Cross-National Analysis of the Associations among Mental Disorders and Suicidal Behavior: Findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys
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{"title"=>"Cross-national analysis of the associations among mental disorders and suicidal behavior: Findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Matthew K.", "last_name"=>"Nock", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701414081"}, {"first_name"=>"Irving", "last_name"=>"Hwang", "scopus_author_id"=>"24279373900"}, {"first_name"=>"Nancy", "last_name"=>"Sampson", "scopus_author_id"=>"16835590600"}, {"first_name"=>"Ronald C.", "last_name"=>"Kessler", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202074046"}, {"first_name"=>"Matthias", "last_name"=>"Angermeyer", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102367498"}, {"first_name"=>"Annette", "last_name"=>"Beautrais", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003613492"}, {"first_name"=>"Guilherme", "last_name"=>"Borges", "scopus_author_id"=>"35373585600"}, {"first_name"=>"Evelyn", "last_name"=>"Bromet", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006663766"}, {"first_name"=>"Ronny", "last_name"=>"Bruffaerts", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603171666"}, {"first_name"=>"Giovanni", "last_name"=>"De Girolamo", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004586737"}, {"first_name"=>"Ron", "last_name"=>"De Graaf", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006177458"}, {"first_name"=>"Silvia", "last_name"=>"Florescu", "scopus_author_id"=>"15069983900"}, {"first_name"=>"Oye", "last_name"=>"Gureje", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005208570"}, {"first_name"=>"Josep Maria", "last_name"=>"Haro", "scopus_author_id"=>"34569951400"}, {"first_name"=>"Chiyi", "last_name"=>"Hu", "scopus_author_id"=>"35086214000"}, {"first_name"=>"Yueqin", "last_name"=>"Huang", "scopus_author_id"=>"22953692700"}, {"first_name"=>"Elie G.", "last_name"=>"Karam", "scopus_author_id"=>"56522752500"}, {"first_name"=>"Norito", "last_name"=>"Kawakami", "scopus_author_id"=>"35377339000"}, {"first_name"=>"Viviane", "last_name"=>"Kovess", "scopus_author_id"=>"55857693400"}, {"first_name"=>"Daphna", "last_name"=>"Levinson", "scopus_author_id"=>"56452509500"}, {"first_name"=>"Jose", "last_name"=>"Posada-Villa", "scopus_author_id"=>"6504271350"}, {"first_name"=>"Rajesh", "last_name"=>"Sagar", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004906586"}, {"first_name"=>"Toma", "last_name"=>"Tomov", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006552512"}, {"first_name"=>"Maria Carmen", "last_name"=>"Viana", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005844255"}, {"first_name"=>"David R.", "last_name"=>"Williams", "scopus_author_id"=>"55574202135"}], "year"=>2009, "source"=>"PLoS Medicine", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-69349093223", "sgr"=>"69349093223", "issn"=>"15491277", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pmed.1000123", "pmid"=>"19668361", "isbn"=>"1549-1676 (Electronic)\\n1549-1277 (Linking)", "pui"=>"355173286"}, "id"=>"2aab7aa2-ab90-31fb-9137-75e71aabf0f2", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Suicide is a leading cause of death worldwide. Mental disorders are among the strongest predictors of suicide; however, little is known about which disorders are uniquely predictive of suicidal behavior, the extent to which disorders predict suicide attempts beyond their association with suicidal thoughts, and whether these associations are similar across developed and developing countries. This study was designed to test each of these questions with a focus on nonfatal suicide attempts.\\n\\nMETHODS AND FINDINGS: Data on the lifetime presence and age-of-onset of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV) mental disorders and nonfatal suicidal behaviors were collected via structured face-to-face interviews with 108,664 respondents from 21 countries participating in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. The results show that each lifetime disorder examined significantly predicts the subsequent first onset of suicide attempt (odds ratios [ORs] = 2.9-8.9). After controlling for comorbidity, these associations decreased substantially (ORs = 1.5-5.6) but remained significant in most cases. Overall, mental disorders were equally predictive in developed and developing countries, with a key difference being that the strongest predictors of suicide attempts in developed countries were mood disorders, whereas in developing countries impulse-control, substance use, and post-traumatic stress disorders were most predictive. Disaggregation of the associations between mental disorders and nonfatal suicide attempts showed that these associations are largely due to disorders predicting the onset of suicidal thoughts rather than predicting progression from thoughts to attempts. In the few instances where mental disorders predicted the transition from suicidal thoughts to attempts, the significant disorders are characterized by anxiety and poor impulse-control. The limitations of this study include the use of retrospective self-reports of lifetime occurrence and age-of-onset of mental disorders and suicidal behaviors, as well as the narrow focus on mental disorders as predictors of nonfatal suicidal behaviors, each of which must be addressed in future studies.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS: This study found that a wide range of mental disorders increased the odds of experiencing suicide ideation. However, after controlling for psychiatric comorbidity, only disorders characterized by anxiety and poor impulse-control predict which people with suicide ideation act on such thoughts. These findings provide a more fine-grained understanding of the associations between mental disorders and subsequent suicidal behavior than previously available and indicate that mental disorders predict suicidal behaviors similarly in both developed and developing countries. Future research is needed to delineate the mechanisms through which people come to think about suicide and subsequently progress from ideation to attempts.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/crossnational-analysis-associations-among-mental-disorders-suicidal-behavior-findings-world-mental-h", "reader_count"=>203, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>12, "Librarian"=>3, "Researcher"=>39, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>16, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>30, "Student > Postgraduate"=>15, "Student > Master"=>33, "Other"=>13, "Student > Bachelor"=>23, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>12}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>12, "Librarian"=>3, "Researcher"=>39, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>16, "Student > Ph. D. 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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/887806"], "description"=>"<p>Empty cells indicate the disorder specified in the row was not included in the model.</p>a<p>Bivariate models (each disorder in a separate discrete time survival model) include the following controls: age, age-squared, age cohorts, sex, and person-year.</p>b<p>Multivariate additive model (all disorders together in a discrete time survival model) includes the following covariates: age, age-squared, age cohorts, sex, and person-year.</p>c<p>Multivariate interactive model (all disorders together in a discrete time survival model controlling for number of disorders as interactions) includes the following covariates: age, age-squared, age cohorts, sex, and person-year.</p>d<p>The group effect χ<sup>2</sup> tests the set of coefficients for type of disorder for significance, while the individual χ<sup>2</sup> only test presence versus absence of each DSM-IV/CIDI disorder.</p>*<p>Significant at the 0.05 level, two-sided test.</p><p><b>Abbreviations:</b> ADHD, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder; CI, confidence interval; GAD, Generalized Anxiety Disorder; IED, Intermittent Explosive Disorder; MDD, Major Depressive Disorder; OCD, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder; ODD, Oppositional Defiant Disorder; SAD, Separation Anxiety Disorder.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["models", "associations", "dsm-iv", "disorders"], "article_id"=>558234, "categories"=>["Mental Health", "Neuroscience", "Cancer"], "users"=>["Matthew K. Nock", "Irving Hwang", "Nancy Sampson", "Ronald C. Kessler", "Matthias Angermeyer", "Annette Beautrais", "Guilherme Borges", "Evelyn Bromet", "Ronny Bruffaerts", "Giovanni de Girolamo", "Ron de Graaf", "Silvia Florescu", "Oye Gureje", "Josep Maria Haro", "Chiyi Hu", "Yueqin Huang", "Elie G. Karam", "Norito Kawakami", "Viviane Kovess", "Daphna Levinson", "José Posada-Villa", "Rajesh Sagar", "Toma Tomov", "Maria Carmen Viana", "David R. Williams"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000123.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Survival_models_of_the_associations_between_DSM_IV_disorders_and_a_subsequent_suicide_attempt_8212_developed_countries_/558234", "title"=>"Survival models of the associations between DSM-IV disorders and a subsequent suicide attempt—developed countries.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-08-11 02:17:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/887597"], "description"=>"<p>Each column includes a separate multivariate model in survival framework, with all rows as predictors controlling for the following covariates: age, age-squared, age cohort, sex, and person-year.</p>a<p>χ<sup>2</sup> tests for significance of the set of coefficients for type of disorder net of effects of number.</p>b<p>χ<sup>2</sup> tests for significance of the set of coefficients for number of disorder net of effects of type.</p>c<p>Denominator sample size of the models.</p>*<p>Significant at the 0.5 level, two-sided test.</p><p><b>Abbreviations:</b> ADHD, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder; CI, confidence interval; GAD, Generalized Anxiety Disorder; IED, Intermittent Explosive Disorder; MDD, Major Depressive Disorder; OCD, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder; ODD, Oppositional Defiant Disorder; SAD, Separation Anxiety Disorder.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["models", "associations", "dsm-iv", "disorders", "suicidal"], "article_id"=>558024, "categories"=>["Mental Health", "Neuroscience", "Cancer"], "users"=>["Matthew K. Nock", "Irving Hwang", "Nancy Sampson", "Ronald C. Kessler", "Matthias Angermeyer", "Annette Beautrais", "Guilherme Borges", "Evelyn Bromet", "Ronny Bruffaerts", "Giovanni de Girolamo", "Ron de Graaf", "Silvia Florescu", "Oye Gureje", "Josep Maria Haro", "Chiyi Hu", "Yueqin Huang", "Elie G. Karam", "Norito Kawakami", "Viviane Kovess", "Daphna Levinson", "José Posada-Villa", "Rajesh Sagar", "Toma Tomov", "Maria Carmen Viana", "David R. Williams"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000123.t006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Multivariate_survival_models_of_associations_between_type_number_of_prior_DSM_IV_disorders_and_subsequent_suicidal_behavior_8212_developed_countries_/558024", "title"=>"Multivariate survival models of associations between type/number of prior DSM-IV disorders and subsequent suicidal behavior—developed countries.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-08-11 02:13:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/887867"], "description"=>"a<p>Denominator sample size.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dsm-iv"], "article_id"=>558293, "categories"=>["Mental Health", "Neuroscience", "Cancer"], "users"=>["Matthew K. Nock", "Irving Hwang", "Nancy Sampson", "Ronald C. Kessler", "Matthias Angermeyer", "Annette Beautrais", "Guilherme Borges", "Evelyn Bromet", "Ronny Bruffaerts", "Giovanni de Girolamo", "Ron de Graaf", "Silvia Florescu", "Oye Gureje", "Josep Maria Haro", "Chiyi Hu", "Yueqin Huang", "Elie G. Karam", "Norito Kawakami", "Viviane Kovess", "Daphna Levinson", "José Posada-Villa", "Rajesh Sagar", "Toma Tomov", "Maria Carmen Viana", "David R. Williams"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000123.t009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_PARP_of_DSM_IV_disorders_8212_developing_countries_/558293", "title"=>"PARP of DSM-IV disorders—developing countries.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-08-11 02:18:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/440616", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/440623", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/440633", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/440642"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Suicide is a leading cause of death worldwide. Mental disorders are among the strongest predictors of suicide; however, little is known about which disorders are uniquely predictive of suicidal behavior, the extent to which disorders predict suicide attempts beyond their association with suicidal thoughts, and whether these associations are similar across developed and developing countries. This study was designed to test each of these questions with a focus on nonfatal suicide attempts.</p><h3>Methods and Findings</h3><p>Data on the lifetime presence and age-of-onset of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV) mental disorders and nonfatal suicidal behaviors were collected via structured face-to-face interviews with 108,664 respondents from 21 countries participating in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. The results show that each lifetime disorder examined significantly predicts the subsequent first onset of suicide attempt (odds ratios [ORs] = 2.9–8.9). After controlling for comorbidity, these associations decreased substantially (ORs = 1.5–5.6) but remained significant in most cases. Overall, mental disorders were equally predictive in developed and developing countries, with a key difference being that the strongest predictors of suicide attempts in developed countries were mood disorders, whereas in developing countries impulse-control, substance use, and post-traumatic stress disorders were most predictive. Disaggregation of the associations between mental disorders and nonfatal suicide attempts showed that these associations are largely due to disorders predicting the onset of suicidal thoughts rather than predicting progression from thoughts to attempts. In the few instances where mental disorders predicted the transition from suicidal thoughts to attempts, the significant disorders are characterized by anxiety and poor impulse-control. The limitations of this study include the use of retrospective self-reports of lifetime occurrence and age-of-onset of mental disorders and suicidal behaviors, as well as the narrow focus on mental disorders as predictors of nonfatal suicidal behaviors, each of which must be addressed in future studies.</p><h3>Conclusions</h3><p>This study found that a wide range of mental disorders increased the odds of experiencing suicide ideation. However, after controlling for psychiatric comorbidity, only disorders characterized by anxiety and poor impulse-control predict which people with suicide ideation act on such thoughts. These findings provide a more fine-grained understanding of the associations between mental disorders and subsequent suicidal behavior than previously available and indicate that mental disorders predict suicidal behaviors similarly in both developed and developing countries. Future research is needed to delineate the mechanisms through which people come to think about suicide and subsequently progress from ideation to attempts.</p><h3></h3><p><em>Please see later in the article for Editors' Summary</em></p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cross-national", "associations", "disorders", "suicidal", "findings", "surveys"], "article_id"=>146851, "categories"=>["Mental Health", "Neuroscience", "Cancer"], "users"=>["Matthew K. Nock", "Irving Hwang", "Nancy Sampson", "Ronald C. Kessler", "Matthias Angermeyer", "Annette Beautrais", "Guilherme Borges", "Evelyn Bromet", "Ronny Bruffaerts", "Giovanni de Girolamo", "Ron de Graaf", "Silvia Florescu", "Oye Gureje", "Josep Maria Haro", "Chiyi Hu", "Yueqin Huang", "Elie G. Karam", "Norito Kawakami", "Viviane Kovess", "Daphna Levinson", "José Posada-Villa", "Rajesh Sagar", "Toma Tomov", "Maria Carmen Viana", "David R. Williams"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000123.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000123.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000123.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000123.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>19, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Cross_National_Analysis_of_the_Associations_among_Mental_Disorders_and_Suicidal_Behavior_Findings_from_the_WHO_World_Mental_Health_Surveys/146851", "title"=>"Cross-National Analysis of the Associations among Mental Disorders and Suicidal Behavior: Findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2009-08-11 01:54:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/887923"], "description"=>"a<p>Denominator sample size.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dsm-iv"], "article_id"=>558352, "categories"=>["Mental Health", "Neuroscience", "Cancer"], "users"=>["Matthew K. Nock", "Irving Hwang", "Nancy Sampson", "Ronald C. Kessler", "Matthias Angermeyer", "Annette Beautrais", "Guilherme Borges", "Evelyn Bromet", "Ronny Bruffaerts", "Giovanni de Girolamo", "Ron de Graaf", "Silvia Florescu", "Oye Gureje", "Josep Maria Haro", "Chiyi Hu", "Yueqin Huang", "Elie G. Karam", "Norito Kawakami", "Viviane Kovess", "Daphna Levinson", "José Posada-Villa", "Rajesh Sagar", "Toma Tomov", "Maria Carmen Viana", "David R. Williams"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000123.t008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_PARP_of_DSM_IV_disorders_8212_developed_countries_/558352", "title"=>"PARP of DSM-IV disorders—developed countries.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-08-11 02:19:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/887524"], "description"=>"<p>Each column includes a separate multivariate model in survival framework, with all rows as predictors controlling for the following covariates: age, age-squared, age cohort, sex, and person-year.</p>a<p>χ<sup>2</sup> tests for significance of the set of coefficients for type of disorder net of effects of number.</p>b<p>χ<sup>2</sup> tests for significance of the set of coefficients for number of disorder net of effects of type.</p>c<p>Denominator sample size of the models.</p>*<p>Significant at the 0.5 level, two-sided test.</p><p><b>Abbreviations:</b> ADHD, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder; CI, confidence interval; GAD, Generalized Anxiety Disorder; IED, Intermittent Explosive Disorder; MDD, Major Depressive Disorder; OCD, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder; ODD, Oppositional Defiant Disorder; PTSD, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; SAD, Separation Anxiety Disorder.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["models", "associations", "dsm-iv", "disorders", "suicidal"], "article_id"=>557949, "categories"=>["Mental Health", "Neuroscience", "Cancer"], "users"=>["Matthew K. Nock", "Irving Hwang", "Nancy Sampson", "Ronald C. Kessler", "Matthias Angermeyer", "Annette Beautrais", "Guilherme Borges", "Evelyn Bromet", "Ronny Bruffaerts", "Giovanni de Girolamo", "Ron de Graaf", "Silvia Florescu", "Oye Gureje", "Josep Maria Haro", "Chiyi Hu", "Yueqin Huang", "Elie G. Karam", "Norito Kawakami", "Viviane Kovess", "Daphna Levinson", "José Posada-Villa", "Rajesh Sagar", "Toma Tomov", "Maria Carmen Viana", "David R. Williams"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000123.t007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Multivariate_survival_models_of_associations_between_type_number_of_prior_DSM_IV_disorders_and_subsequent_suicidal_behavior_8212_developing_countries_/557949", "title"=>"Multivariate survival models of associations between type/number of prior DSM-IV disorders and subsequent suicidal behavior—developing countries.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-08-11 02:12:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/887672"], "description"=>"a<p>B-WMH, The Beijing World Mental Health Survey; CMDPSD, Comorbid Mental Disorders during Periods of Social Disruption; ESEMeD, The European Study Of The Epidemiology Of Mental Disorders; LEBANON, Lebanese Evaluation of the Burden of Ailments and Needs of the Nation; M-NCS, The Mexico National Comorbidity Survey; NCS-R, The US National Comorbidity Survey Replication; NHS, Israel National Health Survey; NSHS, Bulgaria National Survey of Health and Stress; NSMH, The Colombian National Study of Mental Health; NSMHW, The Nigerian Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing; NZMHS, New Zealand Mental Health Survey; RMHS, Romania Mental Health Survey; SASH, South Africa Stress and Health Study; S-WMH, The Shanghai World Mental Health Survey; WMHI, World Mental Health India; WMHJ2002–2006, World Mental Health Japan Survey.</p>b<p>Most WMH surveys are based on stratified multistage clustered area probability household samples in which samples of areas equivalent to counties or municipalities in the US were selected in the first stage followed by one or more subsequent stages of geographic sampling (e.g., towns within counties, blocks within towns, households within blocks) to arrive at a sample of households, in each of which a listing of household members was created and one or two people were selected from this listing to be interviewed. No substitution was allowed when the originally sampled household resident could not be interviewed. These household samples were selected from census area data in all countries other than France (where telephone directories were used to select households) and the Netherlands (where postal registries were used to select households). Several WMH surveys (Belgium, Germany, Italy) used municipal resident registries to select respondents without listing households. The Japanese sample is the only totally unclustered sample, with households randomly selected in each of the four sample areas and one random respondent selected in each sample household. 16 of the 22 surveys are based on nationally representative (NR) household samples, while two others are based on NR household samples in urbanized areas (Colombia, Mexico).</p>c<p>Brazil, Israel, New Zealand, Romania, and South Africa did not have an age restricted part II sample. All other countries, with the exception of India, Nigeria, the People's Republic of China, and Ukraine (which were age restricted to ≤39 y) were age restricted to ≤44 y.</p>d<p>The response rate is calculated as the ratio of the number of households in which an interview was completed to the number of households originally sampled, excluding from the denominator households known not to be eligible either because of being vacant at the time of initial contact or because the residents were unable to speak the designated languages of the survey.</p>e<p>The weighted average response rate is 73%.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mental health/anxiety disorders", "mental health/mood disorders", "mental health/psychology", "mental health/substance abuse", "public health and epidemiology/epidemiology", "public health and epidemiology/global health"], "article_id"=>558091, "categories"=>["Mental Health", "Neuroscience", "Cancer"], "users"=>["Matthew K. Nock", "Irving Hwang", "Nancy Sampson", "Ronald C. Kessler", "Matthias Angermeyer", "Annette Beautrais", "Guilherme Borges", "Evelyn Bromet", "Ronny Bruffaerts", "Giovanni de Girolamo", "Ron de Graaf", "Silvia Florescu", "Oye Gureje", "Josep Maria Haro", "Chiyi Hu", "Yueqin Huang", "Elie G. Karam", "Norito Kawakami", "Viviane Kovess", "Daphna Levinson", "José Posada-Villa", "Rajesh Sagar", "Toma Tomov", "Maria Carmen Viana", "David R. Williams"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000123.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_WMH_sample_characteristics_8212_developed_and_developing_countries_/558091", "title"=>"WMH sample characteristics—developed and developing countries.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-08-11 02:14:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/887392"], "description"=>"a<p>Bivariate discrete time survival models include the following covariates: age, age-squared, age cohort, sex, and person-year.</p>b<p>Multivariate interactive model (includes number of disorders and individual DSM-IV/CIDI disorders together in a discrete time survival model) includes the following covariates: age, age-squared, age cohorts, sex, and person-year.</p>c<p>The group effect χ<sup>2</sup> tests the set of coefficients for number of disorders for significance, while the individual χ<sup>2</sup> only test presence versus absence of each specific number of disorders.</p>*<p>Significant at the 0.05 level, two-sided test. CI, confidence interval.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["models", "associations", "dsm-iv", "disorders"], "article_id"=>557817, "categories"=>["Mental Health", "Neuroscience", "Cancer"], "users"=>["Matthew K. Nock", "Irving Hwang", "Nancy Sampson", "Ronald C. Kessler", "Matthias Angermeyer", "Annette Beautrais", "Guilherme Borges", "Evelyn Bromet", "Ronny Bruffaerts", "Giovanni de Girolamo", "Ron de Graaf", "Silvia Florescu", "Oye Gureje", "Josep Maria Haro", "Chiyi Hu", "Yueqin Huang", "Elie G. Karam", "Norito Kawakami", "Viviane Kovess", "Daphna Levinson", "José Posada-Villa", "Rajesh Sagar", "Toma Tomov", "Maria Carmen Viana", "David R. Williams"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000123.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Survival_models_of_the_associations_between_number_of_prior_DSM_IV_disorders_and_a_subsequent_suicide_attempt_8212_developing_countries_/557817", "title"=>"Survival models of the associations between number of prior DSM-IV disorders and a subsequent suicide attempt—developing countries.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-08-11 02:10:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/887736"], "description"=>"<p>Empty cells indicate the disorder specified in the row was not included in the model.</p>a<p>Bivariate models (each disorder in a separate discrete time survival model) include the following controls: age, age-squared, age cohorts, sex, and person-year.</p>b<p>Multivariate additive model (all disorders together in a discrete time survival model) includes the following covariates: age, age-squared, age cohorts, sex, and person-year.</p>c<p>Multivariate interactive model (all disorders together in a discrete time survival model controlling for number of disorders as interactions) includes the following covariates: age, age-squared, age cohorts, sex, and person-year.</p>d<p>The group effect χ<sup>2</sup> tests the set of coefficients for type of disorder for significance, while the individual χ<sup>2</sup> only test presence versus absence of each DSM-IV/CIDI disorder.</p>*<p>Significant at the 0.05 level, two-sided test.</p><p><b>Abbreviations:</b> ADHD, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder; CI, confidence interval; GAD, Generalized Anxiety Disorder; IED, Intermittent Explosive Disorder; MDD, Major Depressive Disorder; OCD, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder; ODD, Oppositional Defiant Disorder; PTSD, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; SAD, Separation Anxiety Disorder.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["models", "associations", "dsm-iv", "disorders"], "article_id"=>558162, "categories"=>["Mental Health", "Neuroscience", "Cancer"], "users"=>["Matthew K. Nock", "Irving Hwang", "Nancy Sampson", "Ronald C. Kessler", "Matthias Angermeyer", "Annette Beautrais", "Guilherme Borges", "Evelyn Bromet", "Ronny Bruffaerts", "Giovanni de Girolamo", "Ron de Graaf", "Silvia Florescu", "Oye Gureje", "Josep Maria Haro", "Chiyi Hu", "Yueqin Huang", "Elie G. Karam", "Norito Kawakami", "Viviane Kovess", "Daphna Levinson", "José Posada-Villa", "Rajesh Sagar", "Toma Tomov", "Maria Carmen Viana", "David R. Williams"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000123.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Survival_models_of_the_associations_between_DSM_IV_disorders_and_a_subsequent_suicide_attempt_8212_developing_countries_/558162", "title"=>"Survival models of the associations between DSM-IV disorders and a subsequent suicide attempt—developing countries.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-08-11 02:16:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/887459"], "description"=>"a<p>Bivariate discrete time survival models include the following covariates: age, age-squared, age cohort, sex, and person-year.</p>b<p>Multivariate interactive model (includes number of disorders and individual DSM-IV/CIDI disorders together in a discrete time survival model) includes the following covariates: age, age-squared, age cohorts, sex, and person-year.</p>c<p>The group effect χ<sup>2</sup> tests the set of coefficients for number of disorders for significance, while the individual χ<sup>2</sup> only test presence versus absence of each specific number of disorders.</p>*<p>Significant at the 0.05 level, two-sided test.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["models", "associations", "dsm-iv", "disorders"], "article_id"=>557887, "categories"=>["Mental Health", "Neuroscience", "Cancer"], "users"=>["Matthew K. Nock", "Irving Hwang", "Nancy Sampson", "Ronald C. Kessler", "Matthias Angermeyer", "Annette Beautrais", "Guilherme Borges", "Evelyn Bromet", "Ronny Bruffaerts", "Giovanni de Girolamo", "Ron de Graaf", "Silvia Florescu", "Oye Gureje", "Josep Maria Haro", "Chiyi Hu", "Yueqin Huang", "Elie G. Karam", "Norito Kawakami", "Viviane Kovess", "Daphna Levinson", "José Posada-Villa", "Rajesh Sagar", "Toma Tomov", "Maria Carmen Viana", "David R. Williams"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000123.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Survival_models_of_the_associations_between_number_of_prior_DSM_IV_disorders_and_a_subsequent_suicide_attempt_8212_developed_countries_/557887", "title"=>"Survival models of the associations between number of prior DSM-IV disorders and a subsequent suicide attempt—developed countries.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-08-11 02:11:27"}

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