Carriage of λ Latent Virus Is Costly for Its Bacterial Host due to Frequent Reactivation in Monoxenic Mouse Intestine
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{"title"=>"Carriage of λ Latent Virus Is Costly for Its Bacterial Host due to Frequent Reactivation in Monoxenic Mouse Intestine", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Marianne", "last_name"=>"De Paepe", "scopus_author_id"=>"14036946900"}, {"first_name"=>"Laurent", "last_name"=>"Tournier", "scopus_author_id"=>"24077269600"}, {"first_name"=>"Elisabeth", "last_name"=>"Moncaut", "scopus_author_id"=>"57156579400"}, {"first_name"=>"Olivier", "last_name"=>"Son", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602422752"}, {"first_name"=>"Philippe", "last_name"=>"Langella", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003598187"}, {"first_name"=>"Marie Agnès", "last_name"=>"Petit", "scopus_author_id"=>"35592489100"}], "year"=>2016, "source"=>"PLoS Genetics", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84959862900", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pgen.1005861", "pui"=>"608905596", "pmid"=>"26871586", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84959862900", "issn"=>"15537404", "isbn"=>"1553-7404 (Electronic)\\r1553-7390 (Linking)"}, "id"=>"7b7f3813-677d-34dc-b8e0-b73f7bfe4c3a", "abstract"=>"Temperate phages, the bacterial viruses able to enter in a dormant prophage state in bacterial genomes, are present in the majority of bacterial strains for which the genome sequence is available. Although these prophages are generally considered to increase their hosts' fitness by bringing beneficial genes, studies demonstrating such effects in ecologically relevant environments are relatively limited to few bacterial species. Here, we investigated the impact of prophage carriage in the gastrointestinal tract of monoxenic mice. Combined with mathematical modelling, these experimental results provided a quantitative estimation of key parameters governing phage-bacteria interactions within this model ecosystem. We used wild-type and mutant strains of the best known host/phage pair, Escherichia coli and phage lambda. Unexpectedly, lambda prophage caused a significant fitness cost for its carrier, due to an induction rate 50-fold higher than in vitro, with 1 to 2% of the prophage being induced. However, when prophage carriers were in competition with isogenic phage susceptible bacteria, the prophage indirectly benefited its carrier by killing competitors: infection of susceptible bacteria led to phage lytic development in about 80% of cases. The remaining infected bacteria were lysogenized, resulting overall in the rapid lysogenization of the susceptible lineage. Moreover, our setup enabled to demonstrate that rare events of phage gene capture by homologous recombination occurred in the intestine of monoxenic mice. To our knowledge, this study constitutes the first quantitative characterization of temperate phage-bacteria interactions in a simplified gut environment. The high prophage induction rate detected reveals DNA damage-mediated SOS response in monoxenic mouse intestine. We propose that the mammalian gut, the most densely populated bacterial ecosystem on earth, might foster bacterial evolution through high temperate phage activity.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/carriage-%CE%BB-latent-virus-costly-bacterial-host-due-frequent-reactivation-monoxenic-mouse-intestine", "reader_count"=>34, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>13, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>1, "Student > Master"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>13, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>1, "Student > Master"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Engineering"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>7, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>21, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>3}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>21}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>7}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/3913180"], "description"=>"<p>Evolution with time of the proportion of bacteria carrying the virulent λ<i>cI</i>* prophage (S<sup>L</sup>) on bacteria carrying the λ<i>c</i><sup>ind-</sup> prophage (L). Means +/- standard error of the mean from 7 mice.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["prophage induction rate", "monoxenic mouse intestine", "Monoxenic Mouse Intestine Temperate phages", "phage lytic development", "bacteria", "carrier", "monoxenic mice", "phage λ. Unexpectedly", "DNA", "SOS"], "article_id"=>2277058, "categories"=>["Space Science", "Microbiology", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Science Policy", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Infectious Diseases", "Virology"], "users"=>["Marianne De Paepe", "Laurent Tournier", "Elisabeth Moncaut", "Olivier Son", "Philippe Langella", "Marie-Agnès Petit"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/2277058", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Transient_advantage_of_virulent_i_cI_i_phage_/2277058", "title"=>"Transient advantage of virulent λ<i>cI</i>*phage.", "pos_in_sequence"=>7, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-02-12 07:39:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/3913249"], "description"=>"<p>Estimated values of the model’s parameters.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["prophage induction rate", "monoxenic mouse intestine", "Monoxenic Mouse Intestine Temperate phages", "phage lytic development", "bacteria", "carrier", "monoxenic mice", "phage λ. Unexpectedly", "DNA", "SOS"], "article_id"=>2277094, "categories"=>["Space Science", "Microbiology", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Science Policy", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Infectious Diseases", "Virology"], "users"=>["Marianne De Paepe", "Laurent Tournier", "Elisabeth Moncaut", "Olivier Son", "Philippe Langella", "Marie-Agnès Petit"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/2277094", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Estimated_values_of_the_model_s_parameters_/2277094", "title"=>"Estimated values of the model’s parameters.", "pos_in_sequence"=>9, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2016-02-12 07:39:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/3913138"], "description"=>"<p>A) Evolution of the ratio of lysogen over susceptible lineages (L/(S+S<sup>L</sup>)) in mice feces after day 2. Means +/- standard deviations from 8, 13 and 4 mice for initial L/S ratios (1:1, 1:10 and 1:100 respectively) are indicated. B) Evolution over 9 days of L/(S+S<sup>L</sup>) ratio for wild-type λ prophage (brown line) or for λ<i>cI</i><sup>ind-</sup> deficient for induction (black line). Means +/- standard error of the mean from 7 and 12 mice for λ<i>cI</i><sup>ind-</sup> and wild-type respectively. C) Two-phase temporal simulation of L/(S+S<sup>L</sup>) ratio, with a switch at 48h to a lamB<sup>-</sup> version of the model (i.e. with a = 0). The ratio is shown for wild-type phage (red line) or λ<i>cI</i><sup>ind-</sup> mutant (blue line, with <i>x</i> = 2x10<sup>-7</sup>). The initial condition for the first phase is taken from data at time 0, and the initial condition for the second phase (“mutant model”) is taken from experimental data at 48h.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["prophage induction rate", "monoxenic mouse intestine", "Monoxenic Mouse Intestine Temperate phages", "phage lytic development", "bacteria", "carrier", "monoxenic mice", "phage λ. Unexpectedly", "DNA", "SOS"], "article_id"=>2277031, "categories"=>["Space Science", "Microbiology", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Science Policy", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Infectious Diseases", "Virology"], "users"=>["Marianne De Paepe", "Laurent Tournier", "Elisabeth Moncaut", "Olivier Son", "Philippe Langella", "Marie-Agnès Petit"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/2277031", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/A_high_i_in_vivo_i_induction_rate_penalizes_lysogens_in_the_absence_of_susceptible_bacteria_/2277031", "title"=>"A high <i>in vivo</i> induction rate penalizes lysogens in the absence of susceptible bacteria.", "pos_in_sequence"=>6, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-02-12 07:39:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/3913045"], "description"=>"<p>A) Evolution of the phage adsorption rate on bacteria from mouse feces. On day 1 the adsorption rate was close to its maximal theoretical value. Means +/- standard errors from three mice are indicated. B) Detection and enumeration of Mal<sup>-</sup> colonies on tetrazolium maltose plates after 2 days of colonization: white, wild-type Mal<sup>+</sup> colonies; red, Mal<sup>-</sup> colonies. Mal- colonies have mutations in <i>malT</i>, the positive regulator of the maltose operon, and do not express the phage receptor LamB. C) Evolution of the proportion of Mal- bacteria with time in the S and L lineages. In addition to the results of the co-colonization experiments, the proportion of Mal<sup>-</sup> bacteria during two independent monocolonization experiments are indicated: black line, monocolonization with the S strain; dotted line, monocolonization with a <i>lamB</i> strain. Means +/- standard deviations of four mice in each experiment are indicated.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["prophage induction rate", "monoxenic mouse intestine", "Monoxenic Mouse Intestine Temperate phages", "phage lytic development", "bacteria", "carrier", "monoxenic mice", "phage λ. Unexpectedly", "DNA", "SOS"], "article_id"=>2276974, "categories"=>["Space Science", "Microbiology", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Science Policy", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Infectious Diseases", "Virology"], "users"=>["Marianne De Paepe", "Laurent Tournier", "Elisabeth Moncaut", "Olivier Son", "Philippe Langella", "Marie-Agnès Petit"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/2276974", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Resistant_mutants_invade_independently_of_phage_presence_/2276974", "title"=>"Resistant mutants invade independently of phage presence.", "pos_in_sequence"=>3, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-02-12 07:39:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/3913279"], "description"=>"<p>The induction rate was measured on ampicillin plates by scoring infective centers, as described in the Materials and Methods section. Since bile salts were shown to cause DNA damage in bacteria [<a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005861#pgen.1005861.ref034\" target=\"_blank\">34</a>], and to induce a <i>Salmonella</i> prophage [<a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005861#pgen.1005861.ref035\" target=\"_blank\">35</a>], we measured their effect on λ induction rate, but no change was detected. Bile salts were added at a final concentration of 0.8%. Mean ± standard deviation of three independent experiments are indicated.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["prophage induction rate", "monoxenic mouse intestine", "Monoxenic Mouse Intestine Temperate phages", "phage lytic development", "bacteria", "carrier", "monoxenic mice", "phage λ. Unexpectedly", "DNA", "SOS"], "article_id"=>2277112, "categories"=>["Space Science", "Microbiology", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Science Policy", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Infectious Diseases", "Virology"], "users"=>["Marianne De Paepe", "Laurent Tournier", "Elisabeth Moncaut", "Olivier Son", "Philippe Langella", "Marie-Agnès Petit"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/2277112", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Induction_rate_per_lysogenic_bacteria_growing_on_rich_medium_LB_/2277112", "title"=>"Induction rate per lysogenic bacteria growing on rich medium (LB).", "pos_in_sequence"=>10, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2016-02-12 07:39:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/3913105"], "description"=>"<p>A) Temporal dynamics of the proportion of newly lysogenized bacteria (S<sup>L</sup>/(S+S<sup>L</sup>)) for three different initial L/S ratios, in the experimental data (left panel) and with numerical simulations of the model (right panel). Means +/- standard deviations from 8, 13 and 4 mice are indicated for L/S initial ratios 1:1, 1:10 and 1:100 respectively. In simulations, initial conditions for L and S densities are those of respective data. B) Temporal dynamics of the ratio of L over S lineages (L/(S+S<sup>L</sup>)), depending on the three initial L/S ratios (1:1, 1:10 and 1:100), in the experimental data (left panel) and in the simulation (right panel). Means +/- standard deviations from 8, 13 and 4 mice are indicated for L/S initial ratios 1:1, 1:10 and 1:100 respectively. In simulations, initial L and S densities are the mean of respective data. C) Impact of the lysogenization rate g on the final L over S lineages ratio, as predicted by the mathematical model.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["prophage induction rate", "monoxenic mouse intestine", "Monoxenic Mouse Intestine Temperate phages", "phage lytic development", "bacteria", "carrier", "monoxenic mice", "phage λ. Unexpectedly", "DNA", "SOS"], "article_id"=>2277010, "categories"=>["Space Science", "Microbiology", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Science Policy", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Infectious Diseases", "Virology"], "users"=>["Marianne De Paepe", "Laurent Tournier", "Elisabeth Moncaut", "Olivier Son", "Philippe Langella", "Marie-Agnès Petit"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/2277010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/High_lysogenization_limits_the_final_gain_of_the_original_prophage_carrier_strain_/2277010", "title"=>"High lysogenization limits the final gain of the original prophage carrier strain.", "pos_in_sequence"=>5, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-02-12 07:39:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/3913213"], "description"=>"<p><b>A)</b> The <i>cat</i> gene conferring chloramphenicol resistance Cm<sup>R</sup> (red arrow, cat) of the lysogenic strain is inserted in the defective prophage Rac. The gene is flanked by regions that share homology with the phage lambda. <b>B)</b> Upon induction, the λ phage replicates and can recombine with the bacterial chromosome in such a way that the <i>cat</i> gene is captured by homologous recombination. Bacteria lysogenized by a recombinant phage are resistant to chloramphenicol.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["prophage induction rate", "monoxenic mouse intestine", "Monoxenic Mouse Intestine Temperate phages", "phage lytic development", "bacteria", "carrier", "monoxenic mice", "phage λ. Unexpectedly", "DNA", "SOS"], "article_id"=>2277070, "categories"=>["Space Science", "Microbiology", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Science Policy", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Infectious Diseases", "Virology"], "users"=>["Marianne De Paepe", "Laurent Tournier", "Elisabeth Moncaut", "Olivier Son", "Philippe Langella", "Marie-Agnès Petit"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/2277070", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Horizontal_gene_transfer_mediated_by_/2277070", "title"=>"Horizontal gene transfer mediated by λ.", "pos_in_sequence"=>8, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-02-12 07:39:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/3912946", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/3912955", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/3912964", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/3912970", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/3912976", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/3912985"], "description"=>"<div><p>Temperate phages, the bacterial viruses able to enter in a dormant prophage state in bacterial genomes, are present in the majority of bacterial strains for which the genome sequence is available. Although these prophages are generally considered to increase their hosts’ fitness by bringing beneficial genes, studies demonstrating such effects in ecologically relevant environments are relatively limited to few bacterial species. Here, we investigated the impact of prophage carriage in the gastrointestinal tract of monoxenic mice. Combined with mathematical modelling, these experimental results provided a quantitative estimation of key parameters governing phage-bacteria interactions within this model ecosystem. We used wild-type and mutant strains of the best known host/phage pair, <i>Escherichia coli</i> and phage λ. Unexpectedly, λ prophage caused a significant fitness cost for its carrier, due to an induction rate 50-fold higher than <i>in vitro</i>, with 1 to 2% of the prophage being induced. However, when prophage carriers were in competition with isogenic phage susceptible bacteria, the prophage indirectly benefited its carrier by killing competitors: infection of susceptible bacteria led to phage lytic development in about 80% of cases. The remaining infected bacteria were lysogenized, resulting overall in the rapid lysogenization of the susceptible lineage. Moreover, our setup enabled to demonstrate that rare events of phage gene capture by homologous recombination occurred in the intestine of monoxenic mice. To our knowledge, this study constitutes the first quantitative characterization of temperate phage-bacteria interactions in a simplified gut environment. The high prophage induction rate detected reveals DNA damage-mediated SOS response in monoxenic mouse intestine. We propose that the mammalian gut, the most densely populated bacterial ecosystem on earth, might foster bacterial evolution through high temperate phage activity.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["prophage induction rate", "monoxenic mouse intestine", "Monoxenic Mouse Intestine Temperate phages", "phage lytic development", "bacteria", "carrier", "monoxenic mice", "phage λ. Unexpectedly", "DNA", "SOS"], "article_id"=>2276920, "categories"=>["Space Science", "Microbiology", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Science Policy", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Infectious Diseases", "Virology"], "users"=>["Marianne De Paepe", "Laurent Tournier", "Elisabeth Moncaut", "Olivier Son", "Philippe Langella", "Marie-Agnès Petit"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005861.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005861.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005861.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005861.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005861.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005861.s006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Carriage_of_Latent_Virus_Is_Costly_for_Its_Bacterial_Host_due_to_Frequent_Reactivation_in_Monoxenic_Mouse_Intestine/2276920", "title"=>"Carriage of λ Latent Virus Is Costly for Its Bacterial Host due to Frequent Reactivation in Monoxenic Mouse Intestine", "pos_in_sequence"=>1, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2016-02-12 07:39:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/3913072"], "description"=>"<p>A) Diagram representing the interactions between the different populations. S and L lineages grow with a common maximal growth rate <i>r</i> and carrying capacity <i>k</i>. Lysogenic populations (L and S<sup>L</sup>) switch to lysis at a rate <i>x</i> entering latent population Q. Phage binding on bacteria is determined by the adsorption constant <i>a</i>. Infection of susceptible leads either to lysogenization with probability <i>g</i>, or to lytic cycle with probability 1-<i>g</i>. Latency rate <i>l</i> and burst size <i>y</i> determine the production of free phage V. The dilution term <i>d</i> accounts for the mouse gastrointestinal flux. B) System of differential equations governing the dynamics of the five populations (variable N denotes total population L+S+S<sup>L</sup>). C) Numerical simulations of the model with estimated values of <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005861#pgen.1005861.t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>: the lines represent the temporal evolution of population densities S+S<sup>L</sup> (blue), L (red), S<sup>L</sup> (green) and V (purple), with different initial conditions: L<sub>0</sub> = 1x10<sup>6</sup> cfu/g and, from left to right, S<sub>0</sub> = L<sub>0</sub>, S<sub>0</sub> = 10×L<sub>0</sub>, S<sub>0</sub> = 100×L<sub>0</sub>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["prophage induction rate", "monoxenic mouse intestine", "Monoxenic Mouse Intestine Temperate phages", "phage lytic development", "bacteria", "carrier", "monoxenic mice", "phage λ. Unexpectedly", "DNA", "SOS"], "article_id"=>2276989, "categories"=>["Space Science", "Microbiology", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Science Policy", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Infectious Diseases", "Virology"], "users"=>["Marianne De Paepe", "Laurent Tournier", "Elisabeth Moncaut", "Olivier Son", "Philippe Langella", "Marie-Agnès Petit"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/2276989", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Quantitative_mathematical_modelling_of_temperate_phage_bacteria_interactions_/2276989", "title"=>"Quantitative mathematical modelling of temperate phage-bacteria interactions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>4, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-02-12 07:39:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/3913018"], "description"=>"<p>A) Temporal evolution of bacterial lineages S, L and S<sup>L</sup> and free phage V densities in mouse feces: L bacteria (red), bacteria from the susceptible lineage (S + S<sup>L</sup>, blue), S<sup>L</sup> bacteria (green), free phage (purple, V). Means +/- standard deviation from 8 mice in 2 independent experiments are indicated. B) Temporal evolution of S, L and free phage V densities in feces of mice colonized with <i>lamB</i> derivatives of bacterial strains. Means +/- standard deviations from 6 mice are indicated. C) Temporal dynamics of the free phage (V) over total lysogen (L + S<sup>L</sup>) ratio in mouse feces. Mice were colonized either with the two strains of panels A (wt, full line), or with their <i>lamB</i> derivatives described in panel B (dashed line). Means +/- standard errors from 8 and 6 mice for the wt and <i>lamB</i> strains respectively are indicated. D) Temporal dynamics of bacterial lineages S, L, S<sup>L</sup> and free phage V subjected to serial transfers in LB flasks. Phage propagation is very limited, as observed by the low density of S<sup>L</sup> bacteria and free phage V. E) Same populations in LB supplemented with 5 mM MgSO<sub>4</sub>. Means +/- standard deviations of ratios on 4 independent cultures are indicated.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["prophage induction rate", "monoxenic mouse intestine", "Monoxenic Mouse Intestine Temperate phages", "phage lytic development", "bacteria", "carrier", "monoxenic mice", "phage λ. Unexpectedly", "DNA", "SOS"], "article_id"=>2276959, "categories"=>["Space Science", "Microbiology", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Science Policy", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Infectious Diseases", "Virology"], "users"=>["Marianne De Paepe", "Laurent Tournier", "Elisabeth Moncaut", "Olivier Son", "Philippe Langella", "Marie-Agnès Petit"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/2276959", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Rapid_phage_propagation_occurs_during_the_first_day_of_colonization_/2276959", "title"=>"Rapid phage propagation occurs during the first day of colonization.", "pos_in_sequence"=>2, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-02-12 07:39:47"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2016-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2016-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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