A Polycomb Group Protein Is Retained at Specific Sites on Chromatin in Mitosis
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{"title"=>"A Polycomb Group Protein Is Retained at Specific Sites on Chromatin in Mitosis", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Nicole E.", "last_name"=>"Follmer", "scopus_author_id"=>"26323607200"}, {"first_name"=>"Ajazul H.", "last_name"=>"Wani", "scopus_author_id"=>"55547431700"}, {"first_name"=>"Nicole J.", "last_name"=>"Francis", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006658028"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS Genetics", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84872025457", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pgen.1003135", "sgr"=>"84872025457", "isbn"=>"1553-7404 (Electronic)\\r1553-7390 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"23284300", "issn"=>"15537390", "pui"=>"368067350"}, "id"=>"90b9e00a-10cf-3bd1-aedf-aaba3b7a59ef", "abstract"=>"Epigenetic regulation of gene expression, including by Polycomb Group (PcG) proteins, may depend on heritable chromatin states, but how these states can be propagated through mitosis is unclear. Using immunofluorescence and biochemical fractionation, we find PcG proteins associated with mitotic chromosomes in Drosophila S2 cells. Genome-wide sequencing of chromatin immunoprecipitations (ChIP-SEQ) from mitotic cells indicates that Posterior Sex Combs (PSC) is not present at well-characterized PcG targets including Hox genes in mitosis, but does remain at a subset of interphase sites. Many of these persistent sites overlap with chromatin domain borders described by Sexton et al. (2012), which are genomic regions characterized by low levels of long range contacts. Persistent PSC binding sites flank both Hox gene clusters. We hypothesize that disruption of long-range chromatin contacts in mitosis contributes to PcG protein release from most sites, while persistent binding at sites with minimal long-range contacts may nucleate re-establishment of PcG binding and chromosome organization after mitosis.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/polycomb-group-protein-retained-specific-sites-chromatin-mitosis", "reader_count"=>75, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>6, "Researcher"=>18, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>23, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>12, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>6, "Researcher"=>18, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>23, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>12, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>11, "Materials Science"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>54, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>4, "Psychology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>4}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>54}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>11}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>5, "United Kingdom"=>1, "South Africa"=>1, "France"=>1, "Portugal"=>1}, "group_count"=>4}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/520632"], "description"=>"<p>Normalized percent protein in each fraction.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cellular"], "article_id"=>191131, "categories"=>["Biochemistry"], "users"=>["Nicole E. Follmer", "Ajazul H. Wani", "Nicole J. Francis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003135.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Quantification_of_cellular_fractionation_/191131", "title"=>"Quantification of cellular fractionation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-12-20 00:18:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/519921"], "description"=>"<p>A) Venn diagram depicting overlap of peaks of PSC binding in H3-sorted (control) cells versus H3S10p-sorted (mitotic) cells shows that a subset of PSC binding sites are retained in mitosis and no new sites are bound in mitosis. Visual inspection of sequenced reads at the one peak exclusively in mitotic cells reveals it is likely not a PSC binding site. B) Normalized read density of PSC in control cells (gray line) and mitotic cells (red line) in 50 bp windows averaged over control-only PSC binding sites (left panel) or over all mitotic PSC binding sites (right panel) shows persistent yet reduced binding in mitosis genome-wide. C) Sequence tracks from ChIP-SEQ showing PSC binding control cells (top track, gray) and in mitotic cells (bottom track, red) over the BX-C and the <i>engrailed</i> locus confirm loss of binding at PREs within these loci in mitotic cells. PSC binding is lost globally across the BX-C. Y-axis is normalized reads per million (RPM)/10 bp. Chromosome position and gene models are shown at the bottom. D) Sequence tracks for PSC binding in control cells (top track, gray) and in mitotic S2 cells (bottom track, red) over a 400 kbp region of chromosome 2 show persistent mitotic binding sites. Y-axis is normalized reads per million (RPM)/10 bp. Chromosome position and gene models are shown at the bottom.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["reveals", "psc", "retained", "sites", "mitotic"], "article_id"=>190412, "categories"=>["Biochemistry"], "users"=>["Nicole E. Follmer", "Ajazul H. Wani", "Nicole J. Francis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003135.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Genome_wide_analysis_reveals_PSC_is_retained_at_specific_sites_on_mitotic_chromosomes_/190412", "title"=>"Genome-wide analysis reveals PSC is retained at specific sites on mitotic chromosomes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-20 00:06:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/519813"], "description"=>"<p>A) Schematic diagram of the FACS sorting protocol to isolate mitotic cells based on H3S10p immunoreactivity. Control cultures were sorted with antibodies to histone H3. B) Representative FACS profiles of a control cell culture stained with α-H3 primary antibody and a FITC-conjugated secondary antibody before FACS sorting to isolate FITC-positive cells (left) and after sorting (right). Quantification of percentage FITC-positive cells is indicated and shows that post-sorted populations are ∼95% purely FITC-positive. C) Representative FACS profiles of G2/M cells stained with FITC-conjugated α-H3S10p antibody before (left) and after (right) sorting. Quantification of percentage FITC-positive cells is indicated and shows that post-sorted populations are ∼95% purely FITC-positive. D) Schematic diagram of part of the BX-C and the <i>engrailed</i> locus. Gray boxes indicates PREs. E) ChIP-qPCR for PSC and H3 in H3-sorted and H3S10p-sorted cells shows PSC binding is lost at these PREs in mitotic cells, while H3 binding remains the same between control and mitotic cells. *<i>P</i><0.05 (two-tailed Student's <i>t</i>-test comparing mitotic and control).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["binding", "pres", "mitotic"], "article_id"=>190311, "categories"=>["Biochemistry"], "users"=>["Nicole E. Follmer", "Ajazul H. Wani", "Nicole J. Francis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003135.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_PSC_binding_is_not_detected_at_PREs_in_mitotic_cells_/190311", "title"=>"PSC binding is not detected at PREs in mitotic cells.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-20 00:05:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/520545"], "description"=>"<p>(A,B) Two models for the behavior of PcG proteins during mitosis. In Model 1 PcG proteins remain bound to mitotic chromosomes and may constitute memory of transcriptional repression through mitosis themselves (A). In Model 2 PcG proteins are released from mitotic chromosomes, but may leave a “mark”–a protein or chromatin feature—that persists through mitosis to allow rebinding upon mitotic exit (B). C) In interphase PcG proteins bind to specific target sites, including domain borders. During mitosis PcG proteins are lost from PREs and other previously well-characterized target sites but are retained at domain border sites. The histone modification H3K27me3 is likely retained at PREs in mitosis. At the end of mitosis or during early G1 PcG proteins retained at border sites may nucleate re-binding at PREs and other target sites within the domains, perhaps in conjunction with H3K27me3.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pcg"], "article_id"=>191046, "categories"=>["Biochemistry"], "users"=>["Nicole E. Follmer", "Ajazul H. Wani", "Nicole J. Francis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003135.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_model_for_maintenance_of_PcG_protein_function_through_mitosis_/191046", "title"=>"A model for maintenance of PcG protein function through mitosis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-20 00:17:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/520210"], "description"=>"<p>qPCR for PSC-ChIP from cells that were FACS sorted with one of three different antibodies, or subjected to only part of the sorting protocol (sorted without antibody or mock stained and not sorted). Note that PSC is detected at the two PREs, <i>MCP</i> and <i>bx</i>, under all conditions.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sorting", "increases", "chromatin"], "article_id"=>190708, "categories"=>["Biochemistry"], "users"=>["Nicole E. Follmer", "Ajazul H. Wani", "Nicole J. Francis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003135.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_FACS_sorting_protocol_increases_chromatin_accessibility_/190708", "title"=>"FACS sorting protocol increases chromatin accessibility.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-20 00:11:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/520659"], "description"=>"<p>Overlap of mitotic PSC sites with published insulator datasets.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mitotic", "psc", "sites", "published", "insulator"], "article_id"=>191153, "categories"=>["Biochemistry"], "users"=>["Nicole E. Follmer", "Ajazul H. Wani", "Nicole J. Francis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003135.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Overlap_of_mitotic_PSC_sites_with_published_insulator_datasets_/191153", "title"=>"Overlap of mitotic PSC sites with published insulator datasets.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-12-20 00:19:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/281685", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/281741", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/281799", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/281820", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/281834"], "description"=>"<div><p>Epigenetic regulation of gene expression, including by Polycomb Group (PcG) proteins, may depend on heritable chromatin states, but how these states can be propagated through mitosis is unclear. Using immunofluorescence and biochemical fractionation, we find PcG proteins associated with mitotic chromosomes in <em>Drosophila</em> S2 cells. Genome-wide sequencing of chromatin immunoprecipitations (ChIP–SEQ) from mitotic cells indicates that Posterior Sex Combs (PSC) is not present at well-characterized PcG targets including <em>Hox</em> genes in mitosis, but does remain at a subset of interphase sites. Many of these persistent sites overlap with chromatin domain borders described by Sexton <em>et al.</em> (2012), which are genomic regions characterized by low levels of long range contacts. Persistent PSC binding sites flank both <em>Hox</em> gene clusters. We hypothesize that disruption of long-range chromatin contacts in mitosis contributes to PcG protein release from most sites, while persistent binding at sites with minimal long-range contacts may nucleate re-establishment of PcG binding and chromosome organization after mitosis.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["polycomb", "retained", "sites", "chromatin", "mitosis"], "article_id"=>115536, "categories"=>["Biochemistry"], "users"=>["Nicole E. Follmer", "Ajazul H. Wani", "Nicole J. Francis"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003135.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003135.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003135.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003135.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003135.s005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/A_Polycomb_Group_Protein_Is_Retained_at_Specific_Sites_on_Chromatin_in_Mitosis__/115536", "title"=>"A Polycomb Group Protein Is Retained at Specific Sites on Chromatin in Mitosis", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-12-20 01:32:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/520422"], "description"=>"<p>A) Schematic diagram of part of the BX-C and the <i>en</i> locus. Gray boxes indicate PREs. B) ChIP-qPCR for PcG proteins and H3K27me3 in control and G2/M cultures is consistent with lost of PcG proteins but retention of H3K27me3 at these PREs in mitotic cells. *<i>P</i><0.05 (two-tailed Student's <i>t</i>-test comparing control and G2/M). ∧ <i>P</i><0.05 (two-tailed Student's <i>t</i>-test comparing G2/M to no antibody, not shown).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["reduced", "pres"], "article_id"=>190923, "categories"=>["Biochemistry"], "users"=>["Nicole E. Follmer", "Ajazul H. Wani", "Nicole J. Francis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003135.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_PcG_protein_binding_but_not_H3K27me3_is_reduced_at_PREs_in_G2_M_cells_/190923", "title"=>"PcG protein binding, but not H3K27me3, is reduced at PREs in G2/M cells.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-20 00:15:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/520281"], "description"=>"<p>A) Venn diagram showing overlap between domain borders and PSC binding sites in control and mitotic cells shows border sites are preferentially retained in mitotic cells. B) Average profile plot of PSC in control and mitotic cells surrounding domain borders shows enrichment of PSC at these sites. C) Average profile plot of Chromator (Chro), CP190, BEAF or CTCF surrounding PSC peaks at borders in control and mitotic sites shows enrichment of these proteins at PSC peaks at domain borders. D) Sequence tracks from ChIP-SEQ showing PSC binding in control and mitotic cells over the BX-C and surrounding regions show persistent PSC peaks at borders flanking the locus in mitotic cells. Domain borders are indicated as vertical black bars below the tracks. PcG domains identified by Sexton et al. (2012) <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003135#pgen.1003135-Sexton1\" target=\"_blank\">[44]</a> are indicated by dashed lines, and the BX-C is indicated by brackets below the gene models. (E,F) Sequence tracks from the <i>Psc</i>/<i>Su(z)2</i> locus (E) and ANT-C (F) showing PSC binding in control and mitotic cells in relation to borders reveal persistent PSC peaks at borders flanking these loci in mitotic cells.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["preferentially", "binds", "borders"], "article_id"=>190780, "categories"=>["Biochemistry"], "users"=>["Nicole E. Follmer", "Ajazul H. Wani", "Nicole J. Francis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003135.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_PSC_preferentially_binds_domain_borders_in_mitosis_/190780", "title"=>"PSC preferentially binds domain borders in mitosis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-20 00:13:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/520692"], "description"=>"<p>Overlap of PSC binding sites with published datasets.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["psc", "binding", "sites", "published"], "article_id"=>191187, "categories"=>["Biochemistry"], "users"=>["Nicole E. Follmer", "Ajazul H. Wani", "Nicole J. Francis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003135.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>120, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Overlap_of_PSC_binding_sites_with_published_datasets_/191187", "title"=>"Overlap of PSC binding sites with published datasets.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-12-20 00:19:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/519738"], "description"=>"<p>A) Representative FACS profiles of propidium iodide stained cells, showing DNA content. Results of cell cycle analysis are shown in the upper right. Representative profile of a control culture (top panel) and a G2/M (colchicine treated) culture (bottom panel) shows that colchicine treated cells are ∼95% G2/M. B) Mitotic index of colchicine-treated G2/M cells determined by counting Hoechst-stained cells with condensed chromosomes shows that G2/M cells are 60–70% mitotic. C) Representative FACS profile of G2/M cells stained with FITC-conjugated α-H3S10p. Quantification of percentage FITC-positive is indicated and is in concordance with the mitotic index obtained by condensed chromosome counts. D) Schematic diagram of fractionation protocol used, adapted from <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003135#pgen.1003135-Mendez1\" target=\"_blank\">[32]</a> E, F) Representative western blot of fractions for histone H3 (E) or β-tubulin (F) (top panels) shows these proteins are present in the expected fractions. Quantification of the distribution of the protein in each fraction (bottom panels). G2/M samples were corrected for % of non-mitotic cells in the population according to: % P3<sub>mitotic</sub> = [%P3-(%non-mitotic)*%P3<sub>control</sub>]/(%mitotic). *<i>P</i><0.02 (two-tailed Student's <i>t</i>-test). G) Representative western blots of fractions for PcG proteins and dCBP for control and G2/M cells reveal that PcG proteins fractionate with mitotic chromatin. H) Graph of quantification of fraction P3 for multiple PcG proteins.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["proteins", "fractionate", "mitotic"], "article_id"=>190235, "categories"=>["Biochemistry"], "users"=>["Nicole E. Follmer", "Ajazul H. Wani", "Nicole J. Francis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003135.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_PcG_proteins_fractionate_with_mitotic_chromosomes_/190235", "title"=>"PcG proteins fractionate with mitotic chromosomes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-20 00:03:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/520357"], "description"=>"<p>A) ChIP-qPCR for PSC in control sorted cells at six domain border sites and a negative site confirms PSC binding at the sites identified by ChIP-SEQ but not the negative site in control cells. Flanking sites are included for four of the border sites to confirm that binding detected by qPCR coincides with the peaks observed by ChIP-SEQ. B) ChIP-qPCR for PSC in control cells at six domain border sites and a negative site confirms PSC binding at the some of the ChIP-SEQ identified sites but not the negative site in control cells. Flanking sites are included for four of the border sites.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["psc", "binding", "borders", "mitotic"], "article_id"=>190853, "categories"=>["Biochemistry"], "users"=>["Nicole E. Follmer", "Ajazul H. Wani", "Nicole J. Francis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003135.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Validation_of_PSC_binding_a_domain_borders_in_control_and_mitotic_cells_/190853", "title"=>"Validation of PSC binding a domain borders in control and mitotic cells.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-20 00:14:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/520051"], "description"=>"<p>A) Plot of the percentage of mitotic PSC peaks per decile of corresponding ranked control PSC sites indicates mitotic peaks tend to be, but are not exclusively, the highest ranked peaks. Control PSC peaks are ranked by p-value, number of sequence reads per peak, peak height and fold over background. B) Average profile plot at control peak regions (left panel) or mitotic peak regions (right panel) for PSC in control cells (gray line), PSC in mitotic cells (red line) and 5% of the PSC profile in control cells in peak regions (gray dashed line) shows that the average plot for PSC in mitotic cells is greater than that for 5% of the PSC profile in control cells, indicating the mitotic peaks are likely not due to contamination of the mitotic population with up to 5% of interphase cells. C) ChIP-qPCR for PSC in control cells at eight binding sites identified by ChIP-SEQ and a negative site confirms PSC binding at the ChIP-SEQ identified sites but not the negative site in control cells. D) ChIP-qPCR for PSC in mitotic cells at eight binding sites identified by ChIP-SEQ and a negative site confirms PSC binding at the ChIP-SEQ identified sites but not the negative site in mitotic cells. ∧ <i>P</i><0.05 (student's <i>t</i>-test). E) ChIP-qPCR for H3 in control and mitotic sites at eight binding sites identified by PSC ChIP-SEQ.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["psc", "peaks", "mitotic"], "article_id"=>190547, "categories"=>["Biochemistry"], "users"=>["Nicole E. Follmer", "Ajazul H. Wani", "Nicole J. Francis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003135.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Validation_of_PSC_peaks_in_control_and_mitotic_cells_/190547", "title"=>"Validation of PSC peaks in control and mitotic cells.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-20 00:09:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/519584"], "description"=>"<p>A) Representative immunofluorescence images of <i>Drosophila</i> S2 cells stained with antibodies against dR, PC, PSC or no 1° antibody show dR, PC and PSC are not excluded from mitotic chromosomes. Left panels show Hoechst-stained DNA, and right panels immunofluorescence. Top rows are interphase cells and bottom rows are mitotic cells. B) Cells extracted with detergent prior to fixation and immunostaining do not show reduction in the fraction of the PcG signal that colocalizes with mitotic chromosomes. Panels are the same as A. Scale bar is 5 µm. C) Quantification of PcG signal that colocalizes with DNA versus PcG signal not on the DNA. n>10 cells for each category. All error bars show mean +/− S.D., in this and all other figures. * <i>P</i><0.05 (two-tailed Student's <i>t</i>-test). D) Same as C for detergent-extracted cells.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pcg", "proteins", "dr", "excluded", "mitotic"], "article_id"=>190079, "categories"=>["Biochemistry"], "users"=>["Nicole E. Follmer", "Ajazul H. Wani", "Nicole J. Francis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003135.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_PcG_proteins_PSC_PC_and_dR_are_not_excluded_from_mitotic_chromosomes_/190079", "title"=>"The PcG proteins PSC, PC, and dR are not excluded from mitotic chromosomes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-20 00:01:19"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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