A World Malaria Map: Plasmodium falciparum Endemicity in 2007
Publication Date
March 24, 2009
Journal
PLOS Medicine
Authors
Simon I Hay, Carlos A Guerra, Peter W Gething, Anand P Patil, et al
Volume
6
Issue
3
Pages
e1000048
DOI
http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000048
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosmedicine/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.1000048
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19323591
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2659708
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/19323591
Web of Science
000266214700013
Scopus
63449101880
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/world-malaria-map-plasmodium-falciparum-endemicity-2007
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"A world malaria map: plasmodium falciparum endemicity in 2007", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Simon I.", "last_name"=>"Hay", "scopus_author_id"=>"7101875313"}, {"first_name"=>"Carlos A.", "last_name"=>"Guerra", "scopus_author_id"=>"57128857000"}, {"first_name"=>"Peter W.", "last_name"=>"Gething", "scopus_author_id"=>"57193559189"}, {"first_name"=>"Anand P.", "last_name"=>"Patil", "scopus_author_id"=>"26425192800"}, {"first_name"=>"Andrew J.", "last_name"=>"Tatem", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603035928"}, {"first_name"=>"Abdisalan M.", "last_name"=>"Noor", "scopus_author_id"=>"7103299616"}, {"first_name"=>"Caroline W.", "last_name"=>"Kabaria", "scopus_author_id"=>"25653969300"}, {"first_name"=>"Bui H.", "last_name"=>"Manh", "scopus_author_id"=>"6504459988"}, {"first_name"=>"Iqbal R.F.", "last_name"=>"Elyazar", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506894785"}, {"first_name"=>"Simon", "last_name"=>"Brooker", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005926568"}, {"first_name"=>"David L.", "last_name"=>"Smith", "scopus_author_id"=>"55574206203"}, {"first_name"=>"Rana A.", "last_name"=>"Moyeed", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603373691"}, {"first_name"=>"Robert W.", "last_name"=>"Snow", "scopus_author_id"=>"56771582900"}], "year"=>2009, "source"=>"PLoS Medicine", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-63449101880", "sgr"=>"63449101880", "issn"=>"15491277", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pmed.1000048", "pmid"=>"19323591", "isbn"=>"1549-1676 (Electronic)\\r1549-1277 (Linking)", "pui"=>"354405053"}, "id"=>"b36a799c-80bb-3e89-982a-b56192c471cb", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND Efficient allocation of resources to intervene against malaria requires a detailed understanding of the contemporary spatial distribution of malaria risk. It is exactly 40 y since the last global map of malaria endemicity was published. This paper describes the generation of a new world map of Plasmodium falciparum malaria endemicity for the year 2007. METHODS AND FINDINGS A total of 8,938 P. falciparum parasite rate (PfPR) surveys were identified using a variety of exhaustive search strategies. Of these, 7,953 passed strict data fidelity tests for inclusion into a global database of PfPR data, age-standardized to 2-10 y for endemicity mapping. A model-based geostatistical procedure was used to create a continuous surface of malaria endemicity within previously defined stable spatial limits of P. falciparum transmission. These procedures were implemented within a Bayesian statistical framework so that the uncertainty of these predictions could be evaluated robustly. The uncertainty was expressed as the probability of predicting correctly one of three endemicity classes; previously stratified to be an informative guide for malaria control. Population at risk estimates, adjusted for the transmission modifying effects of urbanization in Africa, were then derived with reference to human population surfaces in 2007. Of the 1.38 billion people at risk of stable P. falciparum malaria, 0.69 billion were found in Central and South East Asia (CSE Asia), 0.66 billion in Africa, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia (Africa+), and 0.04 billion in the Americas. All those exposed to stable risk in the Americas were in the lowest endemicity class (PfPR2-10 < or = 5%). The vast majority (88%) of those living under stable risk in CSE Asia were also in this low endemicity class; a small remainder (11%) were in the intermediate endemicity class (PfPR2-10 > 5 to < 40%); and the remaining fraction (1%) in high endemicity (PfPR2-10 > or = 40%) areas. High endemicity was widespread in the Africa+ region, where 0.35 billion people are at this level of risk. Most of the rest live at intermediate risk (0.20 billion), with a smaller number (0.11 billion) at low stable risk. CONCLUSIONS High levels of P. falciparum malaria endemicity are common in Africa. Uniformly low endemic levels are found in the Americas. Low endemicity is also widespread in CSE Asia, but pockets of intermediate and very rarely high transmission remain. There are therefore significant opportunities for malaria control in Africa and for malaria elimination elsewhere. This 2007 global P. falciparum malaria endemicity map is the first of a series with which it will be possible to monitor and evaluate the progress of this intervention process.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/world-malaria-map-plasmodium-falciparum-endemicity-2007", "reader_count"=>503, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>28, "Librarian"=>3, "Researcher"=>99, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>30, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>119, "Student > Postgraduate"=>30, "Student > Master"=>87, "Other"=>28, "Student > Bachelor"=>45, "Lecturer"=>11, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>5, "Professor"=>13}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>28, "Librarian"=>3, "Researcher"=>99, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>30, "Student > Ph. D. 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  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"138"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"25", "xml_views"=>"8", "html_views"=>"120"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"26", "xml_views"=>"6", "html_views"=>"125"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"142"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"66"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"24", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"56"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"46"}

Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/904792"], "description"=>"<div><p>(A) Scatter plot of actual versus predicted point-values of <i>Pf</i>PR<sub>2−10</sub>.</p>\n <p>(B) Sample semi-variogram of standardized model Pearson residuals estimated at discrete lags (circles) and compared to a Monte Carlo envelope (dashed lines) representing the range of values expected by chance in the absence of spatial autocorrelation.</p>\n <p>(C) Receiver-Operating-Characteristic curves for each <i>Pf</i>PR<sub>2−10</sub> endemicity class (black line, <i>Pf</i>PR<sub>2−10</sub> ≤ 5%; red line, <i>Pf</i>PR<sub>2−10</sub> > 5% to < 40%; green line, <i>Pf</i>PR<sub>2−10</sub> ≥ 40%) and associated AUC statistics.</p>\n <p>(D) Probability-probability plot comparing predicted probability thresholds with the actual percentage of true values exceeding those thresholds. In the top left and bottom left plots the 1:1 line is also shown (dashed line) for reference. See text for full explanation of validation procedures and interpretation of results.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["validation"], "article_id"=>575232, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Mathematics", "Biological Sciences", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Simon I Hay", "Carlos A Guerra", "Peter W Gething", "Anand P Patil", "Andrew J Tatem", "Abdisalan M Noor", "Caroline W Kabaria", "Bui H Manh", "Iqbal R. F Elyazar", "Simon Brooker", "David L Smith", "Rana A Moyeed", "Robert W Snow"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000048.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Model_Validation_Plots_/575232", "title"=>"Model Validation Plots", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-03-24 01:27:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/904646"], "description"=>"<div><p>(A) The probability of <i>Pf</i>PR<sub>2−10</sub> being in the class to which it was assigned is mapped and shown as a yellow to blue continuum from 0.3̇ − 1. Any value above 0.3̇ is better than a chance allocation. The rest of the land area was defined as unstable risk (medium grey areas, where <i>Pf</i>API < 0.1 per 1,000 pa) or no risk (light grey) [<a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000048#pmed-1000048-b017\" target=\"_blank\">17</a>–<a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000048#pmed-1000048-b019\" target=\"_blank\">19</a>].</p>\n <p>(B) The population-weighted index of uncertainty. This index shows the likely importance of uncertainty assessed by the product of the log of population density (<a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000048#pmed-1000048-sd002\" target=\"_blank\">Protocol S2</a>.3) and the reciprocal of the probability of correct class assignment, rescaled from 0–1. The index is shown for the most probable <i>Pf</i>PR<sub>2−10</sub> endemicity class. Unstable and no risk are as (A).</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "Infectious diseases", "mathematics", "public health and epidemiology"], "article_id"=>575088, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Mathematics", "Biological Sciences", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Simon I Hay", "Carlos A Guerra", "Peter W Gething", "Anand P Patil", "Andrew J Tatem", "Abdisalan M Noor", "Caroline W Kabaria", "Bui H Manh", "Iqbal R. F Elyazar", "Simon Brooker", "David L Smith", "Rana A Moyeed", "Robert W Snow"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000048.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Maps_of_Model_Uncertainty_/575088", "title"=>"Maps of Model Uncertainty", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-03-24 01:24:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/904332"], "description"=>"<p>Blue diamonds describe input data. Orange boxes denote models and experimental procedures; S1, <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000048#pmed-1000048-sd001\" target=\"_blank\">Protocol S1</a>; S2, <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000048#pmed-1000048-sd002\" target=\"_blank\">Protocol S2</a>; S3, <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000048#pmed-1000048-sd003\" target=\"_blank\">Protocol S3</a>; and S4, <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000048#pmed-1000048-sd004\" target=\"_blank\">Protocol S4</a>. Green rods indicate output data; dashed lines intermediate output, solid lines final outputs. U, urban; PU, peri-urban; and R, rural extents.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["overview", "procedures"], "article_id"=>574779, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Mathematics", "Biological Sciences", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Simon I Hay", "Carlos A Guerra", "Peter W Gething", "Anand P Patil", "Andrew J Tatem", "Abdisalan M Noor", "Caroline W Kabaria", "Bui H Manh", "Iqbal R. F Elyazar", "Simon Brooker", "David L Smith", "Rana A Moyeed", "Robert W Snow"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000048.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Schematic_Overview_of_the_Mapping_Procedures_and_Methods_/574779", "title"=>"Schematic Overview of the Mapping Procedures and Methods", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-03-24 01:19:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/904235"], "description"=>"<p>Areas were defined as stable (dark grey areas, where <i>Pf</i>API ≥ 0.1 per 1,000 pa), unstable (medium grey areas, where <i>Pf</i>API < 0.1 per 1,000 pa), or no risk (light grey, where <i>Pf</i>API = 0 per 1,000 pa) [<a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000048#pmed-1000048-b017\" target=\"_blank\">17</a>–<a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000048#pmed-1000048-b019\" target=\"_blank\">19</a>]. The community surveys of P. falciparum prevalence conducted between January 1, 1985 and July 31, 2008 are plotted. Of the 8,938 surveys collected, 7,953 satisfied our inclusion criteria for modelling (see <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000048#st2\" target=\"_blank\">Methods</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000048#pmed-1000048-sd001\" target=\"_blank\">Protocol S1</a>.2) and are shown here. The survey data shown are age-standardized [<a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000048#pmed-1000048-b051\" target=\"_blank\">51</a>] (<i>Pf</i>PR<sub>2−10</sub>) and shown as a continuum of yellow to red from 0%–100% (see map legend). The dashed lines separate the America; Africa+; and the CSE Asia regions.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["spatial", "limits", "malaria", "defined", "further", "aridity"], "article_id"=>574668, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Mathematics", "Biological Sciences", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Simon I Hay", "Carlos A Guerra", "Peter W Gething", "Anand P Patil", "Andrew J Tatem", "Abdisalan M Noor", "Caroline W Kabaria", "Bui H Manh", "Iqbal R. F Elyazar", "Simon Brooker", "David L Smith", "Rana A Moyeed", "Robert W Snow"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000048.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_Spatial_Limits_of_P_falciparum_Malaria_Risk_Defined_by_Pf_API_with_Further_Medical_Intelligence_Temperature_and_Aridity_Masks_/574668", "title"=>"The Spatial Limits of P. falciparum Malaria Risk Defined by <i>Pf</i>API with Further Medical Intelligence, Temperature, and Aridity Masks", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-03-24 01:17:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/904521"], "description"=>"<p>They are categorized as low risk <i>Pf</i>PR<sub>2−10</sub> ≤ 5%, light red; intermediate risk <i>Pf</i>PR<sub>2−10</sub> > 5% to < 40%, medium red; and high risk <i>Pf</i>PR<sub>2−10</sub> ≥ 40%, dark red. The map shows the class to which <i>Pf</i>PR<sub>2−10</sub> has the highest predicted probability of membership. The rest of the land area was defined as unstable risk (medium grey areas, where <i>Pf</i>API < 0.1 per 1,000 pa) or no risk (light grey) [<a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000048#pmed-1000048-b017\" target=\"_blank\">17</a>–<a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000048#pmed-1000048-b019\" target=\"_blank\">19</a>].</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["spatial", "malaria", "predictions", "stratified", "endemicity"], "article_id"=>574953, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Mathematics", "Biological Sciences", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Simon I Hay", "Carlos A Guerra", "Peter W Gething", "Anand P Patil", "Andrew J Tatem", "Abdisalan M Noor", "Caroline W Kabaria", "Bui H Manh", "Iqbal R. F Elyazar", "Simon Brooker", "David L Smith", "Rana A Moyeed", "Robert W Snow"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000048.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_Spatial_Distribution_of_P_falciparum_Malaria_Pf_PR_2_8722_10_Predictions_Stratified_by_Endemicity_Class_/574953", "title"=>"The Spatial Distribution of P. falciparum Malaria <i>Pf</i>PR<sub>2−10</sub> Predictions Stratified by Endemicity Class", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-03-24 01:22:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/904415"], "description"=>"<p>The data are the model-based geostatistical point estimates of the annual mean <i>Pf</i>PR<sub>2−10</sub> for 2007 within the stable spatial limits of P. falciparum malaria transmission, displayed as a continuum of yellow to red from 0%–100% (see map legend). The rest of the land area was defined as unstable risk (medium grey areas, where <i>Pf</i>API < 0.1 per 1,000 pa) or no risk (light grey, where <i>Pf</i>API = 0 per 1,000 pa) [<a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000048#pmed-1000048-b017\" target=\"_blank\">17</a>–<a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000048#pmed-1000048-b019\" target=\"_blank\">19</a>].</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["spatial", "malaria"], "article_id"=>574864, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Mathematics", "Biological Sciences", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Simon I Hay", "Carlos A Guerra", "Peter W Gething", "Anand P Patil", "Andrew J Tatem", "Abdisalan M Noor", "Caroline W Kabaria", "Bui H Manh", "Iqbal R. F Elyazar", "Simon Brooker", "David L Smith", "Rana A Moyeed", "Robert W Snow"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000048.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_Spatial_Distribution_of_P_falciparum_Malaria_Endemicity_/574864", "title"=>"The Spatial Distribution of P. falciparum Malaria Endemicity", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-03-24 01:21:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/476183", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/476234", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/476266", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/476300", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/476329", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/476350", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/476378", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/476392", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/476400"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Efficient allocation of resources to intervene against malaria requires a detailed understanding of the contemporary spatial distribution of malaria risk. It is exactly 40 y since the last global map of malaria endemicity was published. This paper describes the generation of a new world map of Plasmodium falciparum malaria endemicity for the year 2007.</p> <h3>Methods and Findings</h3><p>A total of 8,938 P. falciparum parasite rate (<em>Pf</em>PR) surveys were identified using a variety of exhaustive search strategies. Of these, 7,953 passed strict data fidelity tests for inclusion into a global database of <em>Pf</em>PR data, age-standardized to 2–10 y for endemicity mapping. A model-based geostatistical procedure was used to create a continuous surface of malaria endemicity within previously defined stable spatial limits of P. falciparum transmission. These procedures were implemented within a Bayesian statistical framework so that the uncertainty of these predictions could be evaluated robustly. The uncertainty was expressed as the probability of predicting correctly one of three endemicity classes; previously stratified to be an informative guide for malaria control. Population at risk estimates, adjusted for the transmission modifying effects of urbanization in Africa, were then derived with reference to human population surfaces in 2007. Of the 1.38 billion people at risk of stable P. falciparum malaria, 0.69 billion were found in Central and South East Asia (CSE Asia), 0.66 billion in Africa, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia (Africa+), and 0.04 billion in the Americas. All those exposed to stable risk in the Americas were in the lowest endemicity class (<em>Pf</em>PR<sub>2−10</sub> ≤ 5%). The vast majority (88%) of those living under stable risk in CSE Asia were also in this low endemicity class; a small remainder (11%) were in the intermediate endemicity class (<em>Pf</em>PR<sub>2−10</sub> > 5 to < 40%); and the remaining fraction (1%) in high endemicity (<em>Pf</em>PR<sub>2−10</sub> ≥ 40%) areas. High endemicity was widespread in the Africa+ region, where 0.35 billion people are at this level of risk. Most of the rest live at intermediate risk (0.20 billion), with a smaller number (0.11 billion) at low stable risk.</p> <h3>Conclusions</h3><p>High levels of P. falciparum malaria endemicity are common in Africa. Uniformly low endemic levels are found in the Americas. Low endemicity is also widespread in CSE Asia, but pockets of intermediate and very rarely high transmission remain. There are therefore significant opportunities for malaria control in Africa and for malaria elimination elsewhere. This 2007 global P. falciparum malaria endemicity map is the first of a series with which it will be possible to monitor and evaluate the progress of this intervention process.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["malaria", "endemicity", "2007"], "article_id"=>153770, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Cancer", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Simon I Hay", "Carlos A Guerra", "Peter W Gething", "Anand P Patil", "Andrew J Tatem", "Abdisalan M Noor", "Caroline W Kabaria", "Bui H Manh", "Iqbal R. F Elyazar", "Simon Brooker", "David L Smith", "Rana A Moyeed", "Robert W Snow"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000048.sd001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000048.sd002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000048.sd003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000048.sd004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000048.sd005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000048.sd006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000048.sd007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000048.sd008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000048.sd009"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>136, "page_views"=>87, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/A_World_Malaria_Map_Plasmodium_falciparum_Endemicity_in_2007/153770", "title"=>"A World Malaria Map: Plasmodium falciparum Endemicity in 2007", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2009-03-24 01:02:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/905014"], "description"=>"<p>(A) For all years, (B) for 2007, and (C) for the predicted 2007 surface. The width of each polygon illustrates the relative frequency of different <i>Pf</i>PR<sub>2−10</sub> values within each region. The background is coloured to match the endemicity classes shown in <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000048#pmed-1000048-g004\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 4</a>. The black central bar indicates the inter-quartile range and white circles indicate the median values (see text).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["plots", "distributions"], "article_id"=>575461, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Mathematics", "Biological Sciences", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Simon I Hay", "Carlos A Guerra", "Peter W Gething", "Anand P Patil", "Andrew J Tatem", "Abdisalan M Noor", "Caroline W Kabaria", "Bui H Manh", "Iqbal R. F Elyazar", "Simon Brooker", "David L Smith", "Rana A Moyeed", "Robert W Snow"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000048.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Violin_Plots_Showing_for_Each_Region_Frequency_Distributions_of_Pf_PR_2_8722_10_data_/575461", "title"=>"Violin Plots Showing for Each Region Frequency Distributions of <i>Pf</i>PR<sub>2−10</sub> data", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-03-24 01:31:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/904932"], "description"=>"<p>The charts show the proportion of the population living in each predicted <i>Pf</i>PR<sub>2−10</sub> endemicity classes for the America, Africa+, CSE Asia regions, and worldwide. The charts are scaled proportionally to the total population at risk in each region and the segments are coloured to match the endemicity classes shown in <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000048#pmed-1000048-g004\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 4</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["charts", "par", "malaria"], "article_id"=>575372, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Mathematics", "Biological Sciences", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Simon I Hay", "Carlos A Guerra", "Peter W Gething", "Anand P Patil", "Andrew J Tatem", "Abdisalan M Noor", "Caroline W Kabaria", "Bui H Manh", "Iqbal R. F Elyazar", "Simon Brooker", "David L Smith", "Rana A Moyeed", "Robert W Snow"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000048.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pie_Charts_Showing_the_PAR_of_P_falciparum_Malaria_in_2007_/575372", "title"=>"Pie Charts Showing the PAR of P. falciparum Malaria in 2007", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-03-24 01:29:32"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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