New Routes to Phylogeography: A Bayesian Structured Coalescent Approximation
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{"title"=>"New Routes to Phylogeography: A Bayesian Structured Coalescent Approximation", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Nicola", "last_name"=>"De Maio", "scopus_author_id"=>"36871720000"}, {"first_name"=>"Chieh Hsi", "last_name"=>"Wu", "scopus_author_id"=>"7501669553"}, {"first_name"=>"Kathleen M.", "last_name"=>"O’Reilly", "scopus_author_id"=>"56816943500"}, {"first_name"=>"Daniel", "last_name"=>"Wilson", "scopus_author_id"=>"35481545900"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS Genetics", "identifiers"=>{"arxiv"=>"1509.02483", "issn"=>"15537404", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pgen.1005421", "sgr"=>"84940739133", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84940739133", "isbn"=>"1533-4406 (Electronic)\\r0028-4793 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"26267488", "pui"=>"605889667"}, "id"=>"00213fda-2c11-3f4d-aaca-0cdb32f7b525", "abstract"=>"Phylogeographic methods aim to infer migration trends and the history of sampled lineages from genetic data. Applications of phylogeography are broad, and in the context of pathogens include the reconstruction of transmission histories and the origin and emergence of outbreaks. Phylogeographic inference based on bottom-up population genetics models is computationally expensive, and as a result faster alternatives based on the evolution of discrete traits have become popular. In this paper, we show that inference of migration rates and root locations based on discrete trait models is extremely unreliable and sensitive to biased sampling. To address this problem, we introduce BASTA (BAyesian STructured coalescent Approximation), a new approach implemented in BEAST2 that combines the accuracy of methods based on the structured coalescent with the computational efficiency required to handle more than just few populations. We illustrate the potentially severe implications of poor model choice for phylogeographic analyses by investigating the zoonotic transmission of Ebola virus. Whereas the structured coalescent analysis correctly infers that successive human Ebola outbreaks have been seeded by a large unsampled non-human reservoir population, the discrete trait analysis implausibly concludes that undetected human-to-human transmission has allowed the virus to persist over the past four decades. As genomics takes on an increasingly prominent role informing the control and prevention of infectious diseases, it will be vital that phylogeographic inference provides robust insights into transmission history.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/new-routes-phylogeography-bayesian-structured-coalescent-approximation", "reader_count"=>153, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Librarian"=>4, "Researcher"=>34, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>47, "Student > Postgraduate"=>8, "Student > Master"=>20, "Other"=>7, "Student > Bachelor"=>10, "Lecturer"=>4, "Professor"=>8}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Librarian"=>4, "Researcher"=>34, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>47, "Student > Postgraduate"=>8, "Student > Master"=>20, "Other"=>7, "Student > Bachelor"=>10, "Lecturer"=>4, "Professor"=>8}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>12, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>89, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>5, "Computer Science"=>7, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>4, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>10, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>3, "Mathematics"=>3, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>11, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>11}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>12}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>4}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>4}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>89}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>7}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>3}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>10}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>5}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Vietnam"=>1, "Austria"=>1, "Belgium"=>1, "United States"=>6, "Uruguay"=>1, "Japan"=>1, "Brazil"=>3, "United Kingdom"=>3, "Italy"=>2, "Germany"=>2, "Spain"=>2}, "group_count"=>4}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2210942"], "description"=>"<p>To compare migration rate estimation between MTT and BASTA in a setting with moderate complexity we simulated an Archipelago model with two groups of four subpopulations and with 40 samples per population. 50 replicates were simulated. Performance relates to estimation of the migration rate between islands in the same archipelago and between islands in different archipelagos.</p><p><sup><i>a</i></sup> proportion of rates among all replicates for which the truth fell within the 95% credible interval.</p><p><sup><i>b</i></sup> correlation between the truth and the point estimate.</p><p><sup><i>c</i></sup> root mean square error of the point estimate.</p><p>BASTA improves migration rate estimation in the Archipelago scenario.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["migration trends", "trait analysis", "basta", "Phylogeographic inference", "trait models", "New Routes", "phylogeographic analyses", "transmission history", "coalescent analysis", "Ebola virus", "model choice", "Zoonotic Transmission", "transmission histories", "migration rates", "BEAST 2", "Ebola outbreaks", "root locations", "Bayesian Structured Coalescent Approximation Phylogeographic methods aim"], "article_id"=>1509836, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Nicola De Maio", "Chieh-Hsi Wu", "Kathleen M O’Reilly", "Daniel Wilson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005421.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_BASTA_improves_migration_rate_estimation_in_the_Archipelago_scenario_/1509836", "title"=>"BASTA improves migration rate estimation in the Archipelago scenario.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-08-12 04:18:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2210939"], "description"=>"<p>We reconstructed the transmission history of Ebola virus from an animal reservoir to humans using (a) DTA and (b) BASTA. Branches of the genealogy are coloured to indicate the reconstructed host species of ancestral lineages: humans (red) or bat reservoir (blue). Transitions from blue to red indicate zoonosis from an animal reservoir to humans. In the BASTA analysis, each human outbreak is precipitated by a zoonosis, whereas in the DTA analysis, no zoonosis is inferred, wrongly suggesting that the virus has persisted through undetected human-to-human transmission over the last 40 years. Branch width represents the posterior confidence on the inferred location at the node at the bottom of the branch. Pie charts (all with a single element in this stance) show the posterior distribution of locations inferred at two internal nodes.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["migration trends", "trait analysis", "basta", "Phylogeographic inference", "trait models", "New Routes", "phylogeographic analyses", "transmission history", "coalescent analysis", "Ebola virus", "model choice", "Zoonotic Transmission", "transmission histories", "migration rates", "BEAST 2", "Ebola outbreaks", "root locations", "Bayesian Structured Coalescent Approximation Phylogeographic methods aim"], "article_id"=>1509833, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Nicola De Maio", "Chieh-Hsi Wu", "Kathleen M O’Reilly", "Daniel Wilson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005421.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>26, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Reconstructed_history_of_zoonosis_in_Ebola_virus_is_strongly_affected_by_the_method_/1509833", "title"=>"Reconstructed history of zoonosis in Ebola virus is strongly affected by the method.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-08-12 04:18:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2210937"], "description"=>"<p>Maximum clade credibility trees inferred from the AIV dataset using (a) DTA and (b) BASTA. Branch colors, as from legend, mark the inferred location at the node at the bottom of the branch, while branch width represents the posterior confidence of the inference. Although DTA and BASTA give similar inferred ancestral hosts, their interpretations are different: DTA places total confidence for most ancestral nodes, while BASTA shows very large uncertainty. Pie charts show the posterior distribution of locations inferred at two internal nodes. The scale of the axis is in number of years from present.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["migration trends", "trait analysis", "basta", "Phylogeographic inference", "trait models", "New Routes", "phylogeographic analyses", "transmission history", "coalescent analysis", "Ebola virus", "model choice", "Zoonotic Transmission", "transmission histories", "migration rates", "BEAST 2", "Ebola outbreaks", "root locations", "Bayesian Structured Coalescent Approximation Phylogeographic methods aim"], "article_id"=>1509831, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Nicola De Maio", "Chieh-Hsi Wu", "Kathleen M O’Reilly", "Daniel Wilson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005421.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Inference_of_ancestral_host_species_on_the_AIV_dataset_/1509831", "title"=>"Inference of ancestral host species on the AIV dataset.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-08-12 04:18:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2210938"], "description"=>"<p>Maximum clade credibility trees inferred from the AIV dataset using (a) DTA and (b) BASTA. Branch colors, as from legend, mark the inferred location at the node at the bottom of the branch, while branch width represents the posterior confidence of the inference. Here DTA and BASTA give again opposite interpretations: while DTA infer ancestral locations with extreme confidence, for BASTA at the same nodes all locations are equally likely. Pie charts show the posterior distribution of locations inferred at three internal nodes. The scale of the axis is in number of years from present.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["migration trends", "trait analysis", "basta", "Phylogeographic inference", "trait models", "New Routes", "phylogeographic analyses", "transmission history", "coalescent analysis", "Ebola virus", "model choice", "Zoonotic Transmission", "transmission histories", "migration rates", "BEAST 2", "Ebola outbreaks", "root locations", "Bayesian Structured Coalescent Approximation Phylogeographic methods aim"], "article_id"=>1509832, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Nicola De Maio", "Chieh-Hsi Wu", "Kathleen M O’Reilly", "Daniel Wilson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005421.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>23, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Inference_of_ancestral_locations_on_the_TYLCV_dataset_/1509832", "title"=>"Inference of ancestral locations on the TYLCV dataset.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-08-12 04:18:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2210936"], "description"=>"<p>We measured the accuracy with which ancestral subpopulations were inferred for the root (most recent common ancestor) of the genealogy using (a) DTA, (b) MTT and (c) BASTA. Each bar represents the posterior probability of the true root subpopulation (which was recorded during simulation) for an individual replicate, so taller bars represent better inference. Each bar plot is labelled with the percentage of replicates for which the point estimate was correct. Simulations were performed with two subpopulations, fixed trees, high migration rates (mean </p><p></p><p></p><p></p><p><mi>f</mi><mo>‾</mo></p><mo>=</mo><mn>5</mn><mo>.</mo><mn>0</mn><p></p><p></p><p></p>), and even sampling (100 samples per subpopulation). For each sampling strategy we simulated 100 replicates, which we ordered horizontally by posterior probability of the true root subpopulation. Number of MCMC steps for DTA, MTT and BASTA were respectively 10<sup>6</sup>, 2 × 10<sup>5</sup> and 10<sup>5</sup> so to achieve similar running times (respectively approximately 180, 200 and 150 seconds per replicate).<p></p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["migration trends", "trait analysis", "basta", "Phylogeographic inference", "trait models", "New Routes", "phylogeographic analyses", "transmission history", "coalescent analysis", "Ebola virus", "model choice", "Zoonotic Transmission", "transmission histories", "migration rates", "BEAST 2", "Ebola outbreaks", "root locations", "Bayesian Structured Coalescent Approximation Phylogeographic methods aim"], "article_id"=>1509830, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Nicola De Maio", "Chieh-Hsi Wu", "Kathleen M O’Reilly", "Daniel Wilson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005421.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_structured_coalescent_improves_reconstruction_of_ancestral_subpopulations_/1509830", "title"=>"The structured coalescent improves reconstruction of ancestral subpopulations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-08-12 04:18:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2210933"], "description"=>"<p>In this study we consider three phylogeographic methods: the structured coalescent, DTA, and BASTA. This figure shows some of the differences in these models, in particular in the modelled events and time intervals. Coloured dots show different subpopulations (one orange subpopulation and one turquoise for both sampled and internal nodes in the genealogy. a) In the structured coalescent eight events are considered, delimiting seven time intervals of lengths <i>τ</i><sub>1</sub>…<i>τ</i><sub>7</sub>. Three of these events are sampling events (denoted by the grey horizontal lines), one is a migration event (represented by an arrow between two coloured dots), and four are coalescence events. b) In DTA, migration events are not explicitly parameterized, so we have a total of seven sampling or coalescence events, delimiting six time intervals of lengths <i>τ</i><sub>1</sub>…<i>τ</i><sub>6</sub>. While locations for internal nodes are depicted in the figure, the method effectively integrates over all possible ancestral locations at each MCMC step. c) As in DTA, BASTA does not consider migration events, and therefore has seven events and six time intervals. Yet, each of these intervals is split exactly in half (blue horizontal dotted lines), and the two halves are considered separately. Again, as in DTA, at each MCMC step BASTA integrates over all possible internal nodes locations.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["migration trends", "trait analysis", "basta", "Phylogeographic inference", "trait models", "New Routes", "phylogeographic analyses", "transmission history", "coalescent analysis", "Ebola virus", "model choice", "Zoonotic Transmission", "transmission histories", "migration rates", "BEAST 2", "Ebola outbreaks", "root locations", "Bayesian Structured Coalescent Approximation Phylogeographic methods aim"], "article_id"=>1509827, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Nicola De Maio", "Chieh-Hsi Wu", "Kathleen M O’Reilly", "Daniel Wilson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005421.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Graphical_representation_of_phylogeographic_models_/1509827", "title"=>"Graphical representation of phylogeographic models.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-08-12 04:18:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2210946", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2210948"], "description"=>"<div><p>Phylogeographic methods aim to infer migration trends and the history of sampled lineages from genetic data. Applications of phylogeography are broad, and in the context of pathogens include the reconstruction of transmission histories and the origin and emergence of outbreaks. Phylogeographic inference based on bottom-up population genetics models is computationally expensive, and as a result faster alternatives based on the evolution of discrete traits have become popular. In this paper, we show that inference of migration rates and root locations based on discrete trait models is extremely unreliable and sensitive to biased sampling. To address this problem, we introduce BASTA (BAyesian STructured coalescent Approximation), a new approach implemented in BEAST2 that combines the accuracy of methods based on the structured coalescent with the computational efficiency required to handle more than just few populations. We illustrate the potentially severe implications of poor model choice for phylogeographic analyses by investigating the zoonotic transmission of Ebola virus. Whereas the structured coalescent analysis correctly infers that successive human Ebola outbreaks have been seeded by a large unsampled non-human reservoir population, the discrete trait analysis implausibly concludes that undetected human-to-human transmission has allowed the virus to persist over the past four decades. As genomics takes on an increasingly prominent role informing the control and prevention of infectious diseases, it will be vital that phylogeographic inference provides robust insights into transmission history.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["migration trends", "trait analysis", "basta", "Phylogeographic inference", "trait models", "New Routes", "phylogeographic analyses", "transmission history", "coalescent analysis", "Ebola virus", "model choice", "Zoonotic Transmission", "transmission histories", "migration rates", "BEAST 2", "Ebola outbreaks", "root locations", "Bayesian Structured Coalescent Approximation Phylogeographic methods aim"], "article_id"=>1509839, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Nicola De Maio", "Chieh-Hsi Wu", "Kathleen M O’Reilly", "Daniel Wilson"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005421.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005421.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>23, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_New_Routes_to_Phylogeography_A_Bayesian_Structured_Coalescent_Approximation_/1509839", "title"=>"New Routes to Phylogeography: A Bayesian Structured Coalescent Approximation", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-08-12 04:18:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2210941"], "description"=>"<p>For an even sampling strategy (50 individuals per subpopulation) and moderate mean migration rate (</p><p></p><p></p><p></p><p><mi>f</mi><mo>‾</mo></p><mo>=</mo><mn>2</mn><mo>.</mo><mn>0</mn><p></p><p></p><p></p>) we assessed the methods’ performance across 100 replicates by recording the “true” (i.e. simulated) ratio of the migration rates <i>f</i><sub>1,2</sub>/<i>f</i><sub>2,1</sub>, the point estimate (posterior mean) and the 95% credible interval.<p></p><p><sup><i>a</i></sup> proportion of replicates for which the truth fell within the 95% credible interval.</p><p><sup><i>b</i></sup> correlation between the truth and the point estimate.</p><p><sup><i>c</i></sup> root mean square error of the point estimate.</p><p>Performance of methods in the two-population “variable tree” scenario.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["migration trends", "trait analysis", "basta", "Phylogeographic inference", "trait models", "New Routes", "phylogeographic analyses", "transmission history", "coalescent analysis", "Ebola virus", "model choice", "Zoonotic Transmission", "transmission histories", "migration rates", "BEAST 2", "Ebola outbreaks", "root locations", "Bayesian Structured Coalescent Approximation Phylogeographic methods aim"], "article_id"=>1509835, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Nicola De Maio", "Chieh-Hsi Wu", "Kathleen M O’Reilly", "Daniel Wilson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005421.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Performance_of_methods_in_the_two_population_8220_variable_tree_8221_scenario_/1509835", "title"=>"Performance of methods in the two-population “variable tree” scenario.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-08-12 04:18:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2210940"], "description"=>"<p>For each combination of sampling strategy, migration rate and method, we assessed the methods’ performance across 100 replicates by recording the “true” (i.e. simulated) ratio of the migration rates <i>f</i><sub>1,2</sub>/<i>f</i><sub>2,1</sub>, the point estimate (posterior median) and the 95% credible interval.</p><p><sup><i>a</i></sup> 100 samples per population.</p><p><sup><i>b</i></sup> 10 samples for one population and 190 for the other.</p><p><sup><i>c</i></sup> total mean migration rate: fast (</p><p></p><p></p><p></p><p><mi>f</mi><mo>‾</mo></p><mo>=</mo><mn>5</mn><mo>.</mo><mn>0</mn><p></p><p></p><p></p>) or slow (<p></p><p></p><p></p><p><mi>f</mi><mo>‾</mo></p><mo>=</mo><mn>0</mn><mo>.</mo><mn>5</mn><p></p><p></p><p></p>).<p></p><p><sup><i>d</i></sup> proportion of replicates for which the truth fell within the 95% credible interval.</p><p><sup><i>e</i></sup> correlation between the truth and the point estimate.</p><p><sup><i>f</i></sup> root mean square error of the point estimate.</p><p>Performance of methods as a function of sampling strategy and mean migration rate in the two-population “fixed tree” scenario.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["migration trends", "trait analysis", "basta", "Phylogeographic inference", "trait models", "New Routes", "phylogeographic analyses", "transmission history", "coalescent analysis", "Ebola virus", "model choice", "Zoonotic Transmission", "transmission histories", "migration rates", "BEAST 2", "Ebola outbreaks", "root locations", "Bayesian Structured Coalescent Approximation Phylogeographic methods aim"], "article_id"=>1509834, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Nicola De Maio", "Chieh-Hsi Wu", "Kathleen M O’Reilly", "Daniel Wilson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005421.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Performance_of_methods_as_a_function_of_sampling_strategy_and_mean_migration_rate_in_the_two_population_8220_fixed_tree_8221_scenario_/1509834", "title"=>"Performance of methods as a function of sampling strategy and mean migration rate in the two-population “fixed tree” scenario.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-08-12 04:18:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2210935"], "description"=>"<p>To test the accuracy of the 95% credible intervals produced by (a) DTA, (b) MTT and (c) BASTA, we simulated and analysed 100 datasets under the two-population “Continental” model with even sampling of 100 individuals per subpopulation. We provided the true genealogy to BEAST2, as if it were estimated without error; in this scenario methods are expected to give the best accuracy. The migration rates between the subpopulations were simulated for each dataset from a prior distribution, and we compared the “true” ratio <i>f</i><sub>1,2</sub>/<i>f</i><sub>2,1</sub> (horizontal axis) to the point estimate (posterior median; vertical axis, points) and 95% credible interval (2.5 and 97.5 percentiles; error bars). The results show a weak correlation between the truth and the point estimates for DTA, compared to MTT and BASTA, indicating poor statistical efficiency. The percentage of datasets in which the 95% credible intervals contained the truth revealed that DTA was poorly calibrated compared to MTT, BASTA and the theoretical target of 95%. The mean migration rate was high (</p><p></p><p></p><p></p><p><mi>f</mi><mo>‾</mo></p><mo>=</mo><mn>5</mn><mo>.</mo><mn>0</mn><p></p><p></p><p></p>). The dashed line indicates the hypothetical optimal estimate. Number of MCMC steps for DTA, MTT and BASTA are respectively 10<sup>6</sup>, 2 × 10<sup>5</sup> and 10<sup>5</sup> so to achieve similar running times (respectively approximately 180, 200 and 150 seconds per replicate).<p></p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["migration trends", "trait analysis", "basta", "Phylogeographic inference", "trait models", "New Routes", "phylogeographic analyses", "transmission history", "coalescent analysis", "Ebola virus", "model choice", "Zoonotic Transmission", "transmission histories", "migration rates", "BEAST 2", "Ebola outbreaks", "root locations", "Bayesian Structured Coalescent Approximation Phylogeographic methods aim"], "article_id"=>1509829, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Nicola De Maio", "Chieh-Hsi Wu", "Kathleen M O’Reilly", "Daniel Wilson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005421.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>26, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_DTA_under_represents_uncertainty_and_lacks_statistical_efficiency_/1509829", "title"=>"DTA under-represents uncertainty and lacks statistical efficiency.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-08-12 04:18:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2210934"], "description"=>"<p>To test for inherent sampling bias, we analysed a dataset containing just sampling locations, but no genetic information using (a) DTA, (b) MTT and (c) BASTA. For a method robust to sampling, the posteriors (green and blue distributions) should be unchanged from the prior (pink distribution). However, DTA treats the sampling process as informative about migration parameters, unlike the structured coalescent-based methods, introducing a sampling strategy-dependent bias. The blue and green posterior distributions correspond respectively to even sampling (100 samples per subpopulation) and uneven sampling (10 and 190 samples per location). The mean migration rate was </p><p></p><p></p><p></p><p><mi>f</mi><mo>‾</mo></p><mo>=</mo><mn>5</mn><mo>.</mo><mn>0</mn><p></p><p></p><p></p>. Each plot is obtained from ten merged posteriors of independent MCMC runs each of 5 × 10<sup>6</sup> iterations.<p></p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["migration trends", "trait analysis", "basta", "Phylogeographic inference", "trait models", "New Routes", "phylogeographic analyses", "transmission history", "coalescent analysis", "Ebola virus", "model choice", "Zoonotic Transmission", "transmission histories", "migration rates", "BEAST 2", "Ebola outbreaks", "root locations", "Bayesian Structured Coalescent Approximation Phylogeographic methods aim"], "article_id"=>1509828, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Nicola De Maio", "Chieh-Hsi Wu", "Kathleen M O’Reilly", "Daniel Wilson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005421.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>29, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_DTA_is_inherently_biased_by_the_sampling_process_/1509828", "title"=>"DTA is inherently biased by the sampling process.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-08-12 04:18:15"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"19", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"9", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"37", "pdf"=>"9", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"10"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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