Extensive Recombination of a Yeast Diploid Hybrid through Meiotic Reversion
Publication Date
February 01, 2016
Journal
PLOS Genetics
Authors
Raphaëlle Laureau, Sophie Loeillet, Francisco Salinas, Anders Bergström, et al
Volume
12
Issue
2
Pages
e1005781
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005781
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosgenetics/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pgen.1005781
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26828862
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4734685
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/26828862
Scopus
84959919101
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/extensive-recombination-yeast-diploid-hybrid-through-meiotic-reversion
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Extensive Recombination of a Yeast Diploid Hybrid through Meiotic Reversion", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Raphaëlle", "last_name"=>"Laureau", "scopus_author_id"=>"57156600800"}, {"first_name"=>"Sophie", "last_name"=>"Loeillet", "scopus_author_id"=>"6507974087"}, {"first_name"=>"Francisco", "last_name"=>"Salinas", "scopus_author_id"=>"56208433300"}, {"first_name"=>"Anders", "last_name"=>"Bergström", "scopus_author_id"=>"55498277900"}, {"first_name"=>"Patricia", "last_name"=>"Legoix-Né", "scopus_author_id"=>"10042636300"}, {"first_name"=>"Gianni", "last_name"=>"Liti", "scopus_author_id"=>"6508269095"}, {"first_name"=>"Alain", "last_name"=>"Nicolas", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102495033"}], "year"=>2016, "source"=>"PLoS Genetics", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"15537404", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84959919101", "pui"=>"608905420", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pgen.1005781", "isbn"=>"1553-7404", "sgr"=>"84959919101", "pmid"=>"26828862"}, "id"=>"c6d637fb-55e6-3541-bc63-ddb68d339a23", "abstract"=>"In somatic cells, recombination between the homologous chromosomes followed by equational segregation leads to loss of heterozygosity events (LOH), allowing the expression of recessive alleles and the production of novel allele combinations that are potentially beneficial upon Darwinian selection. However, inter-homolog recombination in somatic cells is rare, thus reducing potential genetic variation. Here, we explored the property of S. cerevisiae to enter the meiotic developmental program, induce meiotic Spo11-dependent double-strand breaks genome-wide and return to mitotic growth, a process known as Return To Growth (RTG). Whole genome sequencing of 36 RTG strains derived from the hybrid S288c/SK1 diploid strain demonstrates that the RTGs are bona fide diploids with mosaic recombined genome, derived from either parental origin. Individual RTG genome-wide genotypes are comprised of 5 to 87 homozygous regions due to the loss of heterozygous (LOH) events of various lengths, varying between a few nucleotides up to several hundred kilobases. Furthermore, we show that reiteration of the RTG process shows incremental increases of homozygosity. Phenotype/genotype analysis of the RTG strains for the auxotrophic and arsenate resistance traits validates the potential of this procedure of genome diversification to rapidly map complex traits loci (QTLs) in diploid strains without undergoing sexual reproduction.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/extensive-recombination-yeast-diploid-hybrid-through-meiotic-reversion", "reader_count"=>45, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>15, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>15, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>13, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>27, "Computer Science"=>2, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>27}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>13}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>2, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Australia"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430716"], "description"=>"<p>(A) LOH tracts length distribution for the tracts smaller than 25kb (top) or larger than 25kb (bottom). (B) Heat map of the genome wide occurrence of SNP position homozygosity among our 36 RTG strains. Altogether, approximately 90% of the SNP positions were involved in at least one LOH event. The two hotspots (chr. XII-R and chr. XV-R) are likely artificially enriched for homozygosity as they respectively carry the <i>MET15</i> and <i>HIS3</i> loci that we used to phenotypically screen the RTG cells for auxotrophic phenotypes (<a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005781#sec015\" target=\"_blank\">Materials and Methods</a>). (C) Homozygous S288c and SK1 allele frequencies.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["equational segregation", "recessive alleles", "traits loci", "Whole genome sequencing", "heterozygosity events", "RTG strains", "Darwinian selection", "Yeast Diploid Hybrid", "mosaic recombined genome", "S 288c diploid strain", "novel allele combinations", "Meiotic Reversion", "QTL", "36 RTG strains", "diploid strains", "arsenate resistance traits validates", "LOH", "genome diversification", "mitotic growth", "RTG process", "Extensive Recombination"], "article_id"=>2748997, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Raphaëlle Laureau", "Sophie Loeillet", "Francisco Salinas", "Anders Bergström", "Patricia Legoix-Né", "Gianni Liti", "Alain Nicolas"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005781.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Global_genotype_analyses_of_the_36_RTGs_/2748997", "title"=>"Global genotype analyses of the 36 RTGs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-02-01 13:45:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430725"], "description"=>"<p>After DNA replication, each homolog is composed of two identical sister chromatids [A and B for the S288c chromosome, C and D for the SK1 chromosome] linked in the centromere region (black circle). The meiotic DSB(s) is repaired on one of the non-sister chromatid either by a NCO or by a CO associated (or not) with a GC. Depending on the relative segregation of the chromatids in the RTG cells, different outcomes are expected: a non-reciprocal LOH (nrLOH) or a reciprocal LOH (rLOH). The genotypic outcomes when a single DSB is formed on chromatid C and repaired either as a NCO or a CO (+GC) using the chromatid B are illustrated. Asterisk: the CO is masked by the chromosome segregation of the reciprocal products in the same cell while the GC associated with this CO leads to a nrLOH that is undistinguishable from a NCO-induced nrLOH.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["equational segregation", "recessive alleles", "traits loci", "Whole genome sequencing", "heterozygosity events", "RTG strains", "Darwinian selection", "Yeast Diploid Hybrid", "mosaic recombined genome", "S 288c diploid strain", "novel allele combinations", "Meiotic Reversion", "QTL", "36 RTG strains", "diploid strains", "arsenate resistance traits validates", "LOH", "genome diversification", "mitotic growth", "RTG process", "Extensive Recombination"], "article_id"=>2749006, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Raphaëlle Laureau", "Sophie Loeillet", "Francisco Salinas", "Anders Bergström", "Patricia Legoix-Né", "Gianni Liti", "Alain Nicolas"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005781.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Outcome_of_recombination_events_in_diploid_RTG_cells_/2749006", "title"=>"Outcome of recombination events in diploid RTG cells.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-02-01 13:45:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430677"], "description"=>"<p>The S288c/SK1 hybrid diploid is induced to enter meiosis after transfer into the sporulation medium (1% KAc). The major steps of yeast meiosis are presented on a timeline: S–premeiotic DNA replication, DSBs–Spo11-dependent double strand breaks initiate meiotic recombination, COs–crossover formation, MI–reductional division of the homologs, MII–equational division separating the recombined sister chromatids and formation of four haploid recombinant spores maintained together in a tetrad. The transfer of the meiotic cells into a rich growth medium (YPD) prior to MI reverses the progression of meiosis into a mitotic cell cycle. Return to Growth (RTG), that does not induce replication, allows the transient meiotic mother cell to bud and yield a “daughter” cell. Both the mother and daughter diploid cells inherit two of the four chromatids (recombined or not) that were present in the meiotic cell at the time of RTG induction. Two methods were used to isolate the RTG cells: (left drawing) selection of Arg<sup>+</sup> recombinant RTG cells generated by intragenic recombination between the <i>arg4</i> heteroalleles or (right drawing) separation of the mother and its first daughter cell, a few hours after the induction of the RTG process. Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) and bioinformatics analyses of the sequencing reads, allows to determine the genotype of the RTG cell at the numerous SNP positions of the parental haplotypes (red: homozygous S288c, blue: homozygous SK1, grey: heterozygous S288c and SK1).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["equational segregation", "recessive alleles", "traits loci", "Whole genome sequencing", "heterozygosity events", "RTG strains", "Darwinian selection", "Yeast Diploid Hybrid", "mosaic recombined genome", "S 288c diploid strain", "novel allele combinations", "Meiotic Reversion", "QTL", "36 RTG strains", "diploid strains", "arsenate resistance traits validates", "LOH", "genome diversification", "mitotic growth", "RTG process", "Extensive Recombination"], "article_id"=>2748976, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Raphaëlle Laureau", "Sophie Loeillet", "Francisco Salinas", "Anders Bergström", "Patricia Legoix-Né", "Gianni Liti", "Alain Nicolas"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005781.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Outline_of_the_landmark_meiotic_events_and_methods_to_isolate_RTG_cells_/2748976", "title"=>"Outline of the landmark meiotic events and methods to isolate RTG cells.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-02-01 13:45:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430731"], "description"=>"<p>(A) At each passage, the parental strain was subjected to RTG and the mother-daughter RTG cells separated by micromanipulation as described in <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005781#sec015\" target=\"_blank\">Materials and Methods</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005781#pgen.1005781.g001\" target=\"_blank\">Fig 1</a>. Thus, the parental hybrid strain (AND1702) gave rise to the RTG8-M and RTG8-D cells at passage 1. Similarly the RTG8-M strain gave rise to the RTG8-M-M and RTG8-M-D cells at passage 2. Finally, the RTG8-M-M strain gave rise to RTG8-M-M-M and RTG8-M-M-D at passage 3. The same protocol and nomenclature were applied for the other strains of this lineage. (B) Evolution of the SNP position status along the lineage. At each passage, the pre-existing LOH regions (homozygous SNP positions in a given strain) are transmitted to both RTG descendants and novel reciprocal LOH are generated. Thus, the RTG iteration increases the proportion of LOH regions in the genome, drifting towards one or the other genotype (S288c in red or SK1 in blue).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["equational segregation", "recessive alleles", "traits loci", "Whole genome sequencing", "heterozygosity events", "RTG strains", "Darwinian selection", "Yeast Diploid Hybrid", "mosaic recombined genome", "S 288c diploid strain", "novel allele combinations", "Meiotic Reversion", "QTL", "36 RTG strains", "diploid strains", "arsenate resistance traits validates", "LOH", "genome diversification", "mitotic growth", "RTG process", "Extensive Recombination"], "article_id"=>2749012, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Raphaëlle Laureau", "Sophie Loeillet", "Francisco Salinas", "Anders Bergström", "Patricia Legoix-Né", "Gianni Liti", "Alain Nicolas"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005781.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Genotype_of_RTG_cells_generated_upon_iteration_of_the_RTG_process_/2749012", "title"=>"Genotype of RTG cells generated upon iteration of the RTG process.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-02-01 13:45:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430692"], "description"=>"<p>The relative frequency of the three genotypes (homozygous S288c in red, homozygous SK1 in blue and heterozygous S288c/SK1 in grey) is indicated in the legend boxes.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["equational segregation", "recessive alleles", "traits loci", "Whole genome sequencing", "heterozygosity events", "RTG strains", "Darwinian selection", "Yeast Diploid Hybrid", "mosaic recombined genome", "S 288c diploid strain", "novel allele combinations", "Meiotic Reversion", "QTL", "36 RTG strains", "diploid strains", "arsenate resistance traits validates", "LOH", "genome diversification", "mitotic growth", "RTG process", "Extensive Recombination"], "article_id"=>2748982, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Raphaëlle Laureau", "Sophie Loeillet", "Francisco Salinas", "Anders Bergström", "Patricia Legoix-Né", "Gianni Liti", "Alain Nicolas"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005781.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Genome_wide_genotype_of_the_six_RTG_strains_obtained_upon_arginine_prototroph_selection_/2748982", "title"=>"Genome-wide genotype of the six RTG strains obtained upon arginine prototroph selection.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-02-01 13:45:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430734"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Semi-quantitative measure of growth rate by spot assay (<a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005781#sec015\" target=\"_blank\">Materials and Methods</a>) for the parental S288c and SK1 haploids, the hybrid S288c/SK1 diploid and the RTG2-S, RTG9-M and RTG9-D diploid cells which are representative of the degree of growth variation observed among the 36 RTG strains. Control: standard medium; Arsenite: standard medium + NaAsO2 1.5mM. (B) LOD (logarithm of odds) score values along the 16 chromosomes for leucine auxotrophy, a monogenic binary trait. A region of 10kb [chr. III: ~65-76kb] shows a significant association with leucine auxotrophy and includes the expected causal <i>HIS4-LEU2</i> locus [chr. III: ~66-68kb]. (C) LOD score values along the 16 chromosomes for methionine auxotrophy, a monogenic binary trait. A region of 265kb [chr. XII: ~627-892kb] shows a significant association with methionine auxotrophy and includes the causal <i>MET15</i> locus [chr. XII: ~733-734kb]. (D) LOD score values along the 16 chromosomes for histidine auxotrophy, a digenic binary trait. A region of 219kb [chr. XV: ~690-909kb] shows a significant association with histidine auxotrophy and includes one causal locus <i>HIS3</i> [chr. XV: ~722 -723kb]. However, no significant association is found with the second causal locus <i>HIS4-LEU2</i> [chr. III: ~66-68kb]. (E) LOD score values along the 16 chromosomes for arsenite resistance. Coordinates of the unique significant linkage interval: chr. XVI: ~819–925 kb. The zoom-in outlines the LOD peak value towards the end of chromosome XVI. The ARR (ARsenicals Resistance) cluster (black arrow head, coordinates chr. XVI: ~938-941kb) is a cluster of three genes, <i>ARR1</i>, <i>ARR2</i> and <i>ARR3</i>, located distal to our ultimate genotyped SNP position of this chromosomal arm (chr. XVI: 928,226bp). The ARR cluster of genes is present in the S288c strain background but absent in SK1.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["equational segregation", "recessive alleles", "traits loci", "Whole genome sequencing", "heterozygosity events", "RTG strains", "Darwinian selection", "Yeast Diploid Hybrid", "mosaic recombined genome", "S 288c diploid strain", "novel allele combinations", "Meiotic Reversion", "QTL", "36 RTG strains", "diploid strains", "arsenate resistance traits validates", "LOH", "genome diversification", "mitotic growth", "RTG process", "Extensive Recombination"], "article_id"=>2749015, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Raphaëlle Laureau", "Sophie Loeillet", "Francisco Salinas", "Anders Bergström", "Patricia Legoix-Né", "Gianni Liti", "Alain Nicolas"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005781.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Phenotypic_analyses_and_trait_mapping_using_36_RTG_diploid_strains_/2749015", "title"=>"Phenotypic analyses and trait mapping using 36 RTG diploid strains.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-02-01 13:45:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430536", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430626", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430629", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430635", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430641", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430644", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430647", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430653", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430656", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430662", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430617", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430614", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430608", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430542", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430554", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430560", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430566", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430572", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430581", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430593", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430596", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430599", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430665"], "description"=>"<div><p>In somatic cells, recombination between the homologous chromosomes followed by equational segregation leads to loss of heterozygosity events (LOH), allowing the expression of recessive alleles and the production of novel allele combinations that are potentially beneficial upon Darwinian selection. However, inter-homolog recombination in somatic cells is rare, thus reducing potential genetic variation. Here, we explored the property of <i>S</i>. <i>cerevisiae</i> to enter the meiotic developmental program, induce meiotic Spo11-dependent double-strand breaks genome-wide and return to mitotic growth, a process known as Return To Growth (RTG). Whole genome sequencing of 36 RTG strains derived from the hybrid S288c/SK1 diploid strain demonstrates that the RTGs are <i>bona fide</i> diploids with mosaic recombined genome, derived from either parental origin. Individual RTG genome-wide genotypes are comprised of 5 to 87 homozygous regions due to the loss of heterozygous (LOH) events of various lengths, varying between a few nucleotides up to several hundred kilobases. Furthermore, we show that reiteration of the RTG process shows incremental increases of homozygosity. Phenotype/genotype analysis of the RTG strains for the auxotrophic and arsenate resistance traits validates the potential of this procedure of genome diversification to rapidly map complex traits loci (QTLs) in diploid strains without undergoing sexual reproduction.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["equational segregation", "recessive alleles", "traits loci", "Whole genome sequencing", "heterozygosity events", "RTG strains", "Darwinian selection", "Yeast Diploid Hybrid", "mosaic recombined genome", "S 288c diploid strain", "novel allele combinations", "Meiotic Reversion", "QTL", "36 RTG strains", "diploid strains", "arsenate resistance traits validates", "LOH", "genome diversification", "mitotic growth", "RTG process", "Extensive Recombination"], "article_id"=>2748955, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Raphaëlle Laureau", "Sophie Loeillet", "Francisco Salinas", "Anders Bergström", "Patricia Legoix-Né", "Gianni Liti", "Alain Nicolas"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005781.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005781.s014", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005781.s015", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005781.s016", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005781.s017", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005781.s018", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005781.s019", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005781.s020", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005781.s021", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005781.s022", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005781.s013", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005781.s012", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005781.s011", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005781.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005781.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005781.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005781.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005781.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005781.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005781.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005781.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005781.s010", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005781.s023"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Extensive_Recombination_of_a_Yeast_Diploid_Hybrid_through_Meiotic_Reversion/2748955", "title"=>"Extensive Recombination of a Yeast Diploid Hybrid through Meiotic Reversion", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2016-02-01 13:45:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4430704"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Genotype of the RTG11-M and RTG11-D cells. (B) For comparison, the genotype of the RTG11-M and RTG11-D chromosomes are shown on top of each other, revealing that they have complementary LOH regions. The zoom-ins of particular types of event is shown on the right. Other legends as in <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005781#pgen.1005781.g002\" target=\"_blank\">Fig 2</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["equational segregation", "recessive alleles", "traits loci", "Whole genome sequencing", "heterozygosity events", "RTG strains", "Darwinian selection", "Yeast Diploid Hybrid", "mosaic recombined genome", "S 288c diploid strain", "novel allele combinations", "Meiotic Reversion", "QTL", "36 RTG strains", "diploid strains", "arsenate resistance traits validates", "LOH", "genome diversification", "mitotic growth", "RTG process", "Extensive Recombination"], "article_id"=>2748988, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Raphaëlle Laureau", "Sophie Loeillet", "Francisco Salinas", "Anders Bergström", "Patricia Legoix-Né", "Gianni Liti", "Alain Nicolas"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005781.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Genotype_analysis_of_the_mother_and_daughter_RTG_strains_/2748988", "title"=>"Genotype analysis of the mother and daughter RTG strains.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-02-01 13:45:34"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"59", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"24", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"10"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2016-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2016-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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