A NIMA-Related Kinase Suppresses the Flagellar Instability Associated with the Loss of Multiple Axonemal Structures
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{"title"=>"A NIMA-Related Kinase Suppresses the Flagellar Instability Associated with the Loss of Multiple Axonemal Structures", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Huawen", "last_name"=>"Lin", "scopus_author_id"=>"15728297100"}, {"first_name"=>"Zhengyan", "last_name"=>"Zhang", "scopus_author_id"=>"55837949400"}, {"first_name"=>"Suyang", "last_name"=>"Guo", "scopus_author_id"=>"56809945300"}, {"first_name"=>"Fan", "last_name"=>"Chen", "scopus_author_id"=>"57008355400"}, {"first_name"=>"Jonathan M.", "last_name"=>"Kessler", "scopus_author_id"=>"55175261300"}, {"first_name"=>"Yan Mei", "last_name"=>"Wang", "scopus_author_id"=>"14625644400"}, {"first_name"=>"Susan K.", "last_name"=>"Dutcher", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003962500"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS Genetics", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84943535290", "pmid"=>"26348919", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84943535290", "pui"=>"606368032", "isbn"=>"1553-7390", "issn"=>"15537404", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pgen.1005508"}, "id"=>"7fc348fc-5d98-3200-9478-0a6610ccf6f1", "abstract"=>"CCDC39 and CCDC40 were first identified as causative mutations in primary ciliary dyskinesia patients; cilia from patients show disorganized microtubules, and they are missing both N-DRC and inner dynein arms proteins. In Chlamydomonas, we used immunoblots and microtubule sliding assays to show that mutants in CCDC40 (PF7) and CCDC39 (PF8) fail to assemble N-DRC, several inner dynein arms, tektin, and CCDC39. Enrichment screens for suppression of pf7; pf8 cells led to the isolation of five independent extragenic suppressors defined by four different mutations in a NIMA-related kinase, CNK11. These alleles partially rescue the flagellar length defect, but not the motility defect. The suppressor does not restore the missing N-DRC and inner dynein arm proteins. In addition, the cnk11 mutations partially suppress the short flagella phenotype of N-DRC and axonemal dynein mutants, but do not suppress the motility defects. The tpg1 mutation in TTLL9, a tubulin polyglutamylase, partially suppresses the length phenotype in the same axonemal dynein mutants. In contrast to cnk11, tpg1 does not suppress the short flagella phenotype of pf7. The polyglutamylated tubulin in the proximal region that remains in the tpg1 mutant is reduced further in the pf7; tpg1 double mutant by immunofluorescence. CCDC40, which is needed for docking multiple other axonemal complexes, is needed for tubulin polyglutamylation in the proximal end of the flagella. The CCDC39 and CCDC40 proteins are likely to be involved in recruiting another tubulin glutamylase(s) to the flagella. Another difference between cnk11-1 and tpg1 mutants is that cnk11-1 cells show a faster turnover rate of tubulin at the flagellar tip than in wild-type flagella and tpg1 flagella show a slower rate. The double mutant shows a turnover rate similar to tpg1, which suggests the faster turnover rate in cnk11-1 flagella requires polyglutamylation. Thus, we hypothesize that many short flagella mutants in Chlamydomonas have increased instability of axonemal microtubules. Both CNK11 and tubulin polyglutamylation play roles in regulating the stability of axonemal microtubules.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/nimarelated-kinase-suppresses-flagellar-instability-associated-loss-multiple-axonemal-structures", "reader_count"=>12, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>7, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>7}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Portugal"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2255140"], "description"=>"<p>At least 100 flagella from each strain were measured to determine the average flagellar length. Error bars represent standard deviation of the mean. (A) Flagellar lengths of wild-type (CC-125, green circles) and <i>cnk11-1</i> (blue triangles) cells before and after deflagellation by pH shock. (B) Cells that carry HA-α-tubulin were mated to cells of opposite mating type that have the corresponding genotype for 30, 60, and 90 minutes before fixation. Flagellar lengths were measured from the non HA-tagged parental strain in mating of wild-type x wild-type (CC-124, magenta), <i>cnk11-1</i> x <i>cnk11-1</i> (blue), <i>tpg1</i> x <i>tpg1</i> (purple), and <i>cnk11-1</i>; <i>tpg1</i> x <i>cnk11-1</i>; <i>tpg1</i> (black). The length of new HA-α-tubulin incorporation (green) was measured at the distal end of the flagella. Insert, a representative image of a <i>cnk11-1</i> quadriflagellate cells (QFCs) 60 minutes after mating. (C) Flagellar lengths of wild-type (CC-125, green), <i>cnk11-1</i> (blue), <i>tpg1</i> (purple), and <i>cnk11-1</i>; <i>tpg1</i> (black) before and 30 minutes after IBMX treatment. (D) A model of flagellar length regulation by paclitaxel (magenta), polyglutamylation (blue), and CNK11 (green). In short flagella mutants caused by multiple dynein deficiency, addition of paclitaxel and reduction of polyglutamylation, as well as blockage of CNK11, leads to longer flagella, presumably due to stabilized axonemal microtubules. In the <i>CCDC39</i> and <i>CCDC40</i> short flagella mutants, addition of paclitaxel and blockage of CNK11 lead to longer flagella. However, reduced polyglutamylation enhances the mutant phenotype and cause increased number of aflagellated cells.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["CCDC 39. Enrichment screens", "axonemal microtubules", "tpg 1 mutants", "CCDC 40", "pf", "Flagellar Instability Associated", "Multiple Axonemal Structures CCDC 39", "turnover rate", "axonemal dynein mutants", "dynein arm proteins", "tpg 1 mutation", "dynein arms proteins", "flagella phenotype", "ttll", "cnk 11 mutations", "ciliary dyskinesia patients", "tubulin polyglutamylation", "flagellar length defect", "CCDC 39", "CNK", "tpg 1 flagella show", "CCDC 40 proteins"], "article_id"=>1537216, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Huawen Lin", "Zhengyan Zhang", "Suyang Guo", "Fan Chen", "Jonathan M. Kessler", "Yan Mei Wang", "Susan K. Dutcher"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005508.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_cnk11_1_mutant_has_increased_tubulin_turnover_at_the_flagellar_tip_/1537216", "title"=>"The <i>cnk11-1</i> mutant has increased tubulin turnover at the flagellar tip.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-08 03:16:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2255135"], "description"=>"<p>Kymographs of IFT20::GFP in (A) <i>FLA12</i> and (B) <i>fla12</i> strains. Green and yellow arrows denote representative anterograde and retrograde tracks, respectively. Vertical scale bar, 2 μm; horizontal scale bar, 1 sec. (C) The anterograde IFT velocities were 1478 ± 41 nm/s (mean ± SEM) for <i>FLA12</i> cells (green, n = 60) and 1460 ± 32 nm/s for <i>fla12</i> cells (blue, n = 67). (D) The retrograde IFT velocities were 2074 ± 56 nm/s for <i>FLA12</i> cells (green, n = 84) and 2023 ± 60 nm/s for <i>fla12</i> cells (blue, n = 30).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["CCDC 39. Enrichment screens", "axonemal microtubules", "tpg 1 mutants", "CCDC 40", "pf", "Flagellar Instability Associated", "Multiple Axonemal Structures CCDC 39", "turnover rate", "axonemal dynein mutants", "dynein arm proteins", "tpg 1 mutation", "dynein arms proteins", "flagella phenotype", "ttll", "cnk 11 mutations", "ciliary dyskinesia patients", "tubulin polyglutamylation", "flagellar length defect", "CCDC 39", "CNK", "tpg 1 flagella show", "CCDC 40 proteins"], "article_id"=>1537211, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Huawen Lin", "Zhengyan Zhang", "Suyang Guo", "Fan Chen", "Jonathan M. Kessler", "Yan Mei Wang", "Susan K. Dutcher"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005508.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_IFT_velocities_are_not_changed_in_the_fla12_mutant_/1537211", "title"=>"IFT velocities are not changed in the <i>fla12</i> mutant.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-08 03:16:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2255129"], "description"=>"<p>Blue arrows indicate the relative positions of changes found in individual mutants. Green boxes, 5’ UTR; black solid lines, introns; orange boxes, exons; purple box, 3’ UTR. Magenta solid lines, relative positions of PCR products along <i>CNK11</i> and its neighboring gene <i>Cre07</i>.<i>g339104</i> in <i>cnk11-6</i>. +, PCR products amplified in both wild-type and <i>cnk11-6</i>;-, PCR products amplified in wild-type but not in <i>cnk11-6</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["CCDC 39. Enrichment screens", "axonemal microtubules", "tpg 1 mutants", "CCDC 40", "pf", "Flagellar Instability Associated", "Multiple Axonemal Structures CCDC 39", "turnover rate", "axonemal dynein mutants", "dynein arm proteins", "tpg 1 mutation", "dynein arms proteins", "flagella phenotype", "ttll", "cnk 11 mutations", "ciliary dyskinesia patients", "tubulin polyglutamylation", "flagellar length defect", "CCDC 39", "CNK", "tpg 1 flagella show", "CCDC 40 proteins"], "article_id"=>1537205, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Huawen Lin", "Zhengyan Zhang", "Suyang Guo", "Fan Chen", "Jonathan M. Kessler", "Yan Mei Wang", "Susan K. Dutcher"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005508.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Gene_structure_of_CNK11_and_its_position_on_chromosome_7_/1537205", "title"=>"Gene structure of <i>CNK11</i> and its position on chromosome 7.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-08 03:16:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2255143"], "description"=>"<p>Reversion of <i>pf7</i>, <i>pf8</i>, and <i>fla12</i> mutations.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["CCDC 39. Enrichment screens", "axonemal microtubules", "tpg 1 mutants", "CCDC 40", "pf", "Flagellar Instability Associated", "Multiple Axonemal Structures CCDC 39", "turnover rate", "axonemal dynein mutants", "dynein arm proteins", "tpg 1 mutation", "dynein arms proteins", "flagella phenotype", "ttll", "cnk 11 mutations", "ciliary dyskinesia patients", "tubulin polyglutamylation", "flagellar length defect", "CCDC 39", "CNK", "tpg 1 flagella show", "CCDC 40 proteins"], "article_id"=>1537219, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Huawen Lin", "Zhengyan Zhang", "Suyang Guo", "Fan Chen", "Jonathan M. Kessler", "Yan Mei Wang", "Susan K. Dutcher"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005508.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Reversion_of_pf7_pf8_and_fla12_mutations_/1537219", "title"=>"Reversion of <i>pf7</i>, <i>pf8</i>, and <i>fla12</i> mutations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-09-08 03:16:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2255128"], "description"=>"<p>At least 100 flagella from each strain were measured to determine the average flagellar length. Error bars represent standard deviation of the mean. (A) Flagellar length of various strains at 21°C. TG, transgene. *** indicates p<0.001 by t-test. (B) Flagellar length of various strains before (0 hr) and after (8 hr) temperature shift to 32°C.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["CCDC 39. Enrichment screens", "axonemal microtubules", "tpg 1 mutants", "CCDC 40", "pf", "Flagellar Instability Associated", "Multiple Axonemal Structures CCDC 39", "turnover rate", "axonemal dynein mutants", "dynein arm proteins", "tpg 1 mutation", "dynein arms proteins", "flagella phenotype", "ttll", "cnk 11 mutations", "ciliary dyskinesia patients", "tubulin polyglutamylation", "flagellar length defect", "CCDC 39", "CNK", "tpg 1 flagella show", "CCDC 40 proteins"], "article_id"=>1537204, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Huawen Lin", "Zhengyan Zhang", "Suyang Guo", "Fan Chen", "Jonathan M. Kessler", "Yan Mei Wang", "Susan K. Dutcher"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005508.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Flagellar_length_of_ccdc39_ccdc40_mutants_can_be_partially_rescued_by_the_cnk11_suppressors_/1537204", "title"=>"Flagellar length of <i>ccdc39/ccdc40</i> mutants can be partially rescued by the <i>cnk11</i> suppressors.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-08 03:16:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2255142"], "description"=>"<p>Sequence changes found in individual mutant strains.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["CCDC 39. Enrichment screens", "axonemal microtubules", "tpg 1 mutants", "CCDC 40", "pf", "Flagellar Instability Associated", "Multiple Axonemal Structures CCDC 39", "turnover rate", "axonemal dynein mutants", "dynein arm proteins", "tpg 1 mutation", "dynein arms proteins", "flagella phenotype", "ttll", "cnk 11 mutations", "ciliary dyskinesia patients", "tubulin polyglutamylation", "flagellar length defect", "CCDC 39", "CNK", "tpg 1 flagella show", "CCDC 40 proteins"], "article_id"=>1537218, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Huawen Lin", "Zhengyan Zhang", "Suyang Guo", "Fan Chen", "Jonathan M. Kessler", "Yan Mei Wang", "Susan K. Dutcher"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005508.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sequence_changes_found_in_individual_mutant_strains_/1537218", "title"=>"Sequence changes found in individual mutant strains.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-09-08 03:16:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2255136"], "description"=>"<p>At least 100 flagella from each strain were measured to determine the average flagellar length. Error bars represent standard deviation of the mean. *** indicates p<0.001 by the t-test. (A) Flagellar length of various strains at 21°C. (B) Cells were either treated with autolysin only (blue) or treated with autolysin and 10 μm paclitaxel (green) for 30 minutes at 21°C before fixation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["CCDC 39. Enrichment screens", "axonemal microtubules", "tpg 1 mutants", "CCDC 40", "pf", "Flagellar Instability Associated", "Multiple Axonemal Structures CCDC 39", "turnover rate", "axonemal dynein mutants", "dynein arm proteins", "tpg 1 mutation", "dynein arms proteins", "flagella phenotype", "ttll", "cnk 11 mutations", "ciliary dyskinesia patients", "tubulin polyglutamylation", "flagellar length defect", "CCDC 39", "CNK", "tpg 1 flagella show", "CCDC 40 proteins"], "article_id"=>1537212, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Huawen Lin", "Zhengyan Zhang", "Suyang Guo", "Fan Chen", "Jonathan M. Kessler", "Yan Mei Wang", "Susan K. Dutcher"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005508.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_cnk11_mutants_and_paclitaxel_can_partially_rescue_flagellar_shortness_in_motility_mutants_/1537212", "title"=>"The <i>cnk11</i> mutants and paclitaxel can partially rescue flagellar shortness in motility mutants.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-08 03:16:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2255133"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Fixed axonemes were stained with antibodies against LF5 (green) and acetylated α-tubulin (magenta). (B) Axonemes were scored as intact (blue), sliding (yellow), or splaying (green). At least 100 axonemes were score for each strain.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["CCDC 39. Enrichment screens", "axonemal microtubules", "tpg 1 mutants", "CCDC 40", "pf", "Flagellar Instability Associated", "Multiple Axonemal Structures CCDC 39", "turnover rate", "axonemal dynein mutants", "dynein arm proteins", "tpg 1 mutation", "dynein arms proteins", "flagella phenotype", "ttll", "cnk 11 mutations", "ciliary dyskinesia patients", "tubulin polyglutamylation", "flagellar length defect", "CCDC 39", "CNK", "tpg 1 flagella show", "CCDC 40 proteins"], "article_id"=>1537209, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Huawen Lin", "Zhengyan Zhang", "Suyang Guo", "Fan Chen", "Jonathan M. Kessler", "Yan Mei Wang", "Susan K. Dutcher"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005508.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_pf7_and_pf8_mutants_show_splaying_phenotype_in_isolated_axonemes_similar_to_splaying_in_N_DRC_mutants_/1537209", "title"=>"The <i>pf7</i> and <i>pf8</i> mutants show splaying phenotype in isolated axonemes similar to splaying in N-DRC mutants.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-08 03:16:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2255131"], "description"=>"<p>Ten micrograms of axonemes from various strains were used in the immunoblots. (A) Strains resuspended in nitrogen-free medium for 4 hours at 21°C. TG, transgene. (B) Cells were resuspended in nitrogen-free medium for 2 hours at 21°C. One-half of cells from each strain were switched to 32°C for 4 hours while the other half was maintained at 21°C for 4 hours. α-tubulin is included as a loading control.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["CCDC 39. Enrichment screens", "axonemal microtubules", "tpg 1 mutants", "CCDC 40", "pf", "Flagellar Instability Associated", "Multiple Axonemal Structures CCDC 39", "turnover rate", "axonemal dynein mutants", "dynein arm proteins", "tpg 1 mutation", "dynein arms proteins", "flagella phenotype", "ttll", "cnk 11 mutations", "ciliary dyskinesia patients", "tubulin polyglutamylation", "flagellar length defect", "CCDC 39", "CNK", "tpg 1 flagella show", "CCDC 40 proteins"], "article_id"=>1537207, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Huawen Lin", "Zhengyan Zhang", "Suyang Guo", "Fan Chen", "Jonathan M. Kessler", "Yan Mei Wang", "Susan K. Dutcher"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005508.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Reduced_or_absent_N_DRC_and_other_axonemal_proteins_are_not_restored_in_pf7_pf8_suppressors_/1537207", "title"=>"Reduced or absent N-DRC and other axonemal proteins are not restored in <i>pf7</i>; <i>pf8</i> suppressors.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-08 03:16:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2255144", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2255145", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2255146", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2255147", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2255148", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2255149"], "description"=>"<div><p>CCDC39 and CCDC40 were first identified as causative mutations in primary ciliary dyskinesia patients; cilia from patients show disorganized microtubules, and they are missing both N-DRC and inner dynein arms proteins. In <i>Chlamydomonas</i>, we used immunoblots and microtubule sliding assays to show that mutants in <i>CCDC40</i> (<i>PF7</i>) and <i>CCDC39</i> (<i>PF8</i>) fail to assemble N-DRC, several inner dynein arms, tektin, and CCDC39. Enrichment screens for suppression of <i>pf7</i>; <i>pf8</i> cells led to the isolation of five independent extragenic suppressors defined by four different mutations in a NIMA-related kinase, <i>CNK11</i>. These alleles partially rescue the flagellar length defect, but not the motility defect. The suppressor does not restore the missing N-DRC and inner dynein arm proteins. In addition, the <i>cnk11</i> mutations partially suppress the short flagella phenotype of N-DRC and axonemal dynein mutants, but do not suppress the motility defects. The <i>tpg1</i> mutation in <i>TTLL9</i>, a tubulin polyglutamylase, partially suppresses the length phenotype in the same axonemal dynein mutants. In contrast to <i>cnk11</i>, <i>tpg1</i> does not suppress the short flagella phenotype of <i>pf7</i>. The polyglutamylated tubulin in the proximal region that remains in the <i>tpg1</i> mutant is reduced further in the <i>pf7; tpg1</i> double mutant by immunofluorescence. CCDC40, which is needed for docking multiple other axonemal complexes, is needed for tubulin polyglutamylation in the proximal end of the flagella. The CCDC39 and CCDC40 proteins are likely to be involved in recruiting another tubulin glutamylase(s) to the flagella. Another difference between <i>cnk11-1</i> and <i>tpg1</i> mutants is that <i>cnk11-1</i> cells show a faster turnover rate of tubulin at the flagellar tip than in wild-type flagella and <i>tpg1</i> flagella show a slower rate. The double mutant shows a turnover rate similar to <i>tpg1</i>, which suggests the faster turnover rate in <i>cnk11-1</i> flagella requires polyglutamylation. Thus, we hypothesize that many short flagella mutants in <i>Chlamydomonas</i> have increased instability of axonemal microtubules. Both CNK11 and tubulin polyglutamylation play roles in regulating the stability of axonemal microtubules.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["CCDC 39. Enrichment screens", "axonemal microtubules", "tpg 1 mutants", "CCDC 40", "pf", "Flagellar Instability Associated", "Multiple Axonemal Structures CCDC 39", "turnover rate", "axonemal dynein mutants", "dynein arm proteins", "tpg 1 mutation", "dynein arms proteins", "flagella phenotype", "ttll", "cnk 11 mutations", "ciliary dyskinesia patients", "tubulin polyglutamylation", "flagellar length defect", "CCDC 39", "CNK", "tpg 1 flagella show", "CCDC 40 proteins"], "article_id"=>1537220, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Huawen Lin", "Zhengyan Zhang", "Suyang Guo", "Fan Chen", "Jonathan M. Kessler", "Yan Mei Wang", "Susan K. Dutcher"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005508.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005508.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005508.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005508.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005508.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005508.s006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_NIMA_Related_Kinase_Suppresses_the_Flagellar_Instability_Associated_with_the_Loss_of_Multiple_Axonemal_Structures_/1537220", "title"=>"A NIMA-Related Kinase Suppresses the Flagellar Instability Associated with the Loss of Multiple Axonemal Structures", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-09-08 03:16:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2255141"], "description"=>"<p>* Changes are defined as being within coding regions or at intron-exon boundaries and have a Phred quality score ≥100.</p><p>Whole genome sequencing of mutant strains used in this study.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["CCDC 39. Enrichment screens", "axonemal microtubules", "tpg 1 mutants", "CCDC 40", "pf", "Flagellar Instability Associated", "Multiple Axonemal Structures CCDC 39", "turnover rate", "axonemal dynein mutants", "dynein arm proteins", "tpg 1 mutation", "dynein arms proteins", "flagella phenotype", "ttll", "cnk 11 mutations", "ciliary dyskinesia patients", "tubulin polyglutamylation", "flagellar length defect", "CCDC 39", "CNK", "tpg 1 flagella show", "CCDC 40 proteins"], "article_id"=>1537217, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Huawen Lin", "Zhengyan Zhang", "Suyang Guo", "Fan Chen", "Jonathan M. Kessler", "Yan Mei Wang", "Susan K. Dutcher"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005508.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Whole_genome_sequencing_of_mutant_strains_used_in_this_study_/1537217", "title"=>"Whole genome sequencing of mutant strains used in this study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-09-08 03:16:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2255139"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Two micrograms of flagellar protein were used in immunoblots. α-tubulin is included as a loading control. (B) The nucleoflagellar apparatus (NFAP) from various strains was stained with polyglutamylated tubulin antibody (green) and acetylated α-tubulin (magenta). (C) The length of polyglutamylated tubulin (green) and flagella (indicated by acetylated α-tubulin, magenta). *** indicates p<0.001 by the t-test between the lengths of polyglutamylated tubulin in <i>tpg1</i> and in <i>pf7</i>; <i>tpg1</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["CCDC 39. Enrichment screens", "axonemal microtubules", "tpg 1 mutants", "CCDC 40", "pf", "Flagellar Instability Associated", "Multiple Axonemal Structures CCDC 39", "turnover rate", "axonemal dynein mutants", "dynein arm proteins", "tpg 1 mutation", "dynein arms proteins", "flagella phenotype", "ttll", "cnk 11 mutations", "ciliary dyskinesia patients", "tubulin polyglutamylation", "flagellar length defect", "CCDC 39", "CNK", "tpg 1 flagella show", "CCDC 40 proteins"], "article_id"=>1537215, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Huawen Lin", "Zhengyan Zhang", "Suyang Guo", "Fan Chen", "Jonathan M. Kessler", "Yan Mei Wang", "Susan K. Dutcher"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005508.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_localization_of_polyglutamylated_tubulin_is_affected_by_both_tpg1_and_pf7_/1537215", "title"=>"The localization of polyglutamylated tubulin is affected by both <i>tpg1</i> and <i>pf7</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-08 03:16:52"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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