ABCs of Insect Resistance to Bt
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{"title"=>"ABCs of Insect Resistance to Bt", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Bruce E.", "last_name"=>"Tabashnik", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006875873"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS Genetics", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"607183984", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pgen.1005646", "issn"=>"15537404", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84949309536", "sgr"=>"84949309536", "isbn"=>"1553-7404"}, "id"=>"6b301db3-a8bd-390f-8afa-ea920286d59a", "abstract"=>"Genetically engineered crops represent one of the most controversial and rapidly adopted tech-nologies in the history of agriculture. To improve pest control, scientists have engineered cot-ton, corn, and soybeans to make insecticidal proteins from the common bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) [1]. These Bt toxins kill some devastating pests, but unlike broad-spectrum insecticides, they do little or no harm to most other organisms, including people [2,3]. The original Bt crops, first commercialized in 1996, each made a single crystalline (Cry) toxin from the Cry1 family effective against certain lepidopteran larvae. However, some of the environ-mental, health, and economic benefits of Bt crops have been lost because of rapid evolution of pest resistance, particularly to single-toxin Bt crops (Fig 1) [4]. To delay resistance and broaden the spectrum of pests controlled, newer \" second genera-tion \" Bt crops produce two or more Bt toxins [5]. In particular, Bt toxin Cry2Ab from the Cry2 family is used widely in combination with Cry1 toxins to kill caterpillar pests. For example, the percentage of all cotton planted that was Bt cotton producing both Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab was 69% in the US in 2012, 91% in India in 2013, and 94% in Australia in 2011 [6–8]. Despite the use of Cry2Ab in multi-toxin Bt crops since 2003 and in multi-toxin Bt sprays for decades, nearly all of what we know about Bt toxins is based on the Cry1 family. In a breakthrough that promises to accelerate progress in understanding Cry2 toxins, Tay et al., in this issue of PLOS Genetics [9], identify a gene tightly linked with resistance to Cry2Ab in Helicoverpa armigera, one of the world's most damaging crop pests. The advance by Tay et al. is the fruit of more than a dozen years of a synergistic collabora-tion, integrating results from classical and molecular genetics. As part of Australia's proactive program for monitoring resistance to Bt crops, screening of field populations for resistance to Cry2Ab began in 2002, two years before farmers there started planting Bt cotton producing this toxin in combination with Cry1Ac. Using a method called the F 2 screen, the second gener-ation progeny of single pairs of field-collected insects were tested on an artificial diet treated with Cry2Ab. In the first year of screening, the Australian team detected resistance to Cry2Ab in one of the 28 isofemale lines that were tested [10]. The 17 survivors of exposure to Cry2Ab from this isofemale line became the progenitors of a Cry2Ab-resistant strain (SP15) that was repeatedly crossed with a susceptible strain and selected with Cry2Ab [11]. The SP15 strain was so resistant that it suffered little mortality when exposed to the highest concentration of Cry2Ab tested in the artificial diet [11]. Bioassays of progeny from crosses indicated this resis-tance to Cry2Ab was autosomal, recessive, and probably conferred by a single genetic locus [11]. Tay et al. used genetic linkage analysis with molecular markers to narrow the source of resis-tance to Cry2Ab in this strain to a chromosomal region containing less than 30 genes. They found that two of these genes encode the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins ABCA1 and ABCA2. These genes were prime suspects because resistance to Cry1 toxins is", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/abcs-insect-resistance-bt", "reader_count"=>25, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>4, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>4, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>20}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>20}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United Kingdom"=>1, "France"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"38", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"32", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"46", "full-text"=>"59", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"36", "full-text"=>"38", "pdf"=>"9", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"10"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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