Observational Research, Randomised Trials, and Two Views of Medical Science
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{"title"=>"Observational research, randomised trials, and two views of medical science", "type"=>"generic", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Jan P.", "last_name"=>"Vandenbroucke", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102418893"}], "year"=>2008, "source"=>"PLoS Medicine", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"15491277", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-41549117102", "sgr"=>"41549117102", "pui"=>"351471679", "isbn"=>"1549-1676 (Electronic)\\r1549-1277 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"18336067", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pmed.0050067"}, "id"=>"a67ca846-1862-33a4-b0ea-dbaf2e89616e", "abstract"=>"Two views exist of medical science, says the author, one emphasizing discovery and explanation, the other emphasizing evaluation of interventions. This essay analyses in what respects these views differ, and how they lead to opposite research hierarchies, with randomisation on top for evaluation and at bottom for discovery and explanation. The two views also differ strongly in their thinking about the role of prior specification of a research hypothesis. Hence, the essay explores the controversies surrounding subgroup analyses and multiplicity of analyses in observational research. This exploration leads to a rethinking of the universally accepted hierarchy of strength of study designs, which has the randomised trial on top: this hierarchy may be confounded by the prior odds of the research hypothesis. Finally, the strong opinions that are sometimes displayed in pitting the two types of medical science against each other may be explained by a difference in “loss function”: the difference in penalty for being wrong. A longer, more detailed version of this paper is found in supplementary Text S1.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/observational-research-randomised-trials-two-views-medical-science", "reader_count"=>267, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>17, "Librarian"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>10, "Researcher"=>58, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>51, "Student > Postgraduate"=>11, "Student > Master"=>35, "Other"=>27, "Student > Bachelor"=>15, "Lecturer"=>6, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>28}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>17, "Librarian"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>10, "Researcher"=>58, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>51, "Student > Postgraduate"=>11, "Student > Master"=>35, "Other"=>27, "Student > Bachelor"=>15, "Lecturer"=>6, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>28}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>15, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>24, "Philosophy"=>7, "Arts and Humanities"=>2, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>2, "Computer Science"=>4, "Decision Sciences"=>2, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>6, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Mathematics"=>2, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>159, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>3, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>18, "Social Sciences"=>13, "Linguistics"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>159}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>13}, "Decision Sciences"=>{"Decision Sciences"=>2}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>18}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>15}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>3}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>2}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>24}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>4}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>2}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>6}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>7}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Colombia"=>1, "United States"=>5, "United Kingdom"=>9, "Switzerland"=>2, "Spain"=>1, "Canada"=>7, "Netherlands"=>5, "Sweden"=>2, "Finland"=>1, "Brazil"=>3, "Denmark"=>2, "South Africa"=>1, "Italy"=>3, "Australia"=>1, "France"=>4, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>15}

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Figshare

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