Recruitment of TREX to the Transcription Machinery by Its Direct Binding to the Phospho-CTD of RNA Polymerase II
Publication Date
November 14, 2013
Journal
PLOS Genetics
Authors
Dominik M. Meinel, Cornelia Burkert Kautzsch, Anja Kieser, Eoghan O'duibhir, et al
Volume
9
Issue
11
Pages
e1003914
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003914
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosgenetics/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pgen.1003914
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24244187
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3828145
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/24244187
Web of Science
000330369000015
Scopus
84888240103
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/recruitment-trex-transcription-machinery-direct-binding-phosphoctd-rna-polymerase-ii
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Recruitment of TREX to the Transcription Machinery by Its Direct Binding to the Phospho-CTD of RNA Polymerase II", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Dominik M.", "last_name"=>"Meinel", "scopus_author_id"=>"57194476729"}, {"first_name"=>"Cornelia", "last_name"=>"Burkert-Kautzsch", "scopus_author_id"=>"54986253600"}, {"first_name"=>"Anja", "last_name"=>"Kieser", "scopus_author_id"=>"35074221400"}, {"first_name"=>"Eoghan", "last_name"=>"O'Duibhir", "scopus_author_id"=>"55192446500"}, {"first_name"=>"Matthias", "last_name"=>"Siebert", "scopus_author_id"=>"56351049100"}, {"first_name"=>"Andreas", "last_name"=>"Mayer", "scopus_author_id"=>"57193744221"}, {"first_name"=>"Patrick", "last_name"=>"Cramer", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005337794"}, {"first_name"=>"Johannes", "last_name"=>"Söding", "scopus_author_id"=>"6507385075"}, {"first_name"=>"Frank C.P.", "last_name"=>"Holstege", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003637679"}, {"first_name"=>"Katja", "last_name"=>"Sträßer", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006834064"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS Genetics", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"370341799", "issn"=>"15537390", "isbn"=>"1553-7404 (Electronic)\\r1553-7390 (Linking)", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pgen.1003914", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84888240103", "pmid"=>"24244187", "sgr"=>"84888240103"}, "id"=>"9581fc7a-33c8-3449-9d60-a60cab465eb9", "abstract"=>"Messenger RNA (mRNA) synthesis and export are tightly linked, but the molecular mechanisms of this coupling are largely unknown. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the conserved TREX complex couples transcription to mRNA export and mediates mRNP formation. Here, we show that TREX is recruited to the transcription machinery by direct interaction of its subcomplex THO with the serine 2-serine 5 (S2/S5) diphosphorylated CTD of RNA polymerase II. S2 and/or tyrosine 1 (Y1) phosphorylation of the CTD is required for TREX occupancy in vivo, establishing a second interaction platform necessary for TREX recruitment in addition to RNA. Genome-wide analyses show that the occupancy of THO and the TREX components Sub2 and Yra1 increases from the 5' to the 3' end of the gene in accordance with the CTD S2 phosphorylation pattern. Importantly, in a mutant strain, in which TREX is recruited to genes but does not increase towards the 3' end, the expression of long transcripts is specifically impaired. Thus, we show for the first time that a 5'-3' increase of a protein complex is essential for correct expression of the genome. In summary, we provide insight into how the phospho-code of the CTD directs mRNP formation and export through TREX recruitment.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/recruitment-trex-transcription-machinery-direct-binding-phosphoctd-rna-polymerase-ii", "reader_count"=>57, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>12, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>21, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>12, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>21, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>1, "Unspecified"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>13, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>40, "Computer Science"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>40}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>13}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Russia"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1281755"], "description"=>"<p>(A) The occupancy of the TREX components increases from 5′ to 3′. Meta gene occupancy profiles of the TREX components Tho2, Hpr1, Mft1, Sub2 and Yra1. The meta gene occupancy profile of Thp2 is similar (data not shown). For comparison, the meta gene occupancy profile of RNAPII (Rpb3) is shown. (B) The peak occupancies of TREX components increase with gene length. Genes were subdivided according to the indicated length classes and the TREX occupancy for each gene in each class was normalized to RNAPII occupancy. Length classes are: A (512–723 bp), B (724–1023 bp), C (1024–1286 bp), D (1287–1617 bp), E (1618–2047 bp), F (2048–2895 bp), G (2896–4095 bp), H (4096–5793 bp). (C) Meta gene occupancy profiles of the TREX components Gbp2 and Hrb1 and the mRNA-binding proteins Nab2 und Npl3. The occupancy of these mRNA-binding proteins decreases slightly towards the 3′ end of the gene. Gene occupancy was measured with both N- and C-terminally tagged for Gbp2 to ensure that the resulting profiles were not due to epitope tagging (data not shown). For Npl3, the occupancy of TAP-Npl3 was determined since Npl3-TAP mislocalizes to the cytoplasm. The meta gene occupancy profiles of RNAPII (Rpb3) and the TREX component Hpr1 are shown for comparison. (D) Occupancy of mRNA-binding proteins increases only slightly with gene length. Graph as in (B).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["trex"], "article_id"=>851418, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Dominik M. Meinel", "Cornelia Burkert-Kautzsch", "Anja Kieser", "Eoghan O'Duibhir", "Matthias Siebert", "Andreas Mayer", "Patrick Cramer", "Johannes Söding", "Frank C. P. Holstege", "Katja Sträßer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003914.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Recruitment_of_TREX_increases_from_the_5_8242_to_the_3_8242_end_of_the_gene_and_with_gene_length_/851418", "title"=>"Recruitment of TREX increases from the 5′ to the 3′ end of the gene and with gene length.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-14 04:22:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1281756"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Scheme of the ribozyme containing reporter used to assess the dependence of TREX, Nab2 and Npl3 occupancy on RNA. A sequence coding for the <i>GAL1</i> promoter, GFP and the hepatitis δ ribozyme (wt or inactive mutant) was inserted 5′ of the nonessential <i>YCT1</i> gene. (B) Scheme of the ribozyme assay. Proteins tethered to chromatin by the mRNA are no longer chromatin-associated following cotranscriptional self-cleavage of the mRNA at the ribozyme sequence (upper panel, middle picture). The occupancy of each protein was compared to its occupancy at the same genomic position but a longer nascent mRNA attached by using a reporter construct with an inactive ribozyme (through mutation of one base pair) (lower panel, middle picture). The occupancy after the cleavage (P2) was normalized to the signal before the cleavage site (P1). Further downstream, when the RNA is long enough, the cleavage event will not influence the occupancy of RNA-binding proteins any more (both panels, right pictures). (C) Recruitment of TREX, Nab2 and Npl3 is dependent on RNA. For each protein the ChIP signal 3′ of the cleavage site (P2 in B) was normalized to the signal before the cleavage site (P1 in B) and set to 100% for the inactive ribozyme construct (black bars). The ratio of P2/P1 for the active ribozyme was calculated relative to the inactive ribozyme (grey bars). Whereas the signal for RNAPII (Rpb3) is unaffected by cleavage of the RNA, the signals for all TREX components, Nab2 and Npl3 drops to about 70% indicating a (partially) RNA-dependent recruitment of these mRNA-binding proteins. Results of at least 3 independent experiments are shown (mean +/− SD; **: p<0.01; *: p<0.05). (D) The 5′ to 3′ increase in TREX occupancy is independent of RNA length. ChIP signals for the TREX components Hpr1 and Sub2 and the RNAPII subunit Rpb3 before (P1) and at different genomic positions after the ribozyme cleavage site (P2–P6) were normalized to the signals in the inactive ribozyme mutant, which has an uncut and thus longer nascent transcript. This relative ChIP signal at P1 set to 100%. Recruitment of RNAPII (Rpb3) is independent of RNA cleavage. Between 400 and 700 bp after the cleavage site the occupancy of Hpr1 and Sub2 becomes independent of the cleavage. Results of at least 3 independent experiments are shown (mean +/− SD; **: p<0.01; *: p<0.05).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["recruitment", "nab2", "npl3", "trex"], "article_id"=>851419, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Dominik M. Meinel", "Cornelia Burkert-Kautzsch", "Anja Kieser", "Eoghan O'Duibhir", "Matthias Siebert", "Andreas Mayer", "Patrick Cramer", "Johannes Söding", "Frank C. P. Holstege", "Katja Sträßer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003914.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_RNA_is_necessary_for_recruitment_of_TREX_Nab2_and_Npl3_to_chromatin_but_not_the_cause_for_the_5_8242_to_3_8242_increase_in_TREX_occupancy_/851419", "title"=>"RNA is necessary for recruitment of TREX, Nab2 and Npl3 to chromatin, but not the cause for the 5′ to 3′ increase in TREX occupancy.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-14 04:22:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1281760"], "description"=>"<p>(A) The meta gene occupancy profiles of S2 and Y1 CTD phosphorylation parallels that of TREX occupancy. The meta gene occupancy profile of Hpr1 is shown for comparison. (B) The peak occupancies of Hpr1, S2P and Y1P increase with gene length. Graph as in <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003914#pgen-1003914-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 1B</a>. (C) Recruitment of RNAPII (Rpb1), Y1P, S2P and THO (Hpr1) to the <i>PMA1</i> (2757 nt) and <i>ADH1</i> genes (1047 nt). The uppermost panel depicts the <i>PMA1</i> and the <i>ADH1</i> and the position of the primer pairs. For <i>PMA1</i> the primer pair M amplifies nucleotides (nts) 1574–1651 and the primer pair 3′ amplifies nts 2484–2543; for <i>ADH1</i> primer pair M amplifies nts 408–476 and primer pair 3′ nts 916–966. The occupancies of Rpb1, Y1P, S2P and Hpr1 in the S2A (white bars) and the Y1F (grey bars) mutant strains were calculated relative to the occupancy in a strain with 14 wild-type CTD repeats (black bars). Results of at least 3 independent experiments are shown (mean +/− SD; **: p<0.01; *: p<0.05).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["s2", "phosphorylation", "trex", "recruitment"], "article_id"=>851423, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Dominik M. Meinel", "Cornelia Burkert-Kautzsch", "Anja Kieser", "Eoghan O'Duibhir", "Matthias Siebert", "Andreas Mayer", "Patrick Cramer", "Johannes Söding", "Frank C. P. Holstege", "Katja Sträßer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003914.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Y1_and_or_S2_phosphorylation_is_essential_for_TREX_recruitment_in_vivo_/851423", "title"=>"Y1 and/or S2 phosphorylation is essential for TREX recruitment in vivo.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-14 04:22:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1281762"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Schematic of the Yra1 wild-type and the ΔPCID mutant proteins. In the ΔPCID mutant the N-terminal 76 amino acids are absent, including the nuclear localization signal (NLS). (B) Deletion of the PCID of Yra1 leads to loss of Yra1 from the gene, but does not affect THO recruitment. The occupancies of RNAPII (Rpb1), Yra1 and THO (Hpr1, Mft1) at <i>PMA1</i> and <i>ADH1</i> in <i>YRA1</i> wild-type (dark grey bars) and <i>yra1-ΔPCID</i> cells (light grey bars) are shown. The positions of the primer pairs M and 3′ at the <i>PMA1</i> and the <i>ADH1</i> gene are as in <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003914#pgen-1003914-g003\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 3C</a>. Results of at least 3 independent experiments are shown (mean +/− SD; **: p<0.01; *: p<0.05). (C) The PCID of Yra1 is essential for incorporation of Yra1 into TREX in vivo. TREX was purified from an <i>HPR1-TAP</i> strain expressing wild-type Yra1 (wt) or ΔPCID-Yra1 (ΔPCID). Lysates (INP) and calmodulin eluates (Cal-E) were stained with Coomassie (upper panel) and HA-tagged Yra1 was detected by Western blotting against HA (lower panel).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["occupancy"], "article_id"=>851425, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Dominik M. Meinel", "Cornelia Burkert-Kautzsch", "Anja Kieser", "Eoghan O'Duibhir", "Matthias Siebert", "Andreas Mayer", "Patrick Cramer", "Johannes Söding", "Frank C. P. Holstege", "Katja Sträßer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003914.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_THO_occupancy_is_independent_of_Yra1_/851425", "title"=>"THO occupancy is independent of Yra1.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-14 04:22:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1281763"], "description"=>"<p>Pulldown experiments were performed with immobilized CTD peptides that were not phosphorylated (0), mono-phosphorylated on tyrosine 1 (Y1P), serine 2 (S2P) or serine 5 (S5P), diphosphorylated on Y1/S2 (Y1PS2P), Y1/S5 (Y1PS5P) or S2/S5 (S2PS5P) or S2PS5P dephosphorylated by treatment with alkaline phosphatase (S2PS5P+AP). The THO complex binds to CTD peptides phosphorylated on S2 (S2P) and S5 (S5P) and more strongly to the S2/S5 diphosphorylated CTD (S2PS5P). Binding of THO to the CTD is dependent on S2/S5 diphosphorylation since treatment with alkaline phosphatase (AP) of the S2/S5 diphosphorylated CTD peptide abrogates binding of THO (S2PS5P+AP). The unrelated Rix1 complex served as negative control. Pcf11 was used as a positive control for association with the S2 and S2/S5 (di)phosphorylated CTD. The TAP-tagged protein of each complex was detected by Western blotting against CBP (Hpr1 for THO, Rix1 for the Rix1 complex and Pcf11 for the Pcf11 complex). A representative experiment is shown.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["binds", "diphosphorylated"], "article_id"=>851426, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Dominik M. Meinel", "Cornelia Burkert-Kautzsch", "Anja Kieser", "Eoghan O'Duibhir", "Matthias Siebert", "Andreas Mayer", "Patrick Cramer", "Johannes Söding", "Frank C. P. Holstege", "Katja Sträßer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003914.g005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_THO_binds_directly_to_the_S2_S5_diphosphorylated_CTD_/851426", "title"=>"THO binds directly to the S2/S5 diphosphorylated CTD.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-14 04:22:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1281765"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Meta gene occupancy profiles of RNAPII (Rpb3), Hpr1, TAP-Tho2 and Tho2-TAP. Whereas TAP-Tho2 shows the 5′-3′ increase typical for THO/TREX components, Tho2-TAP is recruited to genes, but does not increase towards the 3′ end of the gene. The Y-intercept of Tho2-TAP was adjusted with −0.05 in order to superimpose Tho2-TAP and TAP-Tho2 at the transcription site for better visualization. (B) Occupancy of Tho2-TAP does not increase with gene length as other TREX components. Peak occupancy of Hpr1, TAP-Tho2 and Tho2-TAP in comparison to the <i>bona fide</i> transcription elongation factor Spt5. (C–E) TREX is recruited to the <i>PMA1</i> gene, but its occupancy does not increase in the <i>THO2-TAP</i> mutant. Occupancy of Tho2 (C), Sub2 (D) and Rpb1 (E) at the <i>PMA1</i> gene in the <i>TAP-THO2</i> and the <i>THO2-TAP</i> strain. Results of 3 independent experiments are shown (mean +/− SD; **: p<0.01; *: p<0.05). To assess the occupancy of Hpr1 and Sub2 in the presence of the TAP-Tag on Tho2, they were tagged with the Avi-tag. (F) Expression of long transcripts is downregulated in the <i>THO2-TAP</i> strain whereas highly transcribed and GC-rich transcripts are not affected. Microarray analysis reveals that transcripts upregulated in the <i>THO2-TAP</i> strain are shorter than the average of all transcripts, whereas downregulated transcripts are longer. The line indicates the average length or GC-content of all genes while the bars represent the average gene length, RNAPII occupancy or GC-content of up- or down-regulated genes, respectively. The error bars show the SEM and the p-value was calculated using the Wilcoxon rank sum test.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["trex", "occupancy"], "article_id"=>851428, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Dominik M. Meinel", "Cornelia Burkert-Kautzsch", "Anja Kieser", "Eoghan O'Duibhir", "Matthias Siebert", "Andreas Mayer", "Patrick Cramer", "Johannes Söding", "Frank C. P. Holstege", "Katja Sträßer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003914.g006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_increase_in_TREX_occupancy_is_important_for_the_expression_of_long_transcripts_/851428", "title"=>"The increase in TREX occupancy is important for the expression of long transcripts.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-14 04:22:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1281766"], "description"=>"<p>TREX interacts directly with the S2/S5 diphosphorylated CTD and RNA. Both interactions are important for recruitment of TREX to transcribed genes. The increasing S2 phosphorylation during transcription elongation leads to an increased occupancy of TREX towards the 3′ end of the gene. Importantly, this increase in TREX occupancy is crucial for the correct expression of long transcripts. As mRNA length increases, additional TREX complexes might be necessary to keep the nascent mRNA in the vicinity of the CTD, which recruits additional factors for mRNA processing and packaging prior to transcript release. In addition to TREX, multiple other proteins important for mRNA processing and packaging as well as the mRNA exporter Mex67-Mtr2 are recruited to the mRNA cotranscriptionally (not depicted). At the 3′ end of genes, TREX is dissociated from the transcription machinery and the chromatin. This may involve a single mechanism or multiple, biochemically distinct events. Sub2 and Yra1 most likely associate with the fully mature mRNP and leave the site of transcription. See text for details.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["trex", "recruitment"], "article_id"=>851429, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Dominik M. Meinel", "Cornelia Burkert-Kautzsch", "Anja Kieser", "Eoghan O'Duibhir", "Matthias Siebert", "Andreas Mayer", "Patrick Cramer", "Johannes Söding", "Frank C. P. Holstege", "Katja Sträßer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003914.g007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Model_of_TREX_recruitment_and_dissociation_/851429", "title"=>"Model of TREX recruitment and dissociation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-14 04:22:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1281775", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1281776", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1281777", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1281778", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1281779", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1281780", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1281781", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1281782", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1281783", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1281784", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1281785", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1281786", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1281787", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1281788", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1281789"], "description"=>"<div><p>Messenger RNA (mRNA) synthesis and export are tightly linked, but the molecular mechanisms of this coupling are largely unknown. In <i>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</i>, the conserved TREX complex couples <u>tr</u>anscription to mRNA <u>ex</u>port and mediates mRNP formation. Here, we show that TREX is recruited to the transcription machinery by direct interaction of its subcomplex THO with the serine 2-serine 5 (S2/S5) diphosphorylated CTD of RNA polymerase II. S2 and/or tyrosine 1 (Y1) phosphorylation of the CTD is required for TREX occupancy in vivo, establishing a second interaction platform necessary for TREX recruitment in addition to RNA. Genome-wide analyses show that the occupancy of THO and the TREX components Sub2 and Yra1 increases from the 5′ to the 3′ end of the gene in accordance with the CTD S2 phosphorylation pattern. Importantly, in a mutant strain, in which TREX is recruited to genes but does not increase towards the 3′ end, the expression of long transcripts is specifically impaired. Thus, we show for the first time that a 5′-3′ increase of a protein complex is essential for correct expression of the genome. In summary, we provide insight into how the phospho-code of the CTD directs mRNP formation and export through TREX recruitment.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["trex", "transcription", "machinery", "binding", "phospho-ctd", "rna", "polymerase"], "article_id"=>851438, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Dominik M. Meinel", "Cornelia Burkert-Kautzsch", "Anja Kieser", "Eoghan O'Duibhir", "Matthias Siebert", "Andreas Mayer", "Patrick Cramer", "Johannes Söding", "Frank C. P. Holstege", "Katja Sträßer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003914.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003914.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003914.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003914.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003914.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003914.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003914.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003914.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003914.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003914.s010", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003914.s011", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003914.s012", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003914.s013", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003914.s014", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003914.s015"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Recruitment_of_TREX_to_the_Transcription_Machinery_by_Its_Direct_Binding_to_the_Phospho_CTD_of_RNA_Polymerase_II_/851438", "title"=>"Recruitment of TREX to the Transcription Machinery by Its Direct Binding to the Phospho-CTD of RNA Polymerase II", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-11-14 04:22:28"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Biochemistry", "average_usage"=>[266, 468, 593, 703, 804, 903, 993, 1084, 1171, 1256, 1339, 1422, 1492]}]}
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