A Population Genetic Signal of Polygenic Adaptation
Events
Loading … Spinner

Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"A Population Genetic Signal of Polygenic Adaptation", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Jeremy J.", "last_name"=>"Berg", "scopus_author_id"=>"57197434535"}, {"first_name"=>"Graham", "last_name"=>"Coop", "scopus_author_id"=>"6507540172"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS Genetics", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"25102153", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pgen.1004412", "sgr"=>"84912077079", "arxiv"=>"1307.7759v2", "isbn"=>"1553-7390", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84912077079", "issn"=>"15537404", "pui"=>"607875972"}, "id"=>"26e762ed-3bed-37f2-ac8c-fff3c113462b", "abstract"=>"Adaptation in response to selection on polygenic phenotypes may occur via subtle allele frequencies shifts at many loci. Current population genomic techniques are not well posed to identify such signals. In the past decade, detailed knowledge about the specific loci underlying polygenic traits has begun to emerge from genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Here we combine this knowledge from GWAS with robust population genetic modeling to identify traits that may have been influenced by local adaptation. We exploit the fact that GWAS provide an estimate of the additive effect size of many loci to estimate the mean additive genetic value for a given phenotype across many populations as simple weighted sums of allele frequencies. We use a general model of neutral genetic value drift for an arbitrary number of populations with an arbitrary relatedness structure. Based on this model, we develop methods for detecting unusually strong correlations between genetic values and specific environmental variables, as well as a generalization of [Q(ST)/F(ST)] comparisons to test for over-dispersion of genetic values among populations. Finally we lay out a framework to identify the individual populations or groups of populations that contribute to the signal of overdispersion. These tests have considerably greater power than their single locus equivalents due to the fact that they look for positive covariance between like effect alleles, and also significantly outperform methods that do not account for population structure. We apply our tests to the Human Genome Diversity Panel (HGDP) dataset using GWAS data for height, skin pigmentation, type 2 diabetes, body mass index, and two inflammatory bowel disease datasets. This analysis uncovers a number of putative signals of local adaptation, and we discuss the biological interpretation and caveats of these results.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/population-genetic-signal-polygenic-adaptation", "reader_count"=>377, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>7, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>21, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>83, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>147, "Student > Postgraduate"=>16, "Student > Master"=>37, "Other"=>9, "Student > Bachelor"=>26, "Lecturer"=>4, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>17}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>7, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>21, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>83, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>147, "Student > Postgraduate"=>16, "Student > Master"=>37, "Other"=>9, "Student > Bachelor"=>26, "Lecturer"=>4, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>17}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>10, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>268, "Philosophy"=>2, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Computer Science"=>9, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2, "Engineering"=>3, "Environmental Science"=>6, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>63, "Mathematics"=>3, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>5, "Neuroscience"=>2, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>5}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>10}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>6}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>3}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>2}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>268}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>9}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>63}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Colombia"=>1, "United States"=>15, "United Kingdom"=>3, "Portugal"=>2, "Switzerland"=>2, "Spain"=>2, "New Zealand"=>1, "Greece"=>1, "Canada"=>3, "Sweden"=>2, "Austria"=>4, "Norway"=>1, "China"=>1, "Finland"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "Australia"=>1, "Germany"=>2}, "group_count"=>10}

CrossRef

Scopus | Further Information

{"@_fa"=>"true", "link"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"self", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84912077079"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"author-affiliation", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84912077079?field=author,affiliation"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84912077079&origin=inward"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus-citedby", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84912077079&origin=inward"}], "prism:url"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84912077079", "dc:identifier"=>"SCOPUS_ID:84912077079", "eid"=>"2-s2.0-84912077079", "dc:title"=>"A Population Genetic Signal of Polygenic Adaptation", "dc:creator"=>"Berg J.", "prism:publicationName"=>"PLoS Genetics", "prism:issn"=>"15537390", "prism:eIssn"=>"15537404", "prism:volume"=>"10", "prism:issueIdentifier"=>"8", "prism:pageRange"=>nil, "prism:coverDate"=>"2014-08-07", "prism:coverDisplayDate"=>"7 August 2014", "prism:doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pgen.1004412", "citedby-count"=>"166", "affiliation"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"University of California, Davis", "affiliation-city"=>"Davis", "affiliation-country"=>"United States"}], "pubmed-id"=>"25102153", "prism:aggregationType"=>"Journal", "subtype"=>"ar", "subtypeDescription"=>"Article", "article-number"=>"e1004412", "source-id"=>"4000151808", "openaccess"=>"1", "openaccessFlag"=>true}

Facebook

  • {"url"=>"http%3A%2F%2Fjournals.plos.org%2Fplosgenetics%2Farticle%3Fid%3D10.1371%252Fjournal.pgen.1004412", "share_count"=>0, "like_count"=>0, "comment_count"=>0, "click_count"=>0, "total_count"=>0}

Twitter

Counter

  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"408", "xml_views"=>"12", "html_views"=>"2356"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"182", "xml_views"=>"9", "html_views"=>"1031"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"138", "xml_views"=>"6", "html_views"=>"660"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"71", "xml_views"=>"5", "html_views"=>"417"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"59", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"313"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"116", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"460"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"52", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"294"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"64", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"283"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"74", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"368"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"55", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"344"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"68", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"292"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"39", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"263"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"40", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"288"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"56", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"322"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"58", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"383"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"53", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"374"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"55", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"290"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"47", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"264"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"43", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"260"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"48", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"279"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"60", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"225"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"70", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"241"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"61", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"254"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"56", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"268"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"47", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"259"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"59", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"558"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"75", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"326"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"35", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"342"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"85", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"184"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"63", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"228"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"58", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"230"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"76", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"281"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"74", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"319"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"76", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"357"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"54", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"251"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"55", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"226"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"65", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"227"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"78", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"314"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"66", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"244"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"57", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"324"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"54", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"217"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"68", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"215"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"103", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"169"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"107", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"151"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"121", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"233"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"109", "xml_views"=>"5", "html_views"=>"146"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"112", "xml_views"=>"10", "html_views"=>"123"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"92", "xml_views"=>"6", "html_views"=>"124"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"60", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"90"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"47", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"92"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"67", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"125"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"51", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"109"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"74", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"109"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"73", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"142"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"72", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"127"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"59", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"121"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"74", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"126"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"51", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"133"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"66", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"115"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"89", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"87"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"54", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"87"}

Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1626582"], "description"=>"<p>Both correlations are significant against the genome wide background after controlling for population structure (<a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004412#pgen-1004412-t002\" target=\"_blank\">Table 2</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "genome analysis", "Genome-wide association studies", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "Evolutionary adaptation", "Genetic drift", "natural selection", "population genetics", "Genetic polymorphism", "genetics", "Human genetics", "pigmentation", "plotted", "pc2", "latitude"], "article_id"=>1131648, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jeremy J. Berg", "Graham Coop"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004412.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>38, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimated_genetic_height_A_and_skin_pigmentation_score_B_plotted_against_winter_PC2_and_absolute_latitude_respectively_/1131648", "title"=>"Estimated genetic height (A) and skin pigmentation score (B) plotted against winter PC2 and absolute latitude respectively.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-08-07 03:19:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1626576"], "description"=>"<p>The null distribution of each statistic is shown as a histogram. The mean value is shown as a black bar, and the observed value as a red arrow.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "genome analysis", "Genome-wide association studies", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "Evolutionary adaptation", "Genetic drift", "natural selection", "population genetics", "Genetic polymorphism", "genetics", "Human genetics", "components"], "article_id"=>1131642, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jeremy J. Berg", "Graham Coop"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004412.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_two_components_of_for_the_height_dataset_as_described_by_the_left_and_right_terms_in_14_/1131642", "title"=>"The two components of for the height dataset, as described by the left and right terms in (14).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-08-07 03:19:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1626571"], "description"=>"<p>(A) across a range of selection gradients () of latitude, and when we hold constant at 0.14 and (B) decrease , the genetic correlation between the trait of interest and the selected trait, (C) vary the number of loci, and (D) vary the number of loci while holding the fraction of variance explained constant. Bottom panels show power of the Z-test and approaches to detect selection affecting (E) a single population, and (F) multiple populations in a given region. See main text for simulation details.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "genome analysis", "Genome-wide association studies", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "Evolutionary adaptation", "Genetic drift", "natural selection", "population genetics", "Genetic polymorphism", "genetics", "Human genetics", "compared"], "article_id"=>1131637, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jeremy J. Berg", "Graham Coop"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004412.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Power_of_our_statistics_as_compared_to_alternative_approaches_/1131637", "title"=>"Power of our statistics as compared to alternative approaches.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-08-07 03:19:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1626585"], "description"=>"<p>We report , for the correlation statistics, such that they have an interpretation as the fraction of variance explained by the environmental variable, after removing that which is explained by the relatedness structure, with sign indicating the direction of the correlation. P-values are two–tailed for and upper tail for . Values for and are reported in <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004412#pgen.1004412.s034\" target=\"_blank\">Tables S15</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004412#pgen.1004412.s035\" target=\"_blank\">S16</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "genome analysis", "Genome-wide association studies", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "Evolutionary adaptation", "Genetic drift", "natural selection", "population genetics", "Genetic polymorphism", "genetics", "Human genetics", "correlations", "phenotypes"], "article_id"=>1131651, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jeremy J. Berg", "Graham Coop"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004412.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Climate_Correlations_and_statistics_for_all_six_phenotypes_in_the_global_analysis_/1131651", "title"=>"Climate Correlations and statistics for all six phenotypes in the global analysis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-08-07 03:19:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1626584"], "description"=>"<p>Both correlations are significant against the genome wide background after controlling for population structure (<a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004412#pgen-1004412-t002\" target=\"_blank\">Table 2</a>). Since a large proportion of SNPs underlying these traits are shared, we note that these results are not independent.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "genome analysis", "Genome-wide association studies", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "Evolutionary adaptation", "Genetic drift", "natural selection", "population genetics", "Genetic polymorphism", "genetics", "Human genetics", "ulcerative", "colitis", "plotted"], "article_id"=>1131650, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jeremy J. Berg", "Graham Coop"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004412.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>55, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimated_genetic_risk_score_for_Crohn_s_disease_A_and_ulcerative_colitis_B_risk_plotted_against_summer_PC2_/1131650", "title"=>"Estimated genetic risk score for Crohn's disease (A) and ulcerative colitis (B) risk plotted against summer PC2.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-08-07 03:19:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1626564"], "description"=>"<p>The boxes colored blue are items provided by the investigator (GWAS SNP effect sizes, the frequency of the GWAS SNPs across populations, and a environmental variable). The boxes colored red make use of random SNPs sampled to match the GWAS set as described in “Choosing null SNPs” in the <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004412#s4\" target=\"_blank\">methods</a> section. For each box featuring a calculated quantity a set of equation numbers are provided for the relevant calculation. The Z score uses the untransformed genetic values, rather than the transformed genetic values, but this relationship is not depicted in the figure for the sake of readability.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "genome analysis", "Genome-wide association studies", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "Evolutionary adaptation", "Genetic drift", "natural selection", "population genetics", "Genetic polymorphism", "genetics", "Human genetics", "schematic"], "article_id"=>1131630, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jeremy J. Berg", "Graham Coop"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004412.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_schematic_representation_of_the_flow_of_our_method_/1131630", "title"=>"A schematic representation of the flow of our method.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-08-07 03:19:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1626646", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1626647", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1626648", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1626649", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1626650", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1626652", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1626653", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1626655", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1626657", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1626658", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1626660", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1626662", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1626663", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1626664", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1626665", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1626666", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1626667", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1626668", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1626669", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1626670", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1626671", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1626672", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1626673", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1626674", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1626675", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1626676", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1626677", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1626678", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1626679", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1626680", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1626681", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1626682", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1626683", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1626684", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1626685"], "description"=>"<div><p>Adaptation in response to selection on polygenic phenotypes may occur via subtle allele frequencies shifts at many loci. Current population genomic techniques are not well posed to identify such signals. In the past decade, detailed knowledge about the specific loci underlying polygenic traits has begun to emerge from genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Here we combine this knowledge from GWAS with robust population genetic modeling to identify traits that may have been influenced by local adaptation. We exploit the fact that GWAS provide an estimate of the additive effect size of many loci to estimate the mean additive genetic value for a given phenotype across many populations as simple weighted sums of allele frequencies. We use a general model of neutral genetic value drift for an arbitrary number of populations with an arbitrary relatedness structure. Based on this model, we develop methods for detecting unusually strong correlations between genetic values and specific environmental variables, as well as a generalization of comparisons to test for over-dispersion of genetic values among populations. Finally we lay out a framework to identify the individual populations or groups of populations that contribute to the signal of overdispersion. These tests have considerably greater power than their single locus equivalents due to the fact that they look for positive covariance between like effect alleles, and also significantly outperform methods that do not account for population structure. We apply our tests to the Human Genome Diversity Panel (HGDP) dataset using GWAS data for height, skin pigmentation, type 2 diabetes, body mass index, and two inflammatory bowel disease datasets. This analysis uncovers a number of putative signals of local adaptation, and we discuss the biological interpretation and caveats of these results.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "genome analysis", "Genome-wide association studies", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "Evolutionary adaptation", "Genetic drift", "natural selection", "population genetics", "Genetic polymorphism", "genetics", "Human genetics", "polygenic"], "article_id"=>1131705, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jeremy J. Berg", "Graham Coop"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004412.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004412.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004412.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004412.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004412.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004412.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004412.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004412.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004412.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004412.s010", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004412.s011", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004412.s012", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004412.s013", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004412.s014", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004412.s015", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004412.s016", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004412.s017", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004412.s018", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004412.s019", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004412.s020", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004412.s021", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004412.s022", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004412.s023", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004412.s024", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004412.s025", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004412.s026", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004412.s027", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004412.s028", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004412.s029", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004412.s030", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004412.s031", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004412.s032", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004412.s033", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004412.s034", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004412.s035"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>209, "page_views"=>31, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_Population_Genetic_Signal_of_Polygenic_Adaptation_/1131705", "title"=>"A Population Genetic Signal of Polygenic Adaptation", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-08-07 03:19:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1626574"], "description"=>"<p>The mean of each distribution is marked with a vertical black bar and the observed value is marked by a red arrow. The expected density is shown as a black curve.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "genome analysis", "Genome-wide association studies", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "Evolutionary adaptation", "Genetic drift", "natural selection", "population genetics", "Genetic polymorphism", "genetics", "Human genetics", "empirical", "null", "genome-wide", "resampling", "matched"], "article_id"=>1131640, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jeremy J. Berg", "Graham Coop"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004412.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>33, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Histogram_of_the_empirical_null_distribution_of_for_each_trait_obtained_from_genome_wide_resampling_of_well_matched_SNPs_/1131640", "title"=>"Histogram of the empirical null distribution of for each trait, obtained from genome-wide resampling of well matched SNPs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-08-07 03:19:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1626587"], "description"=>"<p>We also show for each principal component the percent of the total variance across all eight variables that is explained by the PC.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "genome analysis", "Genome-wide association studies", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "Evolutionary adaptation", "Genetic drift", "natural selection", "population genetics", "Genetic polymorphism", "genetics", "Human genetics", "geo-climatic", "scaled", "entries", "rounding"], "article_id"=>1131653, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jeremy J. Berg", "Graham Coop"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004412.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_contribution_of_each_geo_climatic_variable_to_each_of_our_four_principal_components_scaled_such_that_the_absolute_value_of_the_entries_in_each_column_sum_to_one_up_to_rounding_error_/1131653", "title"=>"The contribution of each geo-climatic variable to each of our four principal components, scaled such that the absolute value of the entries in each column sum to one (up to rounding error).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-08-07 03:19:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1626586"], "description"=>"<p>The theoretical expected value of the statistic under neutrality for each region is equal to , where is the number of populations in the region. We report the value of next to each region for reference.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "genome analysis", "Genome-wide association studies", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "Evolutionary adaptation", "Genetic drift", "natural selection", "population genetics", "Genetic polymorphism", "genetics", "Human genetics", "empirical", "p-values", "geographic", "regions", "delimited"], "article_id"=>1131652, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jeremy J. Berg", "Graham Coop"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004412.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_statistics_and_their_empirical_p_values_for_each_of_our_six_traits_in_each_of_the_seven_geographic_regions_delimited_by_62_/1131652", "title"=>"statistics and their empirical p-values for each of our six traits in each of the seven geographic regions delimited by [62].", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-08-07 03:19:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1626581"], "description"=>"<p>For each geographic region we plot the expectation of the regional average, given the observed values in the rest of the dataset as a grey dashed line. The true regional average is plotted as a solid bar, with darkness and thickness proportional to the regional Z score. For each population we plot the observed value as a colored circle, with circle size proportional to the population specific Z score. For example, in (A), one can see that estimated genetic height is systematically lower than expected across Africa. Similarly, estimated genetic height is significantly higher (lower) in the French (Sardinian) population than expected, given the values observed for all other populations in the dataset.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "genome analysis", "Genome-wide association studies", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "Evolutionary adaptation", "Genetic drift", "natural selection", "population genetics", "Genetic polymorphism", "genetics", "Human genetics", "outlier", "ulcerative"], "article_id"=>1131647, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jeremy J. Berg", "Graham Coop"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004412.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>61, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Visual_representation_of_outlier_analysis_at_the_regional_and_individual_population_level_for_A_height_B_skin_pigmentation_C_body_mass_index_D_type_2_diabetes_E_Crohn_s_disease_and_F_ulcerative_colitis_/1131647", "title"=>"Visual representation of outlier analysis at the regional and individual population level for (A) height, (B) skin pigmentation, (C) body mass index, (D) type 2 diabetes, (E) Crohn's disease and (F) ulcerative colitis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-08-07 03:19:56"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"85", "full-text"=>"46", "pdf"=>"21", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"41", "supp-data"=>"17", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"56", "full-text"=>"35", "pdf"=>"23", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"15", "supp-data"=>"6", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"89", "full-text"=>"37", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"60", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"35", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"9", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"35", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"38", "full-text"=>"46", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"9", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"26", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"6", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"9", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"39", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"14", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"29", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"30", "full-text"=>"32", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"29", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"33", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"10", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"12", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"46", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"9", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"14", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"16", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"94", "full-text"=>"114", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"18", "supp-data"=>"39", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[291]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Computational biology", "average_usage"=>[341, 529]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Evolutionary biology", "average_usage"=>[333]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Genetics", "average_usage"=>[306, 482]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Population biology", "average_usage"=>[312, 475]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences", "average_usage"=>[271]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences/Mathematics", "average_usage"=>[286]}]}
Loading … Spinner
There are currently no alerts