Functional diversification accompanies gene family expansion of MED2 homologs in Candida albicans
Publication Date
April 09, 2018
Authors
Matthew J. Dunn, Griffin M. Kinney, Pamela M. Washington, Judith Berman, et al
Volume
14
Issue
4
Pages
e1007326
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1007326
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosgenetics/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pgen.1007326
Scopus
85046449852
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/functional-diversification-accompanies-gene-family-expansion-med2-homologs-candida-albicans
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Functional diversification accompanies gene family expansion of MED2 homologs in Candida albicans", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Matthew J", "last_name"=>"Dunn"}, {"first_name"=>"Griffin M", "last_name"=>"Kinney"}, {"first_name"=>"Pamela M", "last_name"=>"Washington"}, {"first_name"=>"Judith", "last_name"=>"Berman"}, {"first_name"=>"Z", "last_name"=>"Anderson"}], "year"=>2018, "source"=>"PLOS Genetics", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"85046449852", "pmid"=>"29630599", "pui"=>"622014814", "issn"=>"1553-7404", "isbn"=>"1111111111", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-85046449852", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pgen.1007326"}, "id"=>"9620b93e-352b-3747-84bc-3260a7ddbdbf", "abstract"=>"\r\n\r\nGene duplication facilitates functional diversification and provides greater phenotypic flexibility to an organism. Expanded gene families arise through repeated gene duplication but the extent of functional divergence that accompanies each paralogous gene is generally unexplored because of the difficulty in isolating the effects of single family members. The telomere-associated (<i>TLO</i>) gene family is a remarkable example of gene family expansion, with 14 members in the more pathogenic <i>Candida albicans</i> relative to two <i>TLO</i> genes in the closely-related species <i>C</i>. <i>dubliniensis</i>. <i>TLO</i> genes encode interchangeable Med2 subunits of the major transcriptional regulatory complex Mediator. To identify biological functions associated with each <i>C</i>. <i>albicans TLO</i>, expression of individual family members was regulated using a Tet-ON system and the strains were assessed across a range of phenotypes involved in growth and virulence traits. All <i>TLO</i>s affected multiple phenotypes and a single phenotype was often affected by multiple <i>TLO</i>s, including simple phenotypes such as cell aggregation and complex phenotypes such as virulence in a <i>Galleria mellonella</i> model of infection. No phenotype was regulated by all <i>TLO</i>s, suggesting neofunctionalization or subfunctionalization of ancestral properties among different family members. Importantly, regulation of three phenotypes could be mapped to individual polymorphic sites among the <i>TLO</i> genes, including an indel correlated with two phenotypes, growth in sucrose and macrophage killing. Different selective pressures have operated on the <i>TLO</i> sequence, with the 5’ conserved Med2 domain experiencing purifying selection and the gene/clade-specific 3’ end undergoing extensive positive selection that may contribute to the impact of individual <i>TLO</i>s on phenotypic variability. Therefore, expansion of the <i>TLO</i> gene family has conferred unique regulatory properties to each paralog such that it influences a range of phenotypes. We posit that the genetic diversity associated with this expansion contributed to <i>C</i>. <i>albicans</i> success as a commensal and opportunistic pathogen.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/functional-diversification-accompanies-gene-family-expansion-med2-homologs-candida-albicans", "reader_count"=>5, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Researcher"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Master"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>1, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Researcher"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Master"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>1, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>1, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}}, "group_count"=>0}

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