Multiple Origins and Regional Dispersal of Resistant dhps in African Plasmodium falciparum Malaria
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{"title"=>"Multiple origins and regional dispersal of resistant dhps in African Plasmodium falciparum malaria", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Richard J.", "last_name"=>"Pearce", "scopus_author_id"=>"7201447271"}, {"first_name"=>"Hirva", "last_name"=>"Pota", "scopus_author_id"=>"24171714700"}, {"first_name"=>"Marie Solange B.", "last_name"=>"Evehe", "scopus_author_id"=>"6507951381"}, {"first_name"=>"El Hadj", "last_name"=>"Bâ", "scopus_author_id"=>"12647286500"}, {"first_name"=>"Ghyslain", "last_name"=>"Mombo-Ngoma", "scopus_author_id"=>"22954202900"}, {"first_name"=>"Allen L.", "last_name"=>"Malisa", "scopus_author_id"=>"9233578200"}, {"first_name"=>"Rosalynn", "last_name"=>"Ord", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006565897"}, {"first_name"=>"Walter", "last_name"=>"Inojosa", "scopus_author_id"=>"26534341800"}, {"first_name"=>"Alexandre", "last_name"=>"Matondo", "scopus_author_id"=>"26534725600"}, {"first_name"=>"Diadier A.", "last_name"=>"Diallo", "scopus_author_id"=>"9237747500"}, {"first_name"=>"Wilfred", "last_name"=>"Mbacham", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603230834"}, {"first_name"=>"Ingrid V.", "last_name"=>"Van Den Broek", "scopus_author_id"=>"24765523600"}, {"first_name"=>"Todd D.", "last_name"=>"Swarthout", "scopus_author_id"=>"14631395700"}, {"first_name"=>"Asefaw", "last_name"=>"Getachew", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602566017"}, {"first_name"=>"Seyoum", "last_name"=>"Dejene", "scopus_author_id"=>"12140068100"}, {"first_name"=>"Martin P.", "last_name"=>"Grobusch", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004891682"}, {"first_name"=>"Fanta", "last_name"=>"Njie", "scopus_author_id"=>"8571272200"}, {"first_name"=>"Samuel", "last_name"=>"Dunyo", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602780147"}, {"first_name"=>"Margaret", "last_name"=>"Kweku", "scopus_author_id"=>"16550392200"}, {"first_name"=>"Seth", "last_name"=>"Owusu-Agyei", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602311348"}, {"first_name"=>"Daniel", "last_name"=>"Chandramohan", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003426215"}, {"first_name"=>"Maryline", "last_name"=>"Bonnet", "scopus_author_id"=>"8276814700"}, {"first_name"=>"Jean Paul", "last_name"=>"Guthmann", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003634416"}, {"first_name"=>"Sian", "last_name"=>"Clarke", "scopus_author_id"=>"7402969506"}, {"first_name"=>"Karen I.", "last_name"=>"Barnes", "scopus_author_id"=>"7101713025"}, {"first_name"=>"Elizabeth", "last_name"=>"Streat", "scopus_author_id"=>"24382129300"}, {"first_name"=>"Stark T.", "last_name"=>"Katokele", "scopus_author_id"=>"26534541400"}, {"first_name"=>"Petrina", "last_name"=>"Uusiku", "scopus_author_id"=>"26535248700"}, {"first_name"=>"Chris O.", "last_name"=>"Agboghoroma", "scopus_author_id"=>"26533855800"}, {"first_name"=>"Olufunmilayo Y.", "last_name"=>"Elegba", "scopus_author_id"=>"26534029200"}, {"first_name"=>"Badara", "last_name"=>"Cissé", "scopus_author_id"=>"15847846300"}, {"first_name"=>"Ishraga E.", "last_name"=>"A-Elbasit", "scopus_author_id"=>"8616738400"}, {"first_name"=>"Hayder A.", "last_name"=>"Giha", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602568513"}, {"first_name"=>"S. Patrick", "last_name"=>"Kachur", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004408469"}, {"first_name"=>"Caroline", "last_name"=>"Lynch", "scopus_author_id"=>"24281684500"}, {"first_name"=>"John B.", "last_name"=>"Rwakimari", "scopus_author_id"=>"11440552400"}, {"first_name"=>"Pascalina", "last_name"=>"Chanda", "scopus_author_id"=>"16066517900"}, {"first_name"=>"Moonga", "last_name"=>"Hawela", "scopus_author_id"=>"14628570200"}, {"first_name"=>"Brian", "last_name"=>"Sharp", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102348675"}, {"first_name"=>"Inbarani", "last_name"=>"Naidoo", "scopus_author_id"=>"22734552800"}, {"first_name"=>"Cally", "last_name"=>"Roper", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005764994"}], "year"=>2009, "source"=>"PLoS Medicine", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"15491277", "isbn"=>"1549-1676 (Electronic)\\n1549-1277 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"19365539", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-65449188363", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pmed.1000055", "sgr"=>"65449188363", "pui"=>"354637188"}, "id"=>"39f56586-6c07-378b-b39e-6a671b504457", "abstract"=>"Although the molecular basis of resistance to a number of common antimalarial drugs is well known, a geographic description of the emergence and dispersal of resistance mutations across Africa has not been attempted. To that end we have characterised the evolutionary origins of antifolate resistance mutations in the dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) gene and mapped their contemporary distribution.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/multiple-origins-regional-dispersal-resistant-dhps-african-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria", "reader_count"=>117, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>8, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>29, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>29, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>13, "Other"=>9, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>8, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>8, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>29, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. 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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/901432"], "description"=>"a<p>Where more than one reference was available per country the most recent was taken.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["details", "numbers", "points"], "article_id"=>571824, "categories"=>["Virology"], "users"=>["Richard J. Pearce", "Hirva Pota", "Marie-Solange B. Evehe", "El-Hadj Bâ", "Ghyslain Mombo-Ngoma", "Allen L. Malisa", "Rosalynn Ord", "Walter Inojosa", "Alexandre Matondo", "Diadier A. Diallo", "Wilfred Mbacham", "Ingrid V. van den Broek", "Todd D. Swarthout", "Asefaw Getachew", "Seyoum Dejene", "Martin P. Grobusch", "Fanta Njie", "Samuel Dunyo", "Margaret Kweku", "Seth Owusu-Agyei", "Daniel Chandramohan", "Maryline Bonnet", "Jean-Paul Guthmann", "Sian Clarke", "Karen I. Barnes", "Elizabeth Streat", "Stark T. Katokele", "Petrina Uusiku", "Chris O. Agboghoroma", "Olufunmilayo Y. Elegba", "Badara Cissé", "Ishraga E. A-Elbasit", "Hayder A. Giha", "S. Patrick Kachur", "Caroline Lynch", "John B. Rwakimari", "Pascalina Chanda", "Moonga Hawela", "Brian Sharp", "Inbarani Naidoo", "Cally Roper"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000055.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Study_site_details_and_numbers_of_data_points_included_/571824", "title"=>"Study site details and numbers of data points included.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-04-14 00:30:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/900539"], "description"=>"<p>Map of the countries of Africa included in this study.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["countries", "africa", "included"], "article_id"=>570939, "categories"=>["Virology"], "users"=>["Richard J. Pearce", "Hirva Pota", "Marie-Solange B. Evehe", "El-Hadj Bâ", "Ghyslain Mombo-Ngoma", "Allen L. Malisa", "Rosalynn Ord", "Walter Inojosa", "Alexandre Matondo", "Diadier A. Diallo", "Wilfred Mbacham", "Ingrid V. van den Broek", "Todd D. Swarthout", "Asefaw Getachew", "Seyoum Dejene", "Martin P. Grobusch", "Fanta Njie", "Samuel Dunyo", "Margaret Kweku", "Seth Owusu-Agyei", "Daniel Chandramohan", "Maryline Bonnet", "Jean-Paul Guthmann", "Sian Clarke", "Karen I. Barnes", "Elizabeth Streat", "Stark T. Katokele", "Petrina Uusiku", "Chris O. Agboghoroma", "Olufunmilayo Y. Elegba", "Badara Cissé", "Ishraga E. A-Elbasit", "Hayder A. Giha", "S. Patrick Kachur", "Caroline Lynch", "John B. Rwakimari", "Pascalina Chanda", "Moonga Hawela", "Brian Sharp", "Inbarani Naidoo", "Cally Roper"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000055.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Map_of_the_countries_of_Africa_included_in_this_study_/570939", "title"=>"Map of the countries of Africa included in this study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-04-14 00:15:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/900973"], "description"=>"<p>In the bar graphs all the microsatellite haplotypes observed have been ranked first according to allele size at locus 0.8 kb and then by allele size at locus 4.3 kb along a common <i>x</i>-axis. The association of specific microsatellite haplotypes with different <i>dhps</i> alleles is apparent from the frequencies of each haplotype shown in the individual charts. (A) haplotypes linked to SAK AAK wild-type alleles, (B) haplotypes linked to AGK SGK single-mutant alleles, and (C) haplotypes linked to SGE double-mutant alleles.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["polymorphism", "flanking", "wild-type", "resistant"], "article_id"=>571372, "categories"=>["Virology"], "users"=>["Richard J. Pearce", "Hirva Pota", "Marie-Solange B. Evehe", "El-Hadj Bâ", "Ghyslain Mombo-Ngoma", "Allen L. Malisa", "Rosalynn Ord", "Walter Inojosa", "Alexandre Matondo", "Diadier A. Diallo", "Wilfred Mbacham", "Ingrid V. van den Broek", "Todd D. Swarthout", "Asefaw Getachew", "Seyoum Dejene", "Martin P. Grobusch", "Fanta Njie", "Samuel Dunyo", "Margaret Kweku", "Seth Owusu-Agyei", "Daniel Chandramohan", "Maryline Bonnet", "Jean-Paul Guthmann", "Sian Clarke", "Karen I. Barnes", "Elizabeth Streat", "Stark T. Katokele", "Petrina Uusiku", "Chris O. Agboghoroma", "Olufunmilayo Y. Elegba", "Badara Cissé", "Ishraga E. A-Elbasit", "Hayder A. Giha", "S. Patrick Kachur", "Caroline Lynch", "John B. Rwakimari", "Pascalina Chanda", "Moonga Hawela", "Brian Sharp", "Inbarani Naidoo", "Cally Roper"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000055.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Microsatellite_polymorphism_flanking_wild_type_and_resistant_dhps_alleles_/571372", "title"=>"Microsatellite polymorphism flanking wild-type and resistant <i>dhps</i> alleles.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-04-14 00:22:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/446334", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/446343", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/446351", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/446359"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Although the molecular basis of resistance to a number of common antimalarial drugs is well known, a geographic description of the emergence and dispersal of resistance mutations across Africa has not been attempted. To that end we have characterised the evolutionary origins of antifolate resistance mutations in the dihydropteroate synthase (<em>dhps</em>) gene and mapped their contemporary distribution.</p><h3>Methods and Findings</h3><p>We used microsatellite polymorphism flanking the <em>dhps</em> gene to determine which resistance alleles shared common ancestry and found five major lineages each of which had a unique geographical distribution. The extent to which allelic lineages were shared among 20 African <em>Plasmodium falciparum</em> populations revealed five major geographical groupings. Resistance lineages were common to all sites within these regions. The most marked differentiation was between east and west African <em>P. falciparum</em>, in which resistance alleles were not only of different ancestry but also carried different resistance mutations.</p><h3>Conclusions</h3><p>Resistant <em>dhps</em> has emerged independently in multiple sites in Africa during the past 10–20 years. Our data show the molecular basis of resistance differs between east and west Africa, which is likely to translate into differing antifolate sensitivity. We have also demonstrated that the dispersal patterns of resistance lineages give unique insights into recent parasite migration patterns.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["origins", "dispersal", "resistant", "african", "malaria"], "article_id"=>147945, "categories"=>["Cancer"], "users"=>["Richard J. Pearce", "Hirva Pota", "Marie-Solange B. Evehe", "El-Hadj Bâ", "Ghyslain Mombo-Ngoma", "Allen L. Malisa", "Rosalynn Ord", "Walter Inojosa", "Alexandre Matondo", "Diadier A. Diallo", "Wilfred Mbacham", "Ingrid V. van den Broek", "Todd D. Swarthout", "Asefaw Getachew", "Seyoum Dejene", "Martin P. Grobusch", "Fanta Njie", "Samuel Dunyo", "Margaret Kweku", "Seth Owusu-Agyei", "Daniel Chandramohan", "Maryline Bonnet", "Jean-Paul Guthmann", "Sian Clarke", "Karen I. Barnes", "Elizabeth Streat", "Stark T. Katokele", "Petrina Uusiku", "Chris O. Agboghoroma", "Olufunmilayo Y. Elegba", "Badara Cissé", "Ishraga E. A-Elbasit", "Hayder A. Giha", "S. Patrick Kachur", "Caroline Lynch", "John B. Rwakimari", "Pascalina Chanda", "Moonga Hawela", "Brian Sharp", "Inbarani Naidoo", "Cally Roper"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000055.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000055.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000055.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000055.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Multiple_Origins_and_Regional_Dispersal_of_Resistant_dhps_in_African_Plasmodium_falciparum_Malaria/147945", "title"=>"Multiple Origins and Regional Dispersal of Resistant <em>dhps</em> in African <em>Plasmodium falciparum</em> Malaria", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2009-04-14 02:12:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/901240"], "description"=>"<p>The significance was determined by comparison to 10,000 simulated datasets in which the alleles at each locus were reshuffled among all parasites. <i>p</i>-Values express the proportion of times the observed genetic distance value was met or exceeded by permutation.</p>a<p>Populations included in these regions are shown in <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000055#pmed-1000055-g005\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 5</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["differentiation", "microsatellite", "linked", "sak", "aak", "alleles", "calculated"], "article_id"=>571631, "categories"=>["Virology"], "users"=>["Richard J. Pearce", "Hirva Pota", "Marie-Solange B. Evehe", "El-Hadj Bâ", "Ghyslain Mombo-Ngoma", "Allen L. Malisa", "Rosalynn Ord", "Walter Inojosa", "Alexandre Matondo", "Diadier A. Diallo", "Wilfred Mbacham", "Ingrid V. van den Broek", "Todd D. Swarthout", "Asefaw Getachew", "Seyoum Dejene", "Martin P. Grobusch", "Fanta Njie", "Samuel Dunyo", "Margaret Kweku", "Seth Owusu-Agyei", "Daniel Chandramohan", "Maryline Bonnet", "Jean-Paul Guthmann", "Sian Clarke", "Karen I. Barnes", "Elizabeth Streat", "Stark T. Katokele", "Petrina Uusiku", "Chris O. Agboghoroma", "Olufunmilayo Y. Elegba", "Badara Cissé", "Ishraga E. A-Elbasit", "Hayder A. Giha", "S. Patrick Kachur", "Caroline Lynch", "John B. Rwakimari", "Pascalina Chanda", "Moonga Hawela", "Brian Sharp", "Inbarani Naidoo", "Cally Roper"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000055.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Regional_differentiation_at_microsatellite_variation_linked_to_SAK_and_AAK_alleles_as_calculated_by_Nei_s_standard_genetic_distance_/571631", "title"=>"Regional differentiation at microsatellite variation linked to SAK and AAK alleles as calculated by Nei's standard genetic distance.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-04-14 00:27:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/900668"], "description"=>"<p>Resistant alleles; the upper map shows the relative proportions of the three major resistance alleles, SGK, AGK, and SGE. Wild-type alleles; the lower map shows the ratio of SAK and AAK alleles among wild-type <i>dhps</i> alleles. In both cases the diameter of the pie is proportional to the combined frequencies of the alleles represented in the total population.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["alleles", "sub-saharan"], "article_id"=>571088, "categories"=>["Virology"], "users"=>["Richard J. Pearce", "Hirva Pota", "Marie-Solange B. Evehe", "El-Hadj Bâ", "Ghyslain Mombo-Ngoma", "Allen L. Malisa", "Rosalynn Ord", "Walter Inojosa", "Alexandre Matondo", "Diadier A. Diallo", "Wilfred Mbacham", "Ingrid V. van den Broek", "Todd D. Swarthout", "Asefaw Getachew", "Seyoum Dejene", "Martin P. Grobusch", "Fanta Njie", "Samuel Dunyo", "Margaret Kweku", "Seth Owusu-Agyei", "Daniel Chandramohan", "Maryline Bonnet", "Jean-Paul Guthmann", "Sian Clarke", "Karen I. Barnes", "Elizabeth Streat", "Stark T. Katokele", "Petrina Uusiku", "Chris O. Agboghoroma", "Olufunmilayo Y. Elegba", "Badara Cissé", "Ishraga E. A-Elbasit", "Hayder A. Giha", "S. Patrick Kachur", "Caroline Lynch", "John B. Rwakimari", "Pascalina Chanda", "Moonga Hawela", "Brian Sharp", "Inbarani Naidoo", "Cally Roper"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000055.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_distribution_of_the_major_dhps_alleles_across_sub_Saharan_Africa_/571088", "title"=>"The distribution of the major <i>dhps</i> alleles across sub-Saharan Africa.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-04-14 00:18:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/901115"], "description"=>"<p>The distribution of the five major lineages among the geographic sites is indicated in the map. Resistance alleles whose flanking microsatellite haplotypes did not conform to a defined major lineage are shown in grey. Sharing of resistance allele lineages among the African populations is shown in a cladogram based on pairwise comparison of allele sharing (<i>D</i><sub>PS</sub>), which includes all the flanking haplotypes identified. Closely related populations cluster in large geographic regions that supercede national boundaries.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["african"], "article_id"=>571517, "categories"=>["Virology"], "users"=>["Richard J. Pearce", "Hirva Pota", "Marie-Solange B. Evehe", "El-Hadj Bâ", "Ghyslain Mombo-Ngoma", "Allen L. Malisa", "Rosalynn Ord", "Walter Inojosa", "Alexandre Matondo", "Diadier A. Diallo", "Wilfred Mbacham", "Ingrid V. van den Broek", "Todd D. Swarthout", "Asefaw Getachew", "Seyoum Dejene", "Martin P. Grobusch", "Fanta Njie", "Samuel Dunyo", "Margaret Kweku", "Seth Owusu-Agyei", "Daniel Chandramohan", "Maryline Bonnet", "Jean-Paul Guthmann", "Sian Clarke", "Karen I. Barnes", "Elizabeth Streat", "Stark T. Katokele", "Petrina Uusiku", "Chris O. Agboghoroma", "Olufunmilayo Y. Elegba", "Badara Cissé", "Ishraga E. A-Elbasit", "Hayder A. Giha", "S. Patrick Kachur", "Caroline Lynch", "John B. Rwakimari", "Pascalina Chanda", "Moonga Hawela", "Brian Sharp", "Inbarani Naidoo", "Cally Roper"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000055.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_African_distribution_of_dhps_resistance_lineages_/571517", "title"=>"The African distribution of <i>dhps</i> resistance lineages.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-04-14 00:25:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/901349"], "description"=>"<p>The significance of the difference in <i>H</i><sub>e</sub> between SAK and AAK alleles is shown for each region together with the percentage reduction in <i>H</i><sub>e</sub>. The significance of the difference in diversity was determined by permutation and p values express the number of times the observed ratio of diversity between SAK and AAK was met or exceeded in 10,000 simulated datasets.</p>a<p>Populations included in these regions are shown in <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000055#pmed-1000055-g005\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 5</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["heterozygosity", "kb", "microsatellite", "locus", "linked", "sak", "aak", "single-mutant", "alleles", "geographical"], "article_id"=>571739, "categories"=>["Virology"], "users"=>["Richard J. Pearce", "Hirva Pota", "Marie-Solange B. Evehe", "El-Hadj Bâ", "Ghyslain Mombo-Ngoma", "Allen L. Malisa", "Rosalynn Ord", "Walter Inojosa", "Alexandre Matondo", "Diadier A. Diallo", "Wilfred Mbacham", "Ingrid V. van den Broek", "Todd D. Swarthout", "Asefaw Getachew", "Seyoum Dejene", "Martin P. Grobusch", "Fanta Njie", "Samuel Dunyo", "Margaret Kweku", "Seth Owusu-Agyei", "Daniel Chandramohan", "Maryline Bonnet", "Jean-Paul Guthmann", "Sian Clarke", "Karen I. Barnes", "Elizabeth Streat", "Stark T. Katokele", "Petrina Uusiku", "Chris O. Agboghoroma", "Olufunmilayo Y. Elegba", "Badara Cissé", "Ishraga E. A-Elbasit", "Hayder A. Giha", "S. Patrick Kachur", "Caroline Lynch", "John B. Rwakimari", "Pascalina Chanda", "Moonga Hawela", "Brian Sharp", "Inbarani Naidoo", "Cally Roper"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000055.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Expected_heterozygosity_H_e_at_the_0_8_kb_microsatellite_locus_linked_to_SAK_and_AAK_single_mutant_alleles_by_geographical_region_/571739", "title"=>"Expected heterozygosity <i>H</i><sub>e</sub> at the 0.8 kb microsatellite locus linked to SAK and AAK single-mutant alleles by geographical region.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-04-14 00:28:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/900790"], "description"=>"<p>The expected heterozygosity (<i>H</i><sub>e</sub>) at flanking loci 0.8 kb, 4.3 kb, and 7.7 kb from the <i>dhps</i> gene was calculated for each geographical site (provided the number of observation ≥10), and box plots show the median, interquartile ranges, and the upper and lower extremes of the distribution of <i>H</i><sub>e</sub> values among geographical sites. Where there are statistical outliers, these are indicated by small squares.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["wild-type", "resistant"], "article_id"=>571193, "categories"=>["Virology"], "users"=>["Richard J. Pearce", "Hirva Pota", "Marie-Solange B. Evehe", "El-Hadj Bâ", "Ghyslain Mombo-Ngoma", "Allen L. Malisa", "Rosalynn Ord", "Walter Inojosa", "Alexandre Matondo", "Diadier A. Diallo", "Wilfred Mbacham", "Ingrid V. van den Broek", "Todd D. Swarthout", "Asefaw Getachew", "Seyoum Dejene", "Martin P. Grobusch", "Fanta Njie", "Samuel Dunyo", "Margaret Kweku", "Seth Owusu-Agyei", "Daniel Chandramohan", "Maryline Bonnet", "Jean-Paul Guthmann", "Sian Clarke", "Karen I. Barnes", "Elizabeth Streat", "Stark T. Katokele", "Petrina Uusiku", "Chris O. Agboghoroma", "Olufunmilayo Y. Elegba", "Badara Cissé", "Ishraga E. A-Elbasit", "Hayder A. Giha", "S. Patrick Kachur", "Caroline Lynch", "John B. Rwakimari", "Pascalina Chanda", "Moonga Hawela", "Brian Sharp", "Inbarani Naidoo", "Cally Roper"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000055.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Microsatellite_diversity_around_the_wild_type_SAK_and_AAK_and_the_resistant_AGK_SGK_and_SGE_alleles_/571193", "title"=>"Microsatellite diversity around the wild-type (SAK and AAK) and the resistant (AGK, SGK, and SGE) alleles.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-04-14 00:19:53"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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