Cytokinesis-Based Constraints on Polarized Cell Growth in Fission Yeast
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{"title"=>"Cytokinesis-Based Constraints on Polarized Cell Growth in Fission Yeast", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"K. Adam", "last_name"=>"Bohnert", "scopus_author_id"=>"35309348900"}, {"first_name"=>"Kathleen L.", "last_name"=>"Gould", "scopus_author_id"=>"35310146300"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS Genetics", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"15537390", "pmid"=>"23093943", "pui"=>"365953630", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84868103663", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pgen.1003004", "sgr"=>"84868103663"}, "id"=>"cb569979-8914-3a98-be18-8114e8d955f6", "abstract"=>"The rod-shaped fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, which undergoes cycles of monopolar-to-bipolar tip growth, is an attractive organism for studying cell-cycle regulation of polarity establishment. While previous research has described factors mediating this process from interphase cell tips, we found that division site signaling also impacts the re-establishment of bipolar cell growth in the ensuing cell cycle. Complete loss or targeted disruption of the non-essential cytokinesis protein Fic1 at the division site, but not at interphase cell tips, resulted in many cells failing to grow at new ends created by cell division. This appeared due to faulty disassembly and abnormal persistence of the cell division machinery at new ends of fic1Δ cells. Moreover, additional mutants defective in the final stages of cytokinesis exhibited analogous growth polarity defects, supporting that robust completion of cell division contributes to new end-growth competency. To test this model, we genetically manipulated S. pombe cells to undergo new end take-off immediately after cell division. Intriguingly, such cells elongated constitutively at new ends unless cytokinesis was perturbed. Thus, cell division imposes constraints that partially override positive controls on growth. We posit that such constraints facilitate invasive fungal growth, as cytokinesis mutants displaying bipolar growth defects formed numerous pseudohyphae. Collectively, these data highlight a role for previous cell cycles in defining a cell's capacity to polarize at specific sites, and they additionally provide insight into how a unicellular yeast can transition into a quasi-multicellular state.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/cytokinesisbased-constraints-polarized-cell-growth-fission-yeast", "reader_count"=>31, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Researcher"=>9, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Researcher"=>9, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>23, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>23}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>2, "Japan"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/556196"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Live-cell images of calcofluor-stained wild-type and <i>fic1</i>Δ cells. Birth scars remain unstained and appear as dark bands across cells. Arrowheads indicate monopolar cells, i.e. cells that have only grown at one end, with birth scars abutting cell ends. (B) Quantification of (A), with three trials per genotype and n>300 for each trial. Data are presented as mean ± SEM for each category. (C) Quantification of septated cells in (A) and (B), with three trials per genotype and n>200 for each trial. Data are presented as mean ± SEM for each category. (D) Live-cell GFP images of <i>crn1</i>-GFP and <i>fic1</i>Δ <i>crn1-</i>GFP cells. (E) Quantification of (D), with three trials per genotype and n>200 for each trial. Data are presented as mean ± SEM for each category. (F) Live-cell GFP (in green) and RFP (in magenta) merged images of <i>rgf1</i>-GFP <i>sid4</i>-RFP and <i>fic1Δ rgf1</i>-GFP <i>sid4</i>-RFP cells. (G) Quantification of (F), with three trials per genotype and n>200 for each trial. Data are presented as mean ± SEM for each category (Bars = 5 µm).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cytokinesis", "fic1", "causes", "defects"], "article_id"=>226688, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Cell Biology", "Genetics", "Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["K. Adam Bohnert", "Kathleen L. Gould"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003004.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Loss_of_the_cytokinesis_protein_Fic1_causes_defects_in_S_pombe_growth_polarity_/226688", "title"=>"Loss of the cytokinesis protein Fic1 causes defects in <i>S. pombe</i> growth polarity.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-18 01:51:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/556523"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Live-cell images of calcofluor-stained <i>cdc15</i>Δ<i>SH3</i>, <i>fic1-P257A</i>, <i>imp2</i>Δ, and <i>cyk3</i>Δ cells. Arrowheads indicate monopolar cells. (B) Quantification of (A), with three trials per genotype and n>300 for each trial. Data are presented as mean ± SEM for each category. (C) Quantification of septated cells in (A) and (B), with three trials per genotype and n>300 for each trial. Data are presented as mean ± SEM for each category. (D) Anti-Cdc15 and anti-FLAG immunoprecipitates from cells of the indicated genotypes were blotted with anti-Cdc15 and/or anti-FLAG antibodies. <i>cdc25</i>-22 cells and <i>nda3</i>-KM311 cells were arrested in G2 and prometaphase, respectively, prior to pelleting and lysis. (E) Anti-FLAG and anti-V5 immunoprecipitates from prometaphase-arrested cells of the indicated genotypes were blotted with anti-FLAG and/or anti-V5 antibodies. (F) Live-cell GFP movie of a <i>cyk3</i>-GFP <i>sid4</i>-GFP cell, with images every 3 min (Bars = 5 µm).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["participates", "interactions", "cr"], "article_id"=>227024, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Cell Biology", "Genetics", "Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["K. Adam Bohnert", "Kathleen L. Gould"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003004.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Fic1_participates_in_protein_8211_protein_interactions_at_the_CR_that_guide_subsequent_growth_polarity_/227024", "title"=>"Fic1 participates in protein–protein interactions at the CR that guide subsequent growth polarity.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-18 01:57:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/556926"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Schematic of Tea1, For3, and Tea1-For3 protein domains and organization. (B) Anti-V5 immunoprecipitates from asynchronous <i>tea1</i>-V5<sub>3</sub>, <i>for3</i>-V5<sub>3</sub>, and <i>tea1-for3</i>-V5<sub>3</sub> cells were blotted with anti-V5 antibodies. Arrows indicate full-length proteins. Lysates were blotted with anti-Cdc2 as a loading control. (C) Fixed-cell DAPI/methyl blue images of stained wild-type, <i>tea1Δ</i>, <i>for3Δ</i>, <i>tea1Δ for3Δ</i>, and <i>tea1-for3</i> cells. (D) Quantification of phenotypes of cells in (C), with three trials per genotype and n>300 for each trial. Data are presented as mean ± SEM for each category. (E) Quantification of cell lengths at cell division, with n>200 for each genotype. Data are presented as box-and-whisker plots showing the median (line in the box), 25<sup>th</sup>–75<sup>th</sup> percentiles (box), and 5<sup>th</sup>–95<sup>th</sup> percentiles (whiskers) for each genotype (Bar = 5 µm).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["endogenous", "tea1-for3", "fusion", "impinges"], "article_id"=>227419, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Cell Biology", "Genetics", "Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["K. Adam Bohnert", "Kathleen L. Gould"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003004.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_An_endogenous_Tea1_For3_fusion_protein_is_functional_but_impinges_on_the_cell_division_machinery_/227419", "title"=>"An endogenous Tea1-For3 fusion protein is functional but impinges on the cell division machinery.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-18 02:03:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/556421"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Live-cell bright field (BF) and GFP images of <i>fic1</i>-GFP cells. Localization to cell tips (*), the cytokinetic ring (>), and the division site (#) are marked. (B) Schematic of Fic1 protein domain organization. Residues and fragments of interest are marked. (C) Live-cell BF, GFP (in green), mCherry (mCh) (in magenta), and GFP/mCherry merged images of <i>fic1</i>-GFP <i>sid4</i>-GFP <i>cdc15</i>-mCherry, <i>fic1N</i>-GFP <i>sid4</i>-GFP <i>cdc15</i>-mCherry, and <i>fic1C</i>-GFP <i>sid4</i>-GFP <i>cdc15</i>-mCherry cells. (D) Live-cell images of calcofluor-stained <i>fic1N</i> and <i>fic1C</i> cells. Arrowheads indicate monopolar cells. (E) Quantification of (D), with three trials per genotype and n>300 for each trial. Data are presented as mean ± SEM for each category. (F) Quantification of septated cells in (D) and (E), with three trials per genotype and n>200 for each trial. Data are presented as mean ± SEM for each category. (G) Live-cell BF and GFP images of interphase cell tips of <i>fic1</i>-GFP and <i>fic1C-</i>GFP cells (Bars = 5 µm, except for 3G where Bar = 1 µm).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["terminus", "polarity"], "article_id"=>226924, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Cell Biology", "Genetics", "Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["K. Adam Bohnert", "Kathleen L. Gould"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003004.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Fic1_s_C_terminus_is_necessary_and_sufficient_for_Fic1_s_polarity_function_at_the_division_site_/226924", "title"=>"Fic1's C terminus is necessary and sufficient for Fic1's polarity function at the division site.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-18 01:55:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/557298"], "description"=>"<p>During cytokinesis, Fic1 serves as a scaffold for SH3 proteins, including Cdc15, at the cytokinetic ring. In the absence of Fic1, its interactions, or a parallel pathway, the completion of cell division is perturbed, and the cell division machinery persists at the previous division site. Failure to robustly complete cytokinesis impedes new end growth, even if NETO signaling is prematurely activated. Cytokinesis-based constraints on new end growth polarity aid in the transition into invasive fungal growth.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cytokinesis", "bipolar"], "article_id"=>227802, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Cell Biology", "Genetics", "Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["K. Adam Bohnert", "Kathleen L. Gould"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003004.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>88, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Model_of_Fic1_s_involvement_in_cytokinesis_and_the_establishment_of_bipolar_growth_in_S_pombe_/227802", "title"=>"Model of Fic1's involvement in cytokinesis and the establishment of bipolar growth in <i>S. pombe</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-18 02:10:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/556813"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Quantification of growth patterns for cells of the indicated genotypes. Sample size (n) is provided for each genotype. The percentage of the most prevalent faulty growth pattern is boxed for each genotype. (B) Live-cell DIC movies of cells of the indicated genotypes scored in (A). The most prevalent faulty growth pattern for each genotype is pictured. Solid arrows denote old end growth, whereas dashed arrows indicate new end growth. Birth scars are marked by asterisks. Time points are noted. (C) Quantification of polarity phenotypes of calcofluor-stained cells of the indicated genotypes, with three trials per genotype and n>300 for each trial. Data are presented as mean ± SEM for each category. All cells were grown at 25°C unless otherwise noted. (D) Quantification of septated cells in (C), with three trials per genotype and n>200 for each trial. Data are presented as mean ± SEM for each category. A dashed gray line marks 20% on the y-axis (Bar = 5 µm).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cytokinesis", "mutants", "phenocopy", "end-growth", "polarity", "defects"], "article_id"=>227304, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Cell Biology", "Genetics", "Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["K. Adam Bohnert", "Kathleen L. Gould"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003004.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Late_cytokinesis_mutants_phenocopy_the_new_end_growth_polarity_defects_of_fic1_916_cells_/227304", "title"=>"Late cytokinesis mutants phenocopy the new end-growth polarity defects of <i>fic1Δ</i> cells.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-18 02:01:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/557079"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Quantification of growth patterns for wild-type and <i>tea1-for3</i> cells. Sample size (n) is provided for each genotype. (B) Quantification of times from septum splitting to initiation of tip growth at previous division sites for <i>tea1-for3</i> cells. Times were carried into the next cell cycle where applicable. Data are presented in box-and-whisker plots showing the median (line in the box), 25<sup>th</sup>–75<sup>th</sup> percentiles (box), and 5<sup>th</sup>–95<sup>th</sup> percentiles (whiskers). n>200. (C) Data for <i>tea1-for3</i> cells in (B) grouped according to the amount of time needed for the mother cell to complete septation. Data are presented in box-and-whisker plots showing the median (line in the box), 25<sup>th</sup>–75<sup>th</sup> percentiles (box), and 5<sup>th</sup>–95<sup>th</sup> percentiles (whiskers) for each category. (D) Live-cell DIC movies of <i>tea1-for3</i> cells with different times needed to complete septation. The time of septum splitting of the mother cell is marked as point zero. The initiation of tip growth at previous division sites is denoted by yellow arrows. Tip growth at these sites was also scored for cells that did not initiate such growth until the subsequent cell cycle. (E) Live-cell images of calcofluor-stained <i>tea1-for3</i> and <i>tea1-for3 fic1Δ</i> cells. Arrowheads indicate monopolar cells. (F) Quantification of (E), with three trials per genotype and n>300 for each trial. Data are presented as mean ± SEM for each category. (G) Quantification of septated cells in (E) and (F), with three trials per genotype and n>200 for each trial. Data are presented as mean ± SEM for each category (Bars = 5 µm).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neto", "signaling", "cytokinesis-based", "polarity"], "article_id"=>227573, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Cell Biology", "Genetics", "Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["K. Adam Bohnert", "Kathleen L. Gould"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003004.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Constitutive_NETO_signaling_does_not_fully_rescue_cytokinesis_based_growth_polarity_defects_/227573", "title"=>"Constitutive NETO signaling does not fully rescue cytokinesis-based growth polarity defects.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-18 02:06:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/556678"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Fixed-cell DIC and DAPI/methyl blue images of asynchronous and G2-arrested cells of the indicated genotypes. Arrowheads indicate cells that are still joined following ingression. (B) Quantification of (A), with four trials per genotype and n>300 for each trial. Percentages are presented as mean ± SEM. (C) Live-cell GFP movies of <i>rlc1</i>-GFP <i>sid4</i>-GFP and <i>fic1</i>Δ <i>rlc1</i>-GFP <i>sid4</i>-GFP cells. Images were acquired every 2 min, and representative images are given for 10 min intervals. (D) Quantification of times from spindle pole body (SPB) separation to the completion of CR constriction in (C). n>20 for each genotype. Data are presented in box-and-whisker plots showing the median (line in the box), 25<sup>th</sup>–75<sup>th</sup> percentiles (box), and 5<sup>th</sup>–95<sup>th</sup> percentiles (whiskers) for each genotype. (E) Quantification of times from septum closure to disappearance of the CR at the division site for GFP<i>-cps1 rlc1-</i>mCherry<sub>3</sub> and <i>fic1</i>Δ GFP<i>-cps1 rlc1-</i>mCherry<sub>3</sub> cells. n>30 for each genotype. Data are presented in box-and-whisker plots showing the median (line in the box), 25<sup>th</sup>–75<sup>th</sup> percentiles (box), and 5<sup>th</sup>–95<sup>th</sup> percentiles (whiskers) for each genotype. (F) Live-cell GFP (colored green) and mCherry (mCh) (colored magenta) movies of GFP<i>-cps1 rlc1-</i>mCherry<sub>3</sub> and <i>fic1</i>Δ GFP<i>-cps1 rlc1-</i>mCherry<sub>3</sub> cells, with time intervals indicated and GFP/mCherry images merged. White arrows in GFP images mark the septa's leading edges. The time point with only one arrow drawn marks septum closure. In the mCh images, “C” marks the point of CR closure, and arrowheads denote CR remnants persisting after this point. (G) Fixed-cell images of actin stained with Alexa Fluor 488 Phalloidin. Single z planes as well as maximum projections of multiple z planes are given. Red arrows indicate division planes, whereas yellow arrows indicate unusual actin masses lining the division plane (Bars = 5 µm).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fic1", "impairs", "cr", "disassembly", "leads", "persistence"], "article_id"=>227171, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Cell Biology", "Genetics", "Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["K. Adam Bohnert", "Kathleen L. Gould"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003004.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Loss_of_Fic1_impairs_CR_disassembly_and_leads_to_persistence_of_division_site_factors_/227171", "title"=>"Loss of Fic1 impairs CR disassembly and leads to persistence of division site factors.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-18 01:59:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/557205"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Invasive growth assays for strains of the indicated genotypes on 2% agar. Cells were spotted on rich medium and incubated for 20 days at 29°C (top panel). Colonies were then rinsed under a stream of water and rubbed off (bottom panel). (B) Quantification of pseudohyphae in (A), with n≥3 for each genotype. Data are presented as mean ± SEM for each genotype. (C) Image of <i>fic1</i>Δ pseudohyphae in 2% agar, with enlarged images on the right. (D) Invasive growth assays for <i>tea1-for3</i> and <i>tea1-for3 fic1</i>Δ strains on 2% agar. Cells were spotted on rich medium and incubated for 20 days at 29°C (top panel). Colonies were then rinsed under a stream of water and rubbed off (bottom panel). (E) Quantification of pseudohyphae in (D), with n≥3 for each genotype. Data are presented as mean ± SEM for each genotype. (F) Colony growth of strains of the indicated genotypes on rich medium containing 2% (top panel) or 0.3% agar (middle panel). Cells were spotted and incubated for 12 days at 29°C. Schematics of colony growth on 0.3% agar are also given (bottom panel), with white areas representing growth on the agar surface and black areas representing growth into the agar (Bars = 5 µm).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mutants", "polarity", "defects", "enhanced"], "article_id"=>227696, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Cell Biology", "Genetics", "Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["K. Adam Bohnert", "Kathleen L. Gould"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003004.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cytokinesis_mutants_with_growth_polarity_defects_exhibit_enhanced_invasiveness_/227696", "title"=>"Cytokinesis mutants with growth polarity defects exhibit enhanced invasiveness.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-18 02:08:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/297601", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/297700", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/297740", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/297862", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/297942", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/298041", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/298073", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/298185"], "description"=>"<div><p>The rod-shaped fission yeast <em>Schizosaccharomyces pombe</em>, which undergoes cycles of monopolar-to-bipolar tip growth, is an attractive organism for studying cell-cycle regulation of polarity establishment. While previous research has described factors mediating this process from interphase cell tips, we found that division site signaling also impacts the re-establishment of bipolar cell growth in the ensuing cell cycle. Complete loss or targeted disruption of the non-essential cytokinesis protein Fic1 at the division site, but not at interphase cell tips, resulted in many cells failing to grow at new ends created by cell division. This appeared due to faulty disassembly and abnormal persistence of the cell division machinery at new ends of <em>fic1</em>Δ cells. Moreover, additional mutants defective in the final stages of cytokinesis exhibited analogous growth polarity defects, supporting that robust completion of cell division contributes to new end-growth competency. To test this model, we genetically manipulated <em>S. pombe</em> cells to undergo new end take-off immediately after cell division. Intriguingly, such cells elongated constitutively at new ends unless cytokinesis was perturbed. Thus, cell division imposes constraints that partially override positive controls on growth. We posit that such constraints facilitate invasive fungal growth, as cytokinesis mutants displaying bipolar growth defects formed numerous pseudohyphae. Collectively, these data highlight a role for previous cell cycles in defining a cell's capacity to polarize at specific sites, and they additionally provide insight into how a unicellular yeast can transition into a quasi-multicellular state.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cytokinesis-based", "constraints", "polarized", "fission", "yeast"], "article_id"=>118667, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Cell Biology", "Genetics", "Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["K. Adam Bohnert", "Kathleen L. Gould"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003004.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003004.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003004.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003004.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003004.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003004.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003004.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003004.s008"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>12, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Cytokinesis_Based_Constraints_on_Polarized_Cell_Growth_in_Fission_Yeast/118667", "title"=>"Cytokinesis-Based Constraints on Polarized Cell Growth in Fission Yeast", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-10-18 02:24:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/556321"], "description"=>"<p>(A–B) Live-cell DIC movies of wild-type or <i>fic1</i>Δ cells. Solid arrows denote old end growth, whereas dashed arrows indicate new end growth. Birth scars are marked by asterisks. Time points are noted. (C) Quantification of growth patterns for cells imaged in (A) and (B), with sample size (n) provided. (D) Quantification of growth patterns for <i>tea1</i>Δ and <i>tea1</i>Δ <i>fic1</i>Δ cells, with sample size (n) provided. (E) Live-cell DIC movie of a <i>tea1</i>Δ <i>fic1</i>Δ cell that gives rise to a T-shaped daughter cell. The solid arrow denotes old end growth, whereas the dashed arrow indicates non-tip growth. Birth scars are marked by asterisks. Time points are noted. (F) Quantification of T-shaped cells in <i>tea1</i>Δ and <i>tea1</i>Δ <i>fic1</i>Δ strains grown at 25°C, with three trials per genotype and n>300 for each trial. Data are presented as mean ± SEM for each genotype. (G) Live-cell images of calcofluor-stained <i>tea1</i>Δ and <i>tea1</i>Δ <i>fic1</i>Δ cells grown at 25°C. Arrows indicate T-shaped cells. (H) Quantification of times from septum splitting to initiation of new end growth in cells that undergo NETO prior to the next septation in (A–C). Data are presented in box-and-whisker plots showing the median (line in the box), 25<sup>th</sup>–75<sup>th</sup> percentiles (box), and 5<sup>th</sup>–95<sup>th</sup> percentiles (whiskers) for each genotype. (I) Live-cell images of calcofluor-stained <i>cdc25</i>-22 and <i>fic1</i>Δ <i>cdc25-</i>22 cells that had been arrested in G2. Arrowheads indicate monopolar cells. (J) Quantification of (I), with three trials per genotype and n>300 for each trial. Data are presented as mean ± SEM for each category. (K) Quantification of cell lengths at cell division, with n>200 for each genotype. Data are presented as box-and-whisker plots showing the median (line in the box), 25<sup>th</sup>–75<sup>th</sup> percentiles (box), and 5<sup>th</sup>–95<sup>th</sup> percentiles (whiskers) for each genotype. The dashed line represents the minimum length required for NETO <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003004#pgen.1003004-Mitchison1\" target=\"_blank\">[5]</a> (Bars = 5 µm).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cells", "independently", "controls"], "article_id"=>226821, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Cell Biology", "Genetics", "Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["K. Adam Bohnert", "Kathleen L. Gould"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003004.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_fic1_cells_fail_at_new_end_growth_independently_of_known_cell_cycle_controls_on_NETO_/226821", "title"=>"<i>fic1</i>Δ cells fail at new end growth independently of known cell cycle controls on NETO.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-18 01:53:41"}

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Relative Metric

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