Transposon Dysregulation Modulates dWnt4 Signaling to Control Germline Stem Cell Differentiation in Drosophila
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{"title"=>"Transposon Dysregulation Modulates dWnt4 Signaling to Control Germline Stem Cell Differentiation in Drosophila", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Maitreyi", "last_name"=>"Upadhyay", "scopus_author_id"=>"55355585400"}, {"first_name"=>"Yesenia", "last_name"=>"Martino Cortez", "scopus_author_id"=>"57188708930"}, {"first_name"=>"Siu Wah", "last_name"=>"Wong-Deyrup", "scopus_author_id"=>"10440738400"}, {"first_name"=>"Leticia", "last_name"=>"Tavares", "scopus_author_id"=>"57188694795"}, {"first_name"=>"Sean", "last_name"=>"Schowalter", "scopus_author_id"=>"57188703943"}, {"first_name"=>"Pooja", "last_name"=>"Flora", "scopus_author_id"=>"57188711394"}, {"first_name"=>"Corinne", "last_name"=>"Hill", "scopus_author_id"=>"57188700925"}, {"first_name"=>"Mohamad Ali", "last_name"=>"Nasrallah", "scopus_author_id"=>"57188709347"}, {"first_name"=>"Sridar", "last_name"=>"Chittur", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506096247"}, {"first_name"=>"Prashanth", "last_name"=>"Rangan", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003316090"}], "year"=>2016, "source"=>"PLoS Genetics", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84962339943", "sgr"=>"84962339943", "issn"=>"15537404", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pgen.1005918", "pui"=>"609631073", "pmid"=>"27019121"}, "id"=>"16f43d03-3edc-3b90-889d-148a2f2a941b", "abstract"=>"Germline stem cell (GSC) self-renewal and differentiation are required for the sustained production of gametes. GSC differentiation in Drosophila oogenesis requires expression of the histone methyltransferase dSETDB1 by the somatic niche, however its function in this process is unknown. Here, we show that dSETDB1 is required for the expression of a Wnt ligand, Drosophila Wingless type mouse mammary virus integration site number 4 (dWnt4) in the somatic niche. dWnt4 signaling acts on the somatic niche cells to facilitate their encapsulation of the GSC daughter, which serves as a differentiation cue. dSETDB1 is known to repress transposable elements (TEs) to maintain genome integrity. Unexpectedly, we found that independent upregulation of TEs also downregulated dWnt4, leading to GSC differentiation defects. This suggests that dWnt4 expression is sensitive to the presence of TEs. Together our results reveal a chromatin-transposon-Wnt signaling axis that regulates stem cell fate.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/transposon-dysregulation-modulates-dwnt4-signaling-control-germline-stem-cell-differentiation-drosop", "reader_count"=>18, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>14}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>14}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4}}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4872166"], "description"=>"<p>(A) A schematic of the <i>Drosophila</i> female germarium present at the anterior-most end of each ovariole. Stem cells (blue) are attached to the cap cells (light green). The stem cells divide to give rise to the cystoblast (blue) that turns on expression of Bam, and is referred to as the differentiating cystoblast (green). The cystoblast then undergoes four incomplete mitotic divisions to give rise to a 16-cell cyst (blue). The germline is surrounded by the somatic niche composed of the terminal filament (red), cap cells (light green) and escort cells (grey). (B) Microarray analysis of <i>dSETDB1</i> mutants compared to <i>bam</i> mutants showing that transposons (blue) are upregulated and <i>dWnt4</i> (green) is downregulated. (C-F) Wild type, <i>dWnt4</i> heterozygotes and <i>dWnt4</i> mutants stained with 1B1 (red) and Vasa (green) showing an accumulation of >3 undifferentiated cells in <i>dWnt4</i> mutants (white line). (G) Quantification of the number of single cell spectrosomes in wild type (n = 50), <i>dWnt4</i> heterozygotes <i>dWnt4</i><sup><i>EMS23</i></sup> (n = 90), <i>dWnt4</i><sup><i>C1</i></sup> (n = 40) and <i>dWnt4</i> mutants (n = 90) showing a significant difference. (H-I2) <i>dWnt4</i> heterozygote and <i>dWnt4</i> mutant stained with pMad (red) (white asterisk), BamC (green), and Vasa (blue) showing that <i>dWnt4</i> mutants accumulate pMad and Bam negative cells (white line). pMad is shown in H1 and I1, BamC is shown in H2 and I2. (J) Quantification of number of pMad and Bam negative cells in <i>dWnt4</i> heterozygote (n = 22) and <i>dWnt4</i> mutants (n = 24) showing a significant increase in <i>dWnt4</i> mutants. (K-L) <i>dWnt4</i> heterozygote and <i>dWnt4</i> mutants carrying a <i>hs-</i>bam transgene stained with 1B1 (red) and Vasa (green) showing differentiating cysts marked by fusomes (red) post heat shock (white arrow). (M-N) <i>dWnt4</i> heterozygote and <i>dWnt4</i>, <i>dSETDB1</i> trans-heterozygote stained with 1B1 (red) and Vasa (green) showing an accumulation of >3 undifferentiated single cells (white line) in the trans-heterozygote.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Transposon Dysregulation Modulates dWnt 4 Signaling", "dWnt 4 expression", "TE", "niche", "virus integration site number 4", "Control Germline Stem Cell Differentiation", "histone methyltransferase dSETDB 1", "dSETDB 1", "Drosophila Wingless type mouse", "GSC differentiation defects"], "article_id"=>3132034, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Biochemistry", "Cell Biology", "Genetics", "Molecular Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Cancer"], "users"=>["Maitreyi Upadhyay", "Yesenia Martino Cortez", "SiuWah Wong-Deyrup", "Leticia Tavares", "Sean Schowalter", "Pooja Flora", "Corinne Hill", "Mohamad Ali Nasrallah", "Sridar Chittur", "Prashanth Rangan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005918.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_i_dWnt4_i_is_required_for_cystoblast_differentiation_/3132034", "title"=>"<i>dWnt4</i> is required for cystoblast differentiation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>2, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-03-28 05:53:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4872202"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Fluorescent <i>in situ</i> hybridization (FISH) for <i>dWnt4</i> mRNA (green) showing its expression in the somatic niche cells. (B-B1) Germarium of a <i>dWnt4</i> reporter stained for Zfh1 (red), GFP (green) and DAPI (blue) showing the expression of GFP in the escort cells (white arrows). (C) A qRT-PCR analysis showing <i>dWnt4</i> mRNA levels are downregulated in escort cell knockdowns (KD) of <i>dSETDB1</i> and <i>dWnt4</i>. (D-E) Control and <i>dWnt4 KD</i> stained with 1B1 (red) and Vasa (green) showing an accumulation of >3 undifferentiated cells in <i>dWnt4 KD</i> (white line). (F) A schematic of the dWnt4 pathway. dWnt4 binds to its receptor, Frizzled2 (Fz2) and activates a signaling cascade. This leads to stabilization of a transcription factor, β-catenin (Armadillo) and leads to activation of downstream target genes, such as <i>fz3</i>. (G-G1) Germarium of a fly carrying <i>frizzled3 RFP</i> (<i>fz3-RFP</i>) stained with RFP (red), 1B1 (blue) and Vasa (green) showing expression of Fz3RFP in the escort cells (white arrow). (H-I1) <i>dWnt4</i> mutants carrying the same transgene stained with RFP (red), 1B1 (blue) and Vasa (green) showing downregulation of Fz3-RFP expression (white arrow). (J) Quantification (n = 6) of RFP in the escort cells showing a downregulation in <i>dWnt4</i> mutants. (K-L) Control and <i>Frizzled2 KD</i>, stained with 1B1 (red), Vasa (green) and DAPI (blue) showing an accumulation of >3 undifferentiated cells in <i>Frizzled2 KD</i> (white line).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Transposon Dysregulation Modulates dWnt 4 Signaling", "dWnt 4 expression", "TE", "niche", "virus integration site number 4", "Control Germline Stem Cell Differentiation", "histone methyltransferase dSETDB 1", "dSETDB 1", "Drosophila Wingless type mouse", "GSC differentiation defects"], "article_id"=>3132067, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Biochemistry", "Cell Biology", "Genetics", "Molecular Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Cancer"], "users"=>["Maitreyi Upadhyay", "Yesenia Martino Cortez", "SiuWah Wong-Deyrup", "Leticia Tavares", "Sean Schowalter", "Pooja Flora", "Corinne Hill", "Mohamad Ali Nasrallah", "Sridar Chittur", "Prashanth Rangan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005918.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_i_dWnt4_i_is_expressed_in_and_acts_from_the_escort_cells_/3132067", "title"=>"<i>dWnt4</i> is expressed in and acts from the escort cells.", "pos_in_sequence"=>3, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-03-28 05:53:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4872325"], "description"=>"<p>(A-A1) <i>dSETDB1</i> mutant stained for 1B1 (red), Vasa (green) and DAPI (blue) showing an accumulation of undifferentiated cells and a lack of fusomes (3% exhibited 16-cell cysts, n = 29). (B-B1) <i>dSETDB1</i> mutant stained for 1B1 (red), Vasa (green) and DAPI (blue) where <i>dWnt4</i> has been overexpressed in the escort cells showing presence of fusomes (white arrow) (36% exhibited 16-cell cysts, n = 14). (C-C1) Germarium where <i>dSETDB1</i> has been specifically knocked down (KD) in the escort cells stained for 1B1 (red), Vasa (green) and DAPI (blue) showing an accumulation of undifferentiated cells and a lack of fusomes (6% exhibited 16 cell-cyst, n = 50). (D-D1) Germarium of <i>dSETDB1 KD</i> and <i>dWnt4</i> overexpression in the escort cells stained for 1B1 (red), Vasa (green) and DAPI (blue) showing presence of fusomes (white arrow) (23% exhibited 16-cell cysts). (E-E1) Germarium of <i>piwi KD</i> stained for 1B1 (red), Vasa (green) and DAPI (blue) showing an accumulation of undifferentiated cells and a lack of fusomes (9% exhibited 16 cell-cyst, n = 40). (F-F1) Germarium of <i>piwi KD</i> and <i>dWnt4</i> overexpression in the escort cells showing a presence of fusomes (white arrow) (32% exhibited 16-cell cysts, n = 54). (G) Quantification of the <i>dSETDB1</i>, <i>dSETDB1 KD</i> and <i>piwi KD</i> showing a partial rescue of differentiation upon overexpression of <i>dWnt4</i> specifically in the escort cells. Black bars illustrate the percentage of germaria containing only spectrosomes; Gray bars illustrate the percentage of germaria that also contain fusomes. (H) A schematic showing <i>dWnt4</i> is expressed in the escort cells and regulates formation of cytoplasmic processes that encapsulates the CB promoting differentiation. <i>dWnt4</i> acts downstream of the piRNA pathway and is sensitive to transposons expression.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Transposon Dysregulation Modulates dWnt 4 Signaling", "dWnt 4 expression", "TE", "niche", "virus integration site number 4", "Control Germline Stem Cell Differentiation", "histone methyltransferase dSETDB 1", "dSETDB 1", "Drosophila Wingless type mouse", "GSC differentiation defects"], "article_id"=>3132169, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Biochemistry", "Cell Biology", "Genetics", "Molecular Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Cancer"], "users"=>["Maitreyi Upadhyay", "Yesenia Martino Cortez", "SiuWah Wong-Deyrup", "Leticia Tavares", "Sean Schowalter", "Pooja Flora", "Corinne Hill", "Mohamad Ali Nasrallah", "Sridar Chittur", "Prashanth Rangan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005918.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Overexpression_of_i_dWnt4_i_in_the_escort_cell_partially_rescues_differentiation_defects_in_piRNA_pathway_mutants_/3132169", "title"=>"Overexpression of <i>dWnt4</i> in the escort cell partially rescues differentiation defects in piRNA pathway mutants.", "pos_in_sequence"=>7, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-03-28 05:53:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4872364"], "description"=>"<p>Quantitation of undifferentiated cells in mutants compared to control germaria.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Transposon Dysregulation Modulates dWnt 4 Signaling", "dWnt 4 expression", "TE", "niche", "virus integration site number 4", "Control Germline Stem Cell Differentiation", "histone methyltransferase dSETDB 1", "dSETDB 1", "Drosophila Wingless type mouse", "GSC differentiation defects"], "article_id"=>3132190, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Biochemistry", "Cell Biology", "Genetics", "Molecular Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Cancer"], "users"=>["Maitreyi Upadhyay", "Yesenia Martino Cortez", "SiuWah Wong-Deyrup", "Leticia Tavares", "Sean Schowalter", "Pooja Flora", "Corinne Hill", "Mohamad Ali Nasrallah", "Sridar Chittur", "Prashanth Rangan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005918.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Quantitation_of_undifferentiated_cells_in_mutants_compared_to_control_germaria_/3132190", "title"=>"Quantitation of undifferentiated cells in mutants compared to control germaria.", "pos_in_sequence"=>8, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2016-03-28 05:53:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4872298"], "description"=>"<p>(A) qRT-PCR analysis showing a significant downregulation of <i>dWnt4</i> mRNA levels compared to escort cell specific <i>fax</i> mRNA levels in escort cell specific knockdowns (KD) of <i>dWnt4</i>, <i>dSETDB1</i>, <i>piwi and flamenco</i> mutant compared to <i>bam</i> mutants. No significant change in <i>dWnt4</i> mRNA levels compared to <i>fax</i> mRNA levels was seen between <i>aubergine</i> mutants and its heterozygous control. (B–D2) Control, <i>piwi KD</i> and <i>flamenco</i> stained with Coracle (red), Zfh1 (green) (white arrow) and Vasa (blue) showing loss of CB encapsulation in <i>piwi KD</i> and <i>flamenco</i> compared to control.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Transposon Dysregulation Modulates dWnt 4 Signaling", "dWnt 4 expression", "TE", "niche", "virus integration site number 4", "Control Germline Stem Cell Differentiation", "histone methyltransferase dSETDB 1", "dSETDB 1", "Drosophila Wingless type mouse", "GSC differentiation defects"], "article_id"=>3132151, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Biochemistry", "Cell Biology", "Genetics", "Molecular Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Cancer"], "users"=>["Maitreyi Upadhyay", "Yesenia Martino Cortez", "SiuWah Wong-Deyrup", "Leticia Tavares", "Sean Schowalter", "Pooja Flora", "Corinne Hill", "Mohamad Ali Nasrallah", "Sridar Chittur", "Prashanth Rangan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005918.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Upregulation_of_transposons_leads_to_downregulation_of_i_dWnt4_i_/3132151", "title"=>"Upregulation of transposons leads to downregulation of <i>dWnt4</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>6, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-03-28 05:53:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4872253"], "description"=>"<p>(A-B1) Wild type and <i>dWnt4</i> mutant germaria stained with DE-Cadherin (red) and Zfh1 (green) (white arrow) show perturbed DE-Cadherin expression in <i>dWnt4</i> mutants. (C-D1) Wild type and <i>dWnt4</i> mutants stained with β-catenin (red) and Zfh1 (green) (white arrow) display perturbed β-catenin expression in <i>dWnt4</i> mutants. (E-F) Quantification (n = 5) of DE-Cadherin and β-catenin in the escort cells reveals a downregulation in <i>dWnt4</i> mutants. (G-H1) <i>dWnt4</i> heterozygote and <i>dWnt4</i> mutant germaria stained with GFP (green), Vasa (blue) and 1B1 (red) showing a loss of encapsulation in the <i>dWnt4</i> mutant. (I-J1) <i>dWnt4</i> heterozygote and <i>dWnt4</i> mutant germaria stained with Coracle (red), Vasa (blue) and Zfh1 (green) (white arrow) showing a loss of encapsulation in the <i>dWnt4</i> mutant. (K-L) Transmission Electron Micrography of <i>dWnt4</i> heterozygote showing encapsulation (white arrows) and <i>dWnt4</i> mutant showing loss of encapsulation. CB is highlighted in blue and escort cell is highlighted in green.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Transposon Dysregulation Modulates dWnt 4 Signaling", "dWnt 4 expression", "TE", "niche", "virus integration site number 4", "Control Germline Stem Cell Differentiation", "histone methyltransferase dSETDB 1", "dSETDB 1", "Drosophila Wingless type mouse", "GSC differentiation defects"], "article_id"=>3132121, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Biochemistry", "Cell Biology", "Genetics", "Molecular Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Cancer"], "users"=>["Maitreyi Upadhyay", "Yesenia Martino Cortez", "SiuWah Wong-Deyrup", "Leticia Tavares", "Sean Schowalter", "Pooja Flora", "Corinne Hill", "Mohamad Ali Nasrallah", "Sridar Chittur", "Prashanth Rangan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005918.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/dWnt4_regulates_encapsulation_of_the_CB_via_adherens_junction_proteins_/3132121", "title"=>"dWnt4 regulates encapsulation of the CB via adherens junction proteins.", "pos_in_sequence"=>5, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-03-28 05:53:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4872040", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4872049", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4872058", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4872073", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4872097", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4872112", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4872121", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4872145"], "description"=>"<div><p>Germline stem cell (GSC) self-renewal and differentiation are required for the sustained production of gametes. GSC differentiation in <i>Drosophila</i> oogenesis requires expression of the histone methyltransferase dSETDB1 by the somatic niche, however its function in this process is unknown. Here, we show that <i>dSETDB1</i> is required for the expression of a Wnt ligand, <i>Drosophila</i> <u>W</u>ingless type mouse mammary virus i<u>nt</u>egration site number <u>4</u> (dWnt4) in the somatic niche. dWnt4 signaling acts on the somatic niche cells to facilitate their encapsulation of the GSC daughter, which serves as a differentiation cue. dSETDB1 is known to repress transposable elements (TEs) to maintain genome integrity. Unexpectedly, we found that independent upregulation of TEs also downregulated <i>dWnt4</i>, leading to GSC differentiation defects. This suggests that <i>dWnt4</i> expression is sensitive to the presence of TEs. Together our results reveal a chromatin-transposon-Wnt signaling axis that regulates stem cell fate.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Transposon Dysregulation Modulates dWnt 4 Signaling", "dWnt 4 expression", "TE", "niche", "virus integration site number 4", "Control Germline Stem Cell Differentiation", "histone methyltransferase dSETDB 1", "dSETDB 1", "Drosophila Wingless type mouse", "GSC differentiation defects"], "article_id"=>3131932, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Biochemistry", "Cell Biology", "Genetics", "Molecular Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Cancer"], "users"=>["Maitreyi Upadhyay", "Yesenia Martino Cortez", "SiuWah Wong-Deyrup", "Leticia Tavares", "Sean Schowalter", "Pooja Flora", "Corinne Hill", "Mohamad Ali Nasrallah", "Sridar Chittur", "Prashanth Rangan"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005918.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005918.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005918.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005918.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005918.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005918.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005918.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005918.s008"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>11, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Transposon_Dysregulation_Modulates_dWnt4_Signaling_to_Control_Germline_Stem_Cell_Differentiation_in_i_Drosophila_i_/3131932", "title"=>"Transposon Dysregulation Modulates dWnt4 Signaling to Control Germline Stem Cell Differentiation in <i>Drosophila</i>", "pos_in_sequence"=>1, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2016-03-28 05:53:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4872229"], "description"=>"<p>(A-A1) Germarium of Innexin2-LacZ stained for LacZ (green), Zfh1 (red) and Vasa (blue) showing Inx2 expression in escort cells (white arrow). (B-C) <i>inx2</i> heterozygote and <i>inx2;dWnt4</i> trans-heterozygote stained with 1B1 (red), Vasa (green) and DAPI (blue) showing an accumulation of >3 undifferentiated cells in the trans-heterozygote (white line). (D-E) <i>inx2</i> heterozygote and <i>inx2;dWnt4</i> mutant germaria stained with LacZ (white line) showing perturbed LacZ expression in <i>dWnt4</i> mutant (white line). (F) Quantification (n = 5) of LacZ in the escort cells showing a downregulation in <i>dWnt4</i> mutant. (G-J2) <i>c587-GAL4</i> and escort cell knockdown (KD) of <i>inx2</i> stained for DE-Cadherin (red) and β-catenin (red) respectively, and Zfh1 (green) (white arrow) showing perturbed DE-Cadherin and β-catenin expression in <i>inx2 KD</i>. Quantifications for the same shown in H2 and J2. (K–M) Control, <i>DE-Cadherin KD</i> and <i>β-catenin KD</i> stained with 1B1 (red), Vasa (green) and DAPI (blue) respectively, showing an accumulation of >3 undifferentiated cells in <i>DE-Cadherin KD</i> and <i>β-catenin KDs</i> (white line).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Transposon Dysregulation Modulates dWnt 4 Signaling", "dWnt 4 expression", "TE", "niche", "virus integration site number 4", "Control Germline Stem Cell Differentiation", "histone methyltransferase dSETDB 1", "dSETDB 1", "Drosophila Wingless type mouse", "GSC differentiation defects"], "article_id"=>3132094, "categories"=>["Biophysics", "Biochemistry", "Cell Biology", "Genetics", "Molecular Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Cancer"], "users"=>["Maitreyi Upadhyay", "Yesenia Martino Cortez", "SiuWah Wong-Deyrup", "Leticia Tavares", "Sean Schowalter", "Pooja Flora", "Corinne Hill", "Mohamad Ali Nasrallah", "Sridar Chittur", "Prashanth Rangan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005918.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/dWnt4_regulates_Innexin2_in_the_escort_cells_/3132094", "title"=>"dWnt4 regulates Innexin2 in the escort cells.", "pos_in_sequence"=>4, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-03-28 05:53:58"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"10", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"8", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"8", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"9", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"10"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2016-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2016-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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