The Promise of Prevention: The Effects of Four Preventable Risk Factors on National Life Expectancy and Life Expectancy Disparities by Race and County in the United States
Events
Loading … Spinner

Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"The promise of prevention: The effects of four preventable risk factors on national life expectancy and life expectancy disparities by race and county in the United States", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Goodarz", "last_name"=>"Danaei", "scopus_author_id"=>"15730459500"}, {"first_name"=>"Eric B.", "last_name"=>"Rimm", "scopus_author_id"=>"56457771800"}, {"first_name"=>"Shefali", "last_name"=>"Oza", "scopus_author_id"=>"22938971200"}, {"first_name"=>"Sandeep C.", "last_name"=>"Kulkarni", "scopus_author_id"=>"36004905600"}, {"first_name"=>"Christopher J.L.", "last_name"=>"Murray", "scopus_author_id"=>"55481130700"}, {"first_name"=>"Majid", "last_name"=>"Ezzati", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701418638"}], "year"=>2010, "source"=>"PLoS Medicine", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-77950675115", "sgr"=>"77950675115", "issn"=>"15491277", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pmed.1000248", "pmid"=>"20351772", "isbn"=>"1549-1676 (Electronic)\\r1549-1277 (Linking)", "pui"=>"358607692"}, "id"=>"e8583b75-e2b9-3ac9-99d9-ebad73937541", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: There has been substantial research on psychosocial and health care determinants of health disparities in the United States (US) but less on the role of modifiable risk factors. We estimated the effects of smoking, high blood pressure, elevated blood glucose, and adiposity on national life expectancy and on disparities in life expectancy and disease-specific mortality among eight subgroups of the US population (the \"Eight Americas\") defined on the basis of race and the location and socioeconomic characteristics of county of residence, in 2005. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We combined data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to estimate unbiased risk factor levels for the Eight Americas. We used data from the National Center for Health Statistics to estimate age-sex-disease-specific number of deaths in 2005. We used systematic reviews and meta-analyses of epidemiologic studies to obtain risk factor effect sizes for disease-specific mortality. We used epidemiologic methods for multiple risk factors to estimate the effects of current exposure to these risk factors on death rates, and life table methods to estimate effects on life expectancy. Asians had the lowest mean body mass index, fasting plasma glucose, and smoking whites had the lowest systolic blood pressure (SBP). SBP was highest in blacks, especially in the rural South--5-7 mmHg higher than whites. The other three risk factors were highest in Western Native Americans, Southern low-income rural blacks, and/or low-income whites in Appalachia and the Mississippi Valley. Nationally, these four risk factors reduced life expectancy at birth in 2005 by an estimated 4.9 y in men and 4.1 y in women. Life expectancy effects were smallest in Asians (M, 4.1 y F, 3.6 y) and largest in Southern rural blacks (M, 6.7 y F, 5.7 y). Standard deviation of life expectancies in the Eight Americas would decline by 0.50 y (18%) in men and 0.45 y (21%) in women if these risks had been reduced to optimal levels. Disparities in the probabilities of dying from cardiovascular diseases and diabetes at different ages would decline by 69%-80% the corresponding reduction for probabilities of dying from cancers would be 29%-50%. Individually, smoking and high blood pressure had the largest effect on life expectancy disparities. CONCLUSIONS: Disparities in smoking, blood pressure, blood glucose, and adiposity explain a significant proportion of disparities in mortality from cardiovascular diseases and cancers, and some of the life expectancy disparities in the US. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/promise-prevention-effects-four-preventable-risk-factors-national-life-expectancy-life-expectancy-di", "reader_count"=>119, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>11, "Librarian"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Researcher"=>26, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>21, "Student > Postgraduate"=>6, "Student > Master"=>14, "Other"=>9, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>13}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>11, "Librarian"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Researcher"=>26, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>21, "Student > Postgraduate"=>6, "Student > Master"=>14, "Other"=>9, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>13}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>9, "Philosophy"=>2, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Computer Science"=>2, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>8, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>6, "Materials Science"=>2, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>57, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Psychology"=>5, "Social Sciences"=>17, "Engineering"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>2}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>57}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>17}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>5}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>8}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>9}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>6}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>2, "United States"=>8, "Japan"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>4, "South Africa"=>2, "Italy"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1, "Spain"=>2}, "group_count"=>9}

CrossRef

Scopus | Further Information

{"@_fa"=>"true", "link"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"self", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/77950675115"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"author-affiliation", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/77950675115?field=author,affiliation"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=77950675115&origin=inward"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus-citedby", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=77950675115&origin=inward"}], "prism:url"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/77950675115", "dc:identifier"=>"SCOPUS_ID:77950675115", "eid"=>"2-s2.0-77950675115", "dc:title"=>"The promise of prevention: The effects of four preventable risk factors on national life expectancy and life expectancy disparities by race and county in the United States", "dc:creator"=>"Danaei G.", "prism:publicationName"=>"PLoS Medicine", "prism:issn"=>"15491277", "prism:eIssn"=>"15491676", "prism:volume"=>"7", "prism:issueIdentifier"=>"3", "prism:pageRange"=>"1-13", "prism:coverDate"=>"2010-03-01", "prism:coverDisplayDate"=>"March 2010", "prism:doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pmed.1000248", "citedby-count"=>"84", "affiliation"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"Harvard School of Public Health", "affiliation-city"=>"Boston", "affiliation-country"=>"United States"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"Harvard University", "affiliation-city"=>"Cambridge", "affiliation-country"=>"United States"}], "pubmed-id"=>"20351772", "prism:aggregationType"=>"Journal", "subtype"=>"ar", "subtypeDescription"=>"Article", "source-id"=>"144840", "openaccess"=>"1", "openaccessFlag"=>true}

Facebook

  • {"url"=>"http%3A%2F%2Fjournals.plos.org%2Fplosmedicine%2Farticle%3Fid%3D10.1371%252Fjournal.pmed.1000248", "share_count"=>0, "like_count"=>0, "comment_count"=>0, "click_count"=>0, "total_count"=>0}

Journal Comments | Further Information

Counter

  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2010", "pdf_views"=>"823", "xml_views"=>"10", "html_views"=>"3250"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2010", "pdf_views"=>"387", "xml_views"=>"8", "html_views"=>"1532"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2010", "pdf_views"=>"119", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"535"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2010", "pdf_views"=>"63", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"239"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2010", "pdf_views"=>"45", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"232"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2010", "pdf_views"=>"45", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"236"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2010", "pdf_views"=>"57", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"291"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2010", "pdf_views"=>"40", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"256"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2010", "pdf_views"=>"49", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"285"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2010", "pdf_views"=>"42", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"222"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"40", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"192"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"46", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"173"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"70", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"455"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"33", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"149"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"77"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"105"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"121"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"116"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"33", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"265"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"31", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"269"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"31", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"185"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"30", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"149"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"31", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"122"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"41", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"172"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"38", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"169"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"31", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"172"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"31", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"136"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"24", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"113"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"45", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"165"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"35", "xml_views"=>"6", "html_views"=>"163"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"29", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"126"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"36", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"181"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"41", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"179"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"40", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"260"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"177"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"23", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"139"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"27", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"163"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"29", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"209"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"131"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"136"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"24", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"158"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"27", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"131"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"24", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"184"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"302"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"267"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"285"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"243"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"199"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"191"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"347"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"378"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"239"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"21", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"138"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"223"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"344"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"444"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"393"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"336"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"230"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"155"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"152"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"117"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"144"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"108"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"78"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"99"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"108"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"21", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"197"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"117"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"96"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"103"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"30", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"103"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"108"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"111"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"52"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"63"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"41"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"72"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"214"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"87"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"70"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"69"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"100"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"105"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"112"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"21", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"162"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"94"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"64"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"65"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"85"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"74"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"99"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"111"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"68"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"56"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"47"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"58"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"64"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"44"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"30"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"5", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"25"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"30"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"83"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"46"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"53"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"41"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"59"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"35"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"40"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"38"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"27"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"27"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"7"}

Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/425986", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/426111", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/426175"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>There has been substantial research on psychosocial and health care determinants of health disparities in the United States (US) but less on the role of modifiable risk factors. We estimated the effects of smoking, high blood pressure, elevated blood glucose, and adiposity on national life expectancy and on disparities in life expectancy and disease-specific mortality among eight subgroups of the US population (the “Eight Americas”) defined on the basis of race and the location and socioeconomic characteristics of county of residence, in 2005.</p><h3>Methods and Findings</h3><p>We combined data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to estimate unbiased risk factor levels for the Eight Americas. We used data from the National Center for Health Statistics to estimate age–sex–disease-specific number of deaths in 2005. We used systematic reviews and meta-analyses of epidemiologic studies to obtain risk factor effect sizes for disease-specific mortality. We used epidemiologic methods for multiple risk factors to estimate the effects of current exposure to these risk factors on death rates, and life table methods to estimate effects on life expectancy. Asians had the lowest mean body mass index, fasting plasma glucose, and smoking; whites had the lowest systolic blood pressure (SBP). SBP was highest in blacks, especially in the rural South—5–7 mmHg higher than whites. The other three risk factors were highest in Western Native Americans, Southern low-income rural blacks, and/or low-income whites in Appalachia and the Mississippi Valley. Nationally, these four risk factors reduced life expectancy at birth in 2005 by an estimated 4.9 y in men and 4.1 y in women. Life expectancy effects were smallest in Asians (M, 4.1 y; F, 3.6 y) and largest in Southern rural blacks (M, 6.7 y; F, 5.7 y). Standard deviation of life expectancies in the Eight Americas would decline by 0.50 y (18%) in men and 0.45 y (21%) in women if these risks had been reduced to optimal levels. Disparities in the probabilities of dying from cardiovascular diseases and diabetes at different ages would decline by 69%–80%; the corresponding reduction for probabilities of dying from cancers would be 29%–50%. Individually, smoking and high blood pressure had the largest effect on life expectancy disparities.</p><h3>Conclusions</h3><p>Disparities in smoking, blood pressure, blood glucose, and adiposity explain a significant proportion of disparities in mortality from cardiovascular diseases and cancers, and some of the life expectancy disparities in the US.</p><h3></h3><p><em>Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary</em></p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["effects", "preventable", "factors", "expectancy", "disparities", "united", "states"], "article_id"=>144108, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Medicine", "Cancer", "Biotechnology", "Information And Computing Sciences"], "users"=>["Goodarz Danaei", "Eric B. Rimm", "Shefali Oza", "Sandeep C. Kulkarni", "Christopher J. L. Murray", "Majid Ezzati"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000248.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000248.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000248.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>53, "page_views"=>33, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/The_Promise_of_Prevention_The_Effects_of_Four_Preventable_Risk_Factors_on_National_Life_Expectancy_and_Life_Expectancy_Disparities_by_Race_and_County_in_the_United_States/144108", "title"=>"The Promise of Prevention: The Effects of Four Preventable Risk Factors on National Life Expectancy and Life Expectancy Disparities by Race and County in the United States", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2010-03-23 01:08:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/857556"], "description"=>"a<p>See a previous national analysis of risk factor effects for a list of disease outcomes causally associated with each risk factor <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000248#pmed.1000248-Danaei1\" target=\"_blank\">[10]</a>.</p>b<p>The means (SD) of the normal distribution are reported. We used the threshold used in the recent clinical guidelines as the mean. The SD was estimated using the coefficient of variation for the optimal exposure distribution of the same risk factor.</p>c<p>The epidemiologic evidence for selection of optimal distribution is described in a previous work <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000248#pmed.1000248-Danaei1\" target=\"_blank\">[10]</a>. The primary criterion was the level to which randomized trials and observational studies indicate benefits of lowering exposure continue. The mean (SD) of the normal distribution are reported here.</p>d<p>The lowest observed mean SBP in this age group was lower than the mean of the optimal distribution, i.e., the level to which benefits of lowering exposure have been observed in current epidemiologic studies. We did not assign any benefits to exposures lower than the optimal distribution.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["factors", "lowest", "observed", "optimal"], "article_id"=>528009, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Medicine", "Cancer", "Biotechnology", "Information And Computing Sciences"], "users"=>["Goodarz Danaei", "Eric B. Rimm", "Shefali Oza", "Sandeep C. Kulkarni", "Christopher J. L. Murray", "Majid Ezzati"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000248.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Risk_factors_in_this_analysis_their_exposure_metric_lowest_observed_mean_in_the_Eight_Americas_clinical_guidelines_and_optimal_exposures_/528009", "title"=>"Risk factors in this analysis, their exposure metric, lowest observed mean in the Eight Americas, clinical guidelines, and optimal exposures.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-03-23 02:13:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/857582"], "description"=>"<p>Income per capita and education were calculated for race-county combinations from the 2000 US census.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["characteristics", "americas"], "article_id"=>528038, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Medicine", "Cancer", "Biotechnology", "Information And Computing Sciences"], "users"=>["Goodarz Danaei", "Eric B. Rimm", "Shefali Oza", "Sandeep C. Kulkarni", "Christopher J. L. Murray", "Majid Ezzati"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000248.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Definitions_and_selected_characteristics_of_the_Eight_Americas_1_/528038", "title"=>"Definitions and selected characteristics of the Eight Americas [1].", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-03-23 02:13:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/857489"], "description"=>"<p>Numbers in brackets show the gain as % of gain expected if all risk four risk factors are reduced; percents add to more than 100% because of multi-causality and because life expectancy is affected by competing risk from other diseases.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["expectancy", "gains", "reducing", "factors", "optimal"], "article_id"=>527938, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Medicine", "Cancer", "Biotechnology", "Information And Computing Sciences"], "users"=>["Goodarz Danaei", "Eric B. Rimm", "Shefali Oza", "Sandeep C. Kulkarni", "Christopher J. L. Murray", "Majid Ezzati"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000248.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Life_expectancy_gains_in_years_expected_by_reducing_individual_risk_factors_to_their_optimal_distributions_/527938", "title"=>"Life expectancy gains (in years) expected by reducing individual risk factors to their optimal distributions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-03-23 02:12:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/857420"], "description"=>"<p>See definitions of the Eight Americas in <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000248#pmed-1000248-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["causes", "15", "60", "years", "75", "optimal", "distributions", "factors", "americas"], "article_id"=>527869, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Medicine", "Cancer", "Biotechnology", "Information And Computing Sciences"], "users"=>["Goodarz Danaei", "Eric B. Rimm", "Shefali Oza", "Sandeep C. Kulkarni", "Christopher J. L. Murray", "Majid Ezzati"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000248.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Probability_of_death_from_different_medical_causes_between_15_and_60_years_of_age_45_Q_15_and_between_60_and_75_years_of_age_15_Q_60_in_the_current_and_optimal_distributions_of_risk_factors_in_the_Eight_Americas_in_women_/527869", "title"=>"Probability of death from different medical causes between 15 and 60 years of age (<sub>45</sub>Q<sub>15</sub>) and between 60 and 75 years of age (<sub>15</sub>Q<sub>60</sub>) in the current and optimal distributions of risk factors in the Eight Americas in women.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-03-23 02:11:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/857517"], "description"=>"<p>Table shows mean (standard error) for SBP, BMI, FPG, and prevalence (standard error) for smoking. The lowest and highest mean exposures in each age-sex group are shown in bold font. Within each age group, exposures are age-standardized to the 2005 US population.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["factors"], "article_id"=>527982, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Medicine", "Cancer", "Biotechnology", "Information And Computing Sciences"], "users"=>["Goodarz Danaei", "Eric B. Rimm", "Shefali Oza", "Sandeep C. Kulkarni", "Christopher J. L. Murray", "Majid Ezzati"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000248.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Exposure_to_risk_factors_by_sex_and_age_group_in_the_Eight_Americas_/527982", "title"=>"Exposure to risk factors by sex and age group in the Eight Americas.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-03-23 02:13:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/857252"], "description"=>"<p>See definitions of the Eight Americas in <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000248#pmed-1000248-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>. The means and 95% confidence intervals for life expectancy under the three alternative distributions was estimated using simulations as described in <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000248#s3\" target=\"_blank\">Methods</a>. Because the number of simulations was finite, the means may be slightly different from the numbers reported in <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000248#pmed-1000248-t004\" target=\"_blank\">Table 4</a> and the text. This difference is in the order of 0.1% and does not affect our conclusions.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["expectancy", "distributions", "americas", "men"], "article_id"=>527704, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Medicine", "Cancer", "Biotechnology", "Information And Computing Sciences"], "users"=>["Goodarz Danaei", "Eric B. Rimm", "Shefali Oza", "Sandeep C. Kulkarni", "Christopher J. L. Murray", "Majid Ezzati"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000248.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Current_life_expectancy_at_birth_and_life_expectancy_under_three_alternative_risk_factor_distributions_in_the_Eight_Americas_for_men_and_women_/527704", "title"=>"Current life expectancy at birth and life expectancy under three alternative risk factor distributions in the Eight Americas for men and women.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-03-23 02:08:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/857331"], "description"=>"<p>See definitions of the Eight Americas in <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000248#pmed-1000248-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["causes", "15", "60", "years", "75", "optimal", "distributions", "factors", "americas"], "article_id"=>527777, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Medicine", "Cancer", "Biotechnology", "Information And Computing Sciences"], "users"=>["Goodarz Danaei", "Eric B. Rimm", "Shefali Oza", "Sandeep C. Kulkarni", "Christopher J. L. Murray", "Majid Ezzati"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000248.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Probability_of_death_from_different_medical_causes_between_15_and_60_years_of_age_45_Q_15_and_between_60_and_75_years_of_age_15_Q_60_in_the_current_and_optimal_distributions_of_risk_factors_in_the_Eight_Americas_in_men_/527777", "title"=>"Probability of death from different medical causes between 15 and 60 years of age (<sub>45</sub>Q<sub>15</sub>) and between 60 and 75 years of age (<sub>15</sub>Q<sub>60</sub>) in the current and optimal distributions of risk factors in the Eight Americas in men.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-03-23 02:09:37"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"month"=>"3", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"1", "year"=>"2010", "pdf"=>"4", "unique-ip"=>"5", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"10", "full-text"=>"185", "unique-ip"=>"182", "pdf"=>"113", "year"=>"2010", "figure"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"6", "full-text"=>"135", "year"=>"2010", "pdf"=>"75", "unique-ip"=>"121", "figure"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"6", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"3", "full-text"=>"85", "unique-ip"=>"83", "pdf"=>"61", "year"=>"2010", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"7", "full-text"=>"92", "year"=>"2010", "pdf"=>"60", "unique-ip"=>"86", "figure"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"8", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"75", "unique-ip"=>"68", "pdf"=>"40", "year"=>"2010", "figure"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"5"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"3", "full-text"=>"76", "year"=>"2010", "pdf"=>"52", "unique-ip"=>"80", "figure"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"10", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"4", "full-text"=>"58", "unique-ip"=>"65", "pdf"=>"38", "year"=>"2010", "figure"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "abstract"=>"5", "full-text"=>"61", "year"=>"2010", "pdf"=>"43", "unique-ip"=>"62", "figure"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"12", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"2", "full-text"=>"41", "unique-ip"=>"45", "pdf"=>"30", "year"=>"2010", "figure"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "abstract"=>"5", "full-text"=>"44", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"38", "unique-ip"=>"52", "figure"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"3", "abstract"=>"7", "full-text"=>"71", "unique-ip"=>"60", "pdf"=>"35", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"10", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"8", "full-text"=>"56", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"36", "unique-ip"=>"63", "figure"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"11", "full-text"=>"38", "unique-ip"=>"50", "pdf"=>"27", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"6", "full-text"=>"28", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"19", "unique-ip"=>"36", "figure"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"6", "cited-by"=>"1", "abstract"=>"3", "full-text"=>"44", "unique-ip"=>"42", "pdf"=>"23", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"2", "full-text"=>"27", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"17", "unique-ip"=>"29", "figure"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"8", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"36", "unique-ip"=>"35", "pdf"=>"10", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"2", "full-text"=>"39", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"15", "unique-ip"=>"39", "figure"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"10", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"58", "unique-ip"=>"51", "pdf"=>"23", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"43", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"15", "unique-ip"=>"44", "figure"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"12", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"37", "unique-ip"=>"35", "pdf"=>"15", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"23", "unique-ip"=>"25", "pdf"=>"7", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "abstract"=>"3", "full-text"=>"59", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"18", "unique-ip"=>"49", "figure"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"39", "unique-ip"=>"38", "pdf"=>"18", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"4", "full-text"=>"37", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"20", "unique-ip"=>"38", "figure"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"25", "unique-ip"=>"28", "pdf"=>"10", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"26", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"6", "unique-ip"=>"25", "figure"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"33", "full-text"=>"40", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"39", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"47", "abstract"=>"20", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"32", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"34", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"31", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"33", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"37", "full-text"=>"40", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"29", "full-text"=>"46", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"34", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"32", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"38", "full-text"=>"52", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"35", "full-text"=>"36", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"11", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"29", "full-text"=>"33", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"29", "full-text"=>"33", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"43", "full-text"=>"53", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"31", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"30", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"17", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"34", "full-text"=>"37", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"32", "full-text"=>"38", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"48", "full-text"=>"53", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"35", "full-text"=>"42", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"78", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2010-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2010-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Population biology", "average_usage"=>[336, 599, 748, 884, 971, 1067, 1170, 1240, 1328, 1415, 1474, 1553, 1615, 1677, 1758, 1821, 1885, 1938, 2007, 2079, 2139, 2216, 2302, 2408, 2462, 2535, 2577, 2636, 2711, 2793, 2863, 2916, 2984, 3040, 3093, 3144, 3209, 3281, 3345, 3417, 3465, 3516, 3565, 3646, 3710, 3753, 3813, 3850, 3906]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences", "average_usage"=>[277, 558, 715, 845, 963, 1070, 1166, 1258, 1336, 1410, 1485, 1561, 1638, 1707, 1767, 1834, 1896, 1960, 2030, 2096, 2165, 2229, 2300, 2368, 2425, 2489, 2553, 2617, 2679, 2743, 2814, 2873, 2941, 2995, 3050, 3111, 3169, 3235, 3300, 3363, 3428, 3487, 3548, 3605, 3670, 3726, 3785, 3844]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Cardiology", "average_usage"=>[254, 473, 629, 741, 888, 985, 1085, 1180, 1259, 1335, 1404, 1449, 1508, 1599, 1673, 1722, 1784, 1830, 1903, 1964, 2022, 2070, 2112, 2184, 2256, 2296, 2371, 2434, 2515, 2600, 2654, 2706, 2752, 2800, 2849, 2925, 2983, 3020, 3066, 3110, 3145, 3181, 3221, 3271, 3305, 3348, 3386, 3445, 3503]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Metabolic disorders", "average_usage"=>[287, 588, 759, 916, 1049, 1164, 1261, 1347, 1444, 1540, 1636, 1693, 1776, 1857, 1941, 2042, 2097, 2185, 2246, 2309, 2380, 2459, 2516, 2574, 2642, 2727, 2790, 2841, 2909, 2989, 3027, 3084, 3135, 3180, 3235, 3292, 3339, 3383, 3435, 3487, 3526, 3604, 3676, 3743, 3786, 3836, 3890, 3950, 4010]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Public and occupational health", "average_usage"=>[315, 602, 752, 899, 1003, 1120, 1229, 1321, 1410, 1477, 1543, 1645, 1738, 1801, 1853, 1914, 1966, 2044, 2104, 2165, 2242, 2326, 2378, 2467, 2572, 2616, 2727, 2781, 2839, 2923, 2969, 3067, 3150, 3201, 3263, 3329, 3400, 3474, 3532, 3595, 3640, 3674, 3724, 3776, 3803, 3835, 3910, 4039, 4091]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Vascular medicine", "average_usage"=>[257, 540, 710, 864, 982, 1084, 1194, 1271, 1353, 1423, 1500, 1579, 1637, 1721, 1783, 1860, 1914, 1979, 2033, 2088, 2148, 2200, 2255, 2312, 2362, 2437, 2493, 2553, 2622, 2673, 2712, 2767, 2811, 2874, 2909, 2968, 3027, 3073, 3140, 3206, 3273, 3325, 3381, 3433, 3493, 3558, 3617, 3664, 3718]}, {"subject_area"=>"/People and places/Population groupings", "average_usage"=>[304, 560, 714, 827, 946, 1046, 1150, 1244, 1322, 1408, 1484, 1558, 1621, 1693, 1757, 1815, 1874, 1948, 2005, 2085, 2139, 2219, 2279, 2346, 2401, 2469, 2533, 2588, 2680, 2736, 2797, 2901, 2956, 2990, 3068, 3166, 3223, 3286, 3345, 3419, 3469, 3533, 3583, 3648, 3694, 3765, 3818, 3884]}]}
Loading … Spinner
There are currently no alerts