Evaluating Drug Prices, Availability, Affordability, and Price Components: Implications for Access to Drugs in Malaysia
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{"title"=>"Evaluating drug prices, availability, affordability, and price components: Implications for access to drugs in Malaysia", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Zaheer Ud Din", "last_name"=>"Babar", "scopus_author_id"=>"35609264400"}, {"first_name"=>"Mohamed Izham Mohamed", "last_name"=>"Ibrahim", "scopus_author_id"=>"34769651500"}, {"first_name"=>"Harpal", "last_name"=>"Singh", "scopus_author_id"=>"35482705000"}, {"first_name"=>"Nadeem Irfan", "last_name"=>"Bukahri", "scopus_author_id"=>"16068324200"}, {"first_name"=>"Andrew", "last_name"=>"Creese", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603956946"}], "year"=>2007, "source"=>"PLoS Medicine", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"46495314", "sgr"=>"33947656506", "issn"=>"15491277", "pmid"=>"17388660", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-33947656506", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pmed.0040082", "isbn"=>"1549-1676"}, "id"=>"32692233-5b13-3f6a-b68c-d13c849b61e0", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Malaysia's stable health care system is facing challenges with increasing medicine costs. To investigate these issues a survey was carried out to evaluate medicine prices, availability, affordability, and the structure of price components.\\n\\nMETHODS AND FINDINGS: The methodology developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) and Health Action International (HAI) was used. Price and availability data for 48 medicines was collected from 20 public sector facilities, 32 private sector retail pharmacies and 20 dispensing doctors in four geographical regions of West Malaysia. Medicine prices were compared with international reference prices (IRPs) to obtain a median price ratio. The daily wage of the lowest paid unskilled government worker was used to gauge the affordability of medicines. Price component data were collected throughout the supply chain, and markups, taxes, and other distribution costs were identified. In private pharmacies, innovator brand (IB) prices were 16 times higher than the IRPs, while generics were 6.6 times higher. In dispensing doctor clinics, the figures were 15 times higher for innovator brands and 7.5 for generics. Dispensing doctors applied high markups of 50%-76% for IBs, and up to 316% for generics. Retail pharmacy markups were also high-25%-38% and 100%-140% for IBs and generics, respectively. In the public sector, where medicines are free, availability was low even for medicines on the National Essential Drugs List. For a month's treatment for peptic ulcer disease and hypertension people have to pay about a week's wages in the private sector.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS: The free market by definition does not control medicine prices, necessitating price monitoring and control mechanisms. Markups for generic products are greater than for IBs. Reducing the base price without controlling markups may increase profits for retailers and dispensing doctors without reducing the price paid by end users. To increase access and affordability, promotion of generic medicines and improved availability of medicines in the public sector are required.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/evaluating-drug-prices-availability-affordability-price-components-implications-access-drugs-malaysi", "reader_count"=>218, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>8, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>9, "Librarian"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>8, "Researcher"=>38, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>25, "Student > Postgraduate"=>24, "Student > Master"=>43, "Other"=>11, "Student > Bachelor"=>28, "Lecturer"=>7, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>10}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>8, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>9, "Librarian"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>8, "Researcher"=>38, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>25, "Student > Postgraduate"=>24, "Student > Master"=>43, "Other"=>11, "Student > Bachelor"=>28, "Lecturer"=>7, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>10}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>15, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>8, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>10, "Chemistry"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>9, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>107, "Design"=>1, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>32, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>22, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>107}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>22}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>15}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>32}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Design"=>{"Design"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>9}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>8}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>10}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Colombia"=>1, "Sri Lanka"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "Dominican Republic"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Malaysia"=>2, "Australia"=>2, "Peru"=>1, "India"=>1}, "group_count"=>6}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/467550", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/467628"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Malaysia's stable health care system is facing challenges with increasing medicine costs. To investigate these issues a survey was carried out to evaluate medicine prices, availability, affordability, and the structure of price components.</p> <h3>Methods and Findings</h3><p>The methodology developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) and Health Action International (HAI) was used. Price and availability data for 48 medicines was collected from 20 public sector facilities, 32 private sector retail pharmacies and 20 dispensing doctors in four geographical regions of West Malaysia. Medicine prices were compared with international reference prices (IRPs) to obtain a median price ratio. The daily wage of the lowest paid unskilled government worker was used to gauge the affordability of medicines. Price component data were collected throughout the supply chain, and markups, taxes, and other distribution costs were identified. In private pharmacies, innovator brand (IB) prices were 16 times higher than the IRPs, while generics were 6.6 times higher. In dispensing doctor clinics, the figures were 15 times higher for innovator brands and 7.5 for generics. Dispensing doctors applied high markups of 50%–76% for IBs, and up to 316% for generics. Retail pharmacy markups were also high—25%–38% and 100%–140% for IBs and generics, respectively. In the public sector, where medicines are free, availability was low even for medicines on the National Essential Drugs List. For a month's treatment for peptic ulcer disease and hypertension people have to pay about a week's wages in the private sector.</p> <h3>Conclusions</h3><p>The free market by definition does not control medicine prices, necessitating price monitoring and control mechanisms. Markups for generic products are greater than for IBs. Reducing the base price without controlling markups may increase profits for retailers and dispensing doctors without reducing the price paid by end users. To increase access and affordability, promotion of generic medicines and improved availability of medicines in the public sector are required.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["evaluating", "implications", "drugs", "malaysia"], "article_id"=>152184, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Zaheer Ud Din Babar", "Mohamed Izham Mohamed Ibrahim", "Harpal Singh", "Nadeem Irfan Bukahri", "Andrew Creese"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0040082.st001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0040082.st002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Evaluating_Drug_Prices_Availability_Affordability_and_Price_Components_Implications_for_Access_to_Drugs_in_Malaysia/152184", "title"=>"Evaluating Drug Prices, Availability, Affordability, and Price Components: Implications for Access to Drugs in Malaysia", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2007-03-27 00:36:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/951966"], "description"=>"<p>Affordability of Standard Treatments in the Dispensing Doctors' Sector and Private Sector Retail Pharmacies</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["treatments", "dispensing"], "article_id"=>622284, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Zaheer Ud Din Babar", "Mohamed Izham Mohamed Ibrahim", "Harpal Singh", "Nadeem Irfan Bukahri", "Andrew Creese"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0040082.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Affordability_of_Standard_Treatments_in_the_Dispensing_Doctors_Sector_and_Private_Sector_Retail_Pharmacies_/622284", "title"=>"Affordability of Standard Treatments in the Dispensing Doctors' Sector and Private Sector Retail Pharmacies", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2007-03-27 00:38:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/951900"], "description"=>"<p>Regional Variation in Median MPRs in Private Retail Sector Pharmacies</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["median", "mprs"], "article_id"=>622215, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Zaheer Ud Din Babar", "Mohamed Izham Mohamed Ibrahim", "Harpal Singh", "Nadeem Irfan Bukahri", "Andrew Creese"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0040082.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Regional_Variation_in_Median_MPRs_in_Private_Retail_Sector_Pharmacies_/622215", "title"=>"Regional Variation in Median MPRs in Private Retail Sector Pharmacies", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2007-03-27 00:36:55"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"73", "full-text"=>"86", "pdf"=>"11", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"57", "full-text"=>"64", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"94", "full-text"=>"99", "pdf"=>"10", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"102", "full-text"=>"113", "pdf"=>"9", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"54", "full-text"=>"68", "pdf"=>"10", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"44", "full-text"=>"43", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"66", "full-text"=>"68", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"47", "full-text"=>"161", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"73", "full-text"=>"85", "pdf"=>"17", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}

Relative Metric

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