>PAX3</i>; C. 3q28 associated with EyeR-EyeL, candidate gene <i>TP63</i>. D. 5q35.1 associated with EyeL-Nsn, candidate gene <i>C5orf50</i>; E. 10q24.associated with EyeL-Nsn, candidate gene <i>COL17A1</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genomic", "regions", "harboring", "snps", "genome-wide", "associations", "facial", "phenotypes", "meta-analysis", "GWAS"], "article_id"=>247900, "categories"=>["Genetics"], "users"=>["Fan Liu", "Fedde van der Lijn", "Claudia Schurmann", "Gu Zhu", "M. Mallar Chakravarty", "Pirro G. Hysi", "Andreas Wollstein", "Oscar Lao", "Marleen de Bruijne", "M. Arfan Ikram", "Aad van der Lugt", "Fernando Rivadeneira", "Andre G. Uitterlinden", "Albert Hofman", "Wiro J. Niessen", "Georg Homuth", "Greig de Zubicaray", "Katie L. McMahon", "Paul M. Thompson", "Amro Daboul", "Ralf Puls", "Katrin Hegenscheid", "Liisa Bevan", "Zdenka Pausova", "Sarah E. Medland", "Grant W. Montgomery", "Margaret J. Wright", "Carol Wicking", "Stefan Boehringer", "Timothy D. Spector", "Tomáš Paus", "Nicholas G. Martin", "Reiner Biffar", "Manfred Kayser"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002932.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Five_genomic_regions_harboring_SNPs_reaching_genome_wide_significant_associations_with_facial_shape_phenotypes_in_a_meta_analysis_of_five_GWAS_in_discovery_cohorts_/247900", "title"=>"Five genomic regions harboring SNPs reaching genome-wide significant associations with facial shape phenotypes in a meta-analysis of five GWAS in discovery cohorts.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-09-13 02:11:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/577601"], "description"=>"<p>Eight facial landmarks extracted from a 2D portrait photo of one of the authors (MK) to illustrate facial shape phenotyping in the 2D portrait photos (A). Landmark configurations in 2D photos from 3,503 individuals from the replication cohorts BLTS and TwinsUK before (B), and after (C) full PS. Note that raw landmarks in B appeared to be upset-down of a face, which were rotated by 180° in C.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["landmarks", "2d"], "article_id"=>248054, "categories"=>["Genetics"], "users"=>["Fan Liu", "Fedde van der Lijn", "Claudia Schurmann", "Gu Zhu", "M. Mallar Chakravarty", "Pirro G. Hysi", "Andreas Wollstein", "Oscar Lao", "Marleen de Bruijne", "M. Arfan Ikram", "Aad van der Lugt", "Fernando Rivadeneira", "Andre G. Uitterlinden", "Albert Hofman", "Wiro J. Niessen", "Georg Homuth", "Greig de Zubicaray", "Katie L. McMahon", "Paul M. Thompson", "Amro Daboul", "Ralf Puls", "Katrin Hegenscheid", "Liisa Bevan", "Zdenka Pausova", "Sarah E. Medland", "Grant W. Montgomery", "Margaret J. Wright", "Carol Wicking", "Stefan Boehringer", "Timothy D. Spector", "Tomáš Paus", "Nicholas G. Martin", "Reiner Biffar", "Manfred Kayser"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002932.g005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Facial_landmarks_from_2D_portrait_photos_/248054", "title"=>"Facial landmarks from 2D portrait photos.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-09-13 02:14:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/577706"], "description"=>"<p>Characteristics of the study subjects (N = 9,823).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["subjects"], "article_id"=>248163, "categories"=>["Genetics"], "users"=>["Fan Liu", "Fedde van der Lijn", "Claudia Schurmann", "Gu Zhu", "M. Mallar Chakravarty", "Pirro G. Hysi", "Andreas Wollstein", "Oscar Lao", "Marleen de Bruijne", "M. Arfan Ikram", "Aad van der Lugt", "Fernando Rivadeneira", "Andre G. Uitterlinden", "Albert Hofman", "Wiro J. Niessen", "Georg Homuth", "Greig de Zubicaray", "Katie L. McMahon", "Paul M. Thompson", "Amro Daboul", "Ralf Puls", "Katrin Hegenscheid", "Liisa Bevan", "Zdenka Pausova", "Sarah E. Medland", "Grant W. Montgomery", "Margaret J. Wright", "Carol Wicking", "Stefan Boehringer", "Timothy D. Spector", "Tomáš Paus", "Nicholas G. Martin", "Reiner Biffar", "Manfred Kayser"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002932.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Characteristics_of_the_study_subjects_N_8202_8202_9_823_/248163", "title"=>"Characteristics of the study subjects (N = 9,823).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-09-13 02:16:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/577787"], "description"=>"<p>Sign%, the percentage of P values<0.05 in 48 phenotypes.</p><p>Trait, the phenotype which showed the minimal P value.</p><p>Bonferroni, corrected by 48 multiple testing.</p><p>AlrR-AlrL, P value for nose-width.</p><p>ZygR-ZygL, P value for bizygomatic distance.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cleft-associated", "snps", "facial"], "article_id"=>248239, "categories"=>["Genetics"], "users"=>["Fan Liu", "Fedde van der Lijn", "Claudia Schurmann", "Gu Zhu", "M. Mallar Chakravarty", "Pirro G. Hysi", "Andreas Wollstein", "Oscar Lao", "Marleen de Bruijne", "M. Arfan Ikram", "Aad van der Lugt", "Fernando Rivadeneira", "Andre G. Uitterlinden", "Albert Hofman", "Wiro J. Niessen", "Georg Homuth", "Greig de Zubicaray", "Katie L. McMahon", "Paul M. Thompson", "Amro Daboul", "Ralf Puls", "Katrin Hegenscheid", "Liisa Bevan", "Zdenka Pausova", "Sarah E. Medland", "Grant W. Montgomery", "Margaret J. Wright", "Carol Wicking", "Stefan Boehringer", "Timothy D. Spector", "Tomáš Paus", "Nicholas G. Martin", "Reiner Biffar", "Manfred Kayser"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002932.t003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_NSCL_P_cleft_associated_SNPs_in_association_with_normal_facial_shape_variation_N_8202_8202_5_388_/248239", "title"=>"NSCL/P cleft-associated SNPs in association with normal facial shape variation (N = 5,388).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-09-13 02:17:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/577874"], "description"=>"<p>SNPs with P<5e-8 in discovery phase are shown, one SNP per loci; symmetric facial features are shown for both when one is involved.</p><p>FreqEff, the overall frequency of the effect allele in all cohorts.</p><p>Units in the discovery and SYS cohorts are in millimeters.</p><p>% in SYS, the percentage of P values<0.05 for testing 1,540 pair-wise distances between 56 landmarks.</p><p>% in BLTS+TwinsUK, the percentage of P values<0.05 for testing 28 pair-wise distances between 8 landmarks.</p>*<p>Zygions could not be reliably derived from BLTS and TwinsUK 2D portrait photos.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["facial", "GWAS"], "article_id"=>248316, "categories"=>["Genetics"], "users"=>["Fan Liu", "Fedde van der Lijn", "Claudia Schurmann", "Gu Zhu", "M. Mallar Chakravarty", "Pirro G. Hysi", "Andreas Wollstein", "Oscar Lao", "Marleen de Bruijne", "M. Arfan Ikram", "Aad van der Lugt", "Fernando Rivadeneira", "Andre G. Uitterlinden", "Albert Hofman", "Wiro J. Niessen", "Georg Homuth", "Greig de Zubicaray", "Katie L. McMahon", "Paul M. Thompson", "Amro Daboul", "Ralf Puls", "Katrin Hegenscheid", "Liisa Bevan", "Zdenka Pausova", "Sarah E. Medland", "Grant W. Montgomery", "Margaret J. Wright", "Carol Wicking", "Stefan Boehringer", "Timothy D. Spector", "Tomáš Paus", "Nicholas G. Martin", "Reiner Biffar", "Manfred Kayser"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002932.t002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_SNPs_associated_with_facial_shape_features_from_discovery_GWAS_and_their_replications_/248316", "title"=>"SNPs associated with facial shape features from discovery GWAS and their replications.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-09-13 02:18:36"}

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Relative Metric

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