Ghostwriting at Elite Academic Medical Centers in the United States
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{"title"=>"Ghostwriting at Elite Academic Medical Centers in the United States", "type"=>"generic", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Jeffrey R.", "last_name"=>"Lacasse", "scopus_author_id"=>"10540269700"}, {"first_name"=>"Jonathan", "last_name"=>"Leo", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004377251"}], "year"=>2010, "source"=>"PLoS Medicine", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-77449147747", "sgr"=>"77449147747", "issn"=>"15491277", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pmed.1000230", "pmid"=>"20126384", "isbn"=>"1549-1676 (Electronic)\\n1549-1277 (Linking)", "pui"=>"358373273"}, "id"=>"73c4f8c1-5d3a-3996-9580-78e08ade5ab8", "abstract"=>"Medical ghostwriting, the practice of pharmaceutical companies secretly au- thoring journal articles published under the byline of academic researchers, is a troubling phenomenon because it is dan- gerous to public health [1]. For example, ghostwritten articles on rofecoxib [2] probably contributed to ‘‘…lasting injury and even deaths as a result of prescribers and patients being misinformed about risks’’ [3]. Study 329, a randomized controlled trial of paroxetine in adoles- cents, was ghostwritten [4–7] to claim that paroxetine is ‘‘generally well tolerated and effective for major depression in adoles- cents’’ [8], although data made available through legal proceedings show that ‘‘Study 329 was negative for efficacy on all 8 protocol specified outcomes and positive for harm’’ [9]. Even beyond frank misrepresentation of data, commercially driven ghostwritten articles shape the medical literature in subtler but important ways, affecting how health conditions and treatments are perceived by clinicians. The ability of industry to exercise clan- destine influence over the peer-reviewed medical literature is thus a serious threat to public health [1,10]. In 2009, the Institute of Medicine recommended that US-based academic medical centers enact policies that prohibit ghostwriting by their faculties [11]. How- ever, to date, there has been no systematic assessment of ghostwriting policies at academic medical centers. Since US-based academic medical centers generate bio- medical research for a worldwide audi- ence, we chose to conduct the first such investigation on elite US-based academic medical centers. Our methods are shown in Box 1. We sought to describe the current policy situation at US-based academic centers and then to propose an ideal ghostwriting policy.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/ghostwriting-elite-academic-medical-centers-united-states-3", "reader_count"=>44, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>8, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Other"=>8, "Student > Master"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>8, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Other"=>8, "Student > Master"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Mathematics"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>25, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>4, "Philosophy"=>1, "Design"=>1, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Psychology"=>4, "Chemistry"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Design"=>{"Design"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>25}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>3}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>4}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>4}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "Poland"=>1, "Brazil"=>5, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

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Relative Metric

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