Selection in Reported Epidemiological Risks: An Empirical Assessment
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{"title"=>"Selection in reported epidemiological risks: An empirical assessment", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Fotini K.", "last_name"=>"Kavvoura", "scopus_author_id"=>"10540679600"}, {"first_name"=>"George", "last_name"=>"Liberopoulos", "scopus_author_id"=>"16069246800"}, {"first_name"=>"John P A", "last_name"=>"Ioannidis", "scopus_author_id"=>"35377033000"}], "year"=>2007, "source"=>"PLoS Medicine", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"46495313", "sgr"=>"33947647431", "issn"=>"15491277", "pmid"=>"17341129", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-33947647431", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pmed.0040079", "isbn"=>"1549-1676"}, "id"=>"de785a52-efa3-36a1-b75c-2d55e12f8e03", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies may be subject to selective reporting, but empirical evidence thereof is limited. We empirically evaluated the extent of selection of significant results and large effect sizes in a large sample of recent articles. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We evaluated 389 articles of epidemiological studies that reported, in their respective abstracts, at least one relative risk for a continuous risk factor in contrasts based on median, tertile, quartile, or quintile categorizations. We examined the proportion and correlates of reporting statistically significant and nonsignificant results in the abstract and whether the magnitude of the relative risks presented (coined to be consistently > or =1.00) differs depending on the type of contrast used for the risk factor. In 342 articles (87.9%), > or =1 statistically significant relative risk was reported in the abstract, while only 169 articles (43.4%) reported > or =1 statistically nonsignificant relative risk in the abstract. Reporting of statistically significant results was more common with structured abstracts, and was less common in US-based studies and in cancer outcomes. Among 50 randomly selected articles in which the full text was examined, a median of nine (interquartile range 5-16) statistically significant and six (interquartile range 3-16) statistically nonsignificant relative risks were presented (p = 0.25). Paradoxically, the smallest presented relative risks were based on the contrasts of extreme quintiles; on average, the relative risk magnitude was 1.41-, 1.42-, and 1.36-fold larger in contrasts of extreme quartiles, extreme tertiles, and above-versus-below median values, respectively (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Published epidemiological investigations almost universally highlight significant associations between risk factors and outcomes. For continuous risk factors, investigators selectively present contrasts between more extreme groups, when relative risks are inherently lower.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/selection-reported-epidemiological-risks-empirical-assessment", "reader_count"=>52, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Other"=>9, "Student > Master"=>9, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Other"=>9, "Student > Master"=>9, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>2, "Unspecified"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Mathematics"=>2, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>20, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>11, "Philosophy"=>1, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>3, "Psychology"=>5, "Social Sciences"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>20}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>3}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>5}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>11}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>3}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Greece"=>1, "Gabon"=>1, "Canada"=>1, "United States"=>2, "Italy"=>1, "Chile"=>1, "France"=>1, "Kenya"=>1, "Portugal"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/951888"], "description"=>"<p>All relative risks have been coined to be ≥1.00 for consistency.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["risks", "contrasts", "postulated"], "article_id"=>622211, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Fotini K Kavvoura", "George Liberopoulos", "John P. A Ioannidis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0040079.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Box_Plots_for_Relative_Risks_for_Different_Contrasts_of_the_Values_of_the_Postulated_Risk_Factor_/622211", "title"=>"Box Plots for Relative Risks for Different Contrasts of the Values of the Postulated Risk Factor", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2007-03-06 00:36:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/468093"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Epidemiological studies may be subject to selective reporting, but empirical evidence thereof is limited. We empirically evaluated the extent of selection of significant results and large effect sizes in a large sample of recent articles.</p> <h3>Methods and Findings</h3><p>We evaluated 389 articles of epidemiological studies that reported, in their respective abstracts, at least one relative risk for a continuous risk factor in contrasts based on median, tertile, quartile, or quintile categorizations. We examined the proportion and correlates of reporting statistically significant and nonsignificant results in the abstract and whether the magnitude of the relative risks presented (coined to be consistently ≥1.00) differs depending on the type of contrast used for the risk factor. In 342 articles (87.9%), ≥1 statistically significant relative risk was reported in the abstract, while only 169 articles (43.4%) reported ≥1 statistically nonsignificant relative risk in the abstract. Reporting of statistically significant results was more common with structured abstracts, and was less common in US-based studies and in cancer outcomes. Among 50 randomly selected articles in which the full text was examined, a median of nine (interquartile range 5–16) statistically significant and six (interquartile range 3–16) statistically nonsignificant relative risks were presented (<em>p</em> = 0.25). Paradoxically, the smallest presented relative risks were based on the contrasts of extreme quintiles; on average, the relative risk magnitude was 1.41-, 1.42-, and 1.36-fold larger in contrasts of extreme quartiles, extreme tertiles, and above-versus-below median values, respectively (<em>p</em> < 0.001).</p> <h3>Conclusions</h3><p>Published epidemiological investigations almost universally highlight significant associations between risk factors and outcomes. For continuous risk factors, investigators selectively present contrasts between more extreme groups, when relative risks are inherently lower.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["reported", "epidemiological", "empirical"], "article_id"=>152293, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Fotini K Kavvoura", "George Liberopoulos", "John P. A Ioannidis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0040079", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Selection_in_Reported_Epidemiological_Risks_An_Empirical_Assessment/152293", "title"=>"Selection in Reported Epidemiological Risks: An Empirical Assessment", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2007-03-06 00:38:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/951814"], "description"=>"<p>Flow Diagram for Studies Included or Excluded from the Analyses According to Eligibility Criteria</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["diagram", "studies", "included", "excluded", "eligibility"], "article_id"=>622133, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Fotini K Kavvoura", "George Liberopoulos", "John P. A Ioannidis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0040079.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Flow_Diagram_for_Studies_Included_or_Excluded_from_the_Analyses_According_to_Eligibility_Criteria_/622133", "title"=>"Flow Diagram for Studies Included or Excluded from the Analyses According to Eligibility Criteria", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2007-03-06 00:35:33"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
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Relative Metric

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