Effects on Coronary Heart Disease of Increasing Polyunsaturated Fat in Place of Saturated Fat: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
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{"title"=>"Effects on coronary heart disease of increasing polyunsaturated fat in place of saturated fat: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Dariush", "last_name"=>"Mozaffarian", "scopus_author_id"=>"56751007100"}, {"first_name"=>"Renata", "last_name"=>"Micha", "scopus_author_id"=>"25632461800"}, {"first_name"=>"Sarah", "last_name"=>"Wallace", "scopus_author_id"=>"36005022300"}], "year"=>2010, "source"=>"PLoS Medicine", "identifiers"=>{"arxiv"=>"NIHMS150003", "pui"=>"358607691", "issn"=>"15491676", "isbn"=>"1549-1676 (Electronic) 1549-1277 (Linking)", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pmed.1000252", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-77950651061", "pmid"=>"20351774", "sgr"=>"77950651061"}, "id"=>"c92ec982-36bc-3196-96d1-418e94d0ea15", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND Reduced saturated fat (SFA) consumption is recommended to reduce coronary heart disease (CHD), but there is an absence of strong supporting evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of clinical CHD events and few guidelines focus on any specific replacement nutrient. Additionally, some public health groups recommend lowering or limiting polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) consumption, a major potential replacement for SFA. METHODS AND FINDINGS We systematically investigated and quantified the effects of increased PUFA consumption, as a replacement for SFA, on CHD endpoints in RCTs. RCTs were identified by systematic searches of multiple online databases through June 2009, grey literature sources, hand-searching related articles and citations, and direct contacts with experts to identify potentially unpublished trials. Studies were included if they randomized participants to increased PUFA for at least 1 year without major concomitant interventions, had an appropriate control group, and reported incidence of CHD (myocardial infarction and/or cardiac death). Inclusions/exclusions were adjudicated and data were extracted independently and in duplicate by two investigators and included population characteristics, control and intervention diets, follow-up duration, types of events, risk ratios, and SEs. Pooled effects were calculated using inverse-variance-weighted random effects meta-analysis. From 346 identified abstracts, eight trials met inclusion criteria, totaling 13,614 participants with 1,042 CHD events. Average weighted PUFA consumption was 14.9% energy (range 8.0%-20.7%) in intervention groups versus 5.0% energy (range 4.0%-6.4%) in controls. The overall pooled risk reduction was 19% (RR = 0.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.70-0.95, p = 0.008), corresponding to 10% reduced CHD risk (RR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.83-0.97) for each 5% energy of increased PUFA, without evidence for statistical heterogeneity (Q-statistic p = 0.13; I(2) = 37%). Meta-regression identified study duration as an independent determinant of risk reduction (p = 0.017), with studies of longer duration showing greater benefits. CONCLUSIONS These findings provide evidence that consuming PUFA in place of SFA reduces CHD events in RCTs. This suggests that rather than trying to lower PUFA consumption, a shift toward greater population PUFA consumption in place of SFA would significantly reduce rates of CHD. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/effects-coronary-heart-disease-increasing-polyunsaturated-fat-place-saturated-fat-systematic-review-13", "reader_count"=>412, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>8, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>18, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>61, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>21, "Student > Ph. D. 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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/857344"], "description"=>"<p>Results of the systematic search strategy and study selection process.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["systematic"], "article_id"=>527808, "categories"=>["Computational Biology", "Infectious Diseases", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Dariush Mozaffarian", "Renata Micha", "Sarah Wallace"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000252.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_the_systematic_search_strategy_and_study_selection_process_/527808", "title"=>"Results of the systematic search strategy and study selection process.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-03-23 02:10:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/857745"], "description"=>"a<p>Linoleic acid consumption; total PUFA was not reported but would be very close.</p>b<p>Calculated from published data in the trial on %E from total fat, the polyunsaturated∶saturated fat ratio, and type of intervention oil consumed, and plausible relative amounts of PUFA versus other fats based on the other trials.</p>c<p>Imputed based upon the control diet in Frantz et al. (1989) that was also the median value among all control groups.</p>d<p>Primary endpoint; post-hoc 11 year results not used.</p>e<p>Results for incident CHD were reported among these participants without prevalent CHD. Results for total and cause-specific mortality were reported for all participants in a separate publication.</p>f<p>The units of randomization were long-term-stay hospitals, and subjects joined the trial when they were hospitalized or exited when discharged.</p><p>ECG, electrocardiographic; MI, myocardial infarction; SCD, sudden cardiac death.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["chd", "events", "pufa"], "article_id"=>528201, "categories"=>["Computational Biology", "Infectious Diseases", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Dariush Mozaffarian", "Renata Micha", "Sarah Wallace"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000252.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_RCTs_testing_the_effect_on_CHD_events_of_increasing_PUFA_consumption_in_place_of_SFA_/528201", "title"=>"RCTs testing the effect on CHD events of increasing PUFA consumption in place of SFA.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-03-23 02:16:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/857508"], "description"=>"<p>Meta-analysis of RCTs evaluating effects of increasing PUFA consumption in place of SFA and occurrence of CHD events.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rcts", "evaluating", "pufa", "sfa", "occurrence", "chd"], "article_id"=>527955, "categories"=>["Computational Biology", "Infectious Diseases", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Dariush Mozaffarian", "Renata Micha", "Sarah Wallace"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000252.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Meta_analysis_of_RCTs_evaluating_effects_of_increasing_PUFA_consumption_in_place_of_SFA_and_occurrence_of_CHD_events_/527955", "title"=>"Meta-analysis of RCTs evaluating effects of increasing PUFA consumption in place of SFA and occurrence of CHD events.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-03-23 02:12:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/857607"], "description"=>"<p>Predicted effects are based on changes in the TC∶HDL-C ratio in short-term trials (e.g., each 5%E of PUFA replacing SFA lowers TC∶HDL-C ratio by 0.16) <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000252#pmed.1000252-Mensink1\" target=\"_blank\">[11]</a> coupled with observed associations between the TC∶HDL-C ratio and CHD outcomes in middle-aged adults (each 1 unit lower TC∶HDL-C is associated with 44% lower risk of CHD) <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000252#pmed.1000252-Lewington1\" target=\"_blank\">[15]</a>. Evidence for effects of dietary changes on actual CHD events comes from the present meta-analysis of eight RCTs for PUFA replacing SFA and from the Women's Health Initiative RCT for carbohydrate replacing SFA (<i>n</i> = 48,835, ∼3%E reduction in SFA over 8 years) <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000252#pmed.1000252-Howard1\" target=\"_blank\">[39]</a>. Evidence for observed relationships of usual dietary habits with CHD events comes from a pooled analysis of 11 prospective cohort studies <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000252#pmed.1000252-Jakobsen1\" target=\"_blank\">[38]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["chd", "consuming", "mufa"], "article_id"=>528060, "categories"=>["Computational Biology", "Infectious Diseases", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Dariush Mozaffarian", "Renata Micha", "Sarah Wallace"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000252.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_on_CHD_risk_of_consuming_PUFA_carbohydrate_or_MUFA_in_place_of_SFA_/528060", "title"=>"Effects on CHD risk of consuming PUFA, carbohydrate, or MUFA in place of SFA.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-03-23 02:14:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/426069", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/426108", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/426182", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/426285"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Reduced saturated fat (SFA) consumption is recommended to reduce coronary heart disease (CHD), but there is an absence of strong supporting evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of clinical CHD events and few guidelines focus on any specific replacement nutrient. Additionally, some public health groups recommend lowering or limiting polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) consumption, a major potential replacement for SFA.</p><h3>Methods and Findings</h3><p>We systematically investigated and quantified the effects of increased PUFA consumption, as a replacement for SFA, on CHD endpoints in RCTs. RCTs were identified by systematic searches of multiple online databases through June 2009, grey literature sources, hand-searching related articles and citations, and direct contacts with experts to identify potentially unpublished trials. Studies were included if they randomized participants to increased PUFA for at least 1 year without major concomitant interventions, had an appropriate control group, and reported incidence of CHD (myocardial infarction and/or cardiac death). Inclusions/exclusions were adjudicated and data were extracted independently and in duplicate by two investigators and included population characteristics, control and intervention diets, follow-up duration, types of events, risk ratios, and SEs. Pooled effects were calculated using inverse-variance-weighted random effects meta-analysis. From 346 identified abstracts, eight trials met inclusion criteria, totaling 13,614 participants with 1,042 CHD events. Average weighted PUFA consumption was 14.9% energy (range 8.0%–20.7%) in intervention groups versus 5.0% energy (range 4.0%–6.4%) in controls. The overall pooled risk reduction was 19% (RR = 0.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.70–0.95, <em>p</em> = 0.008), corresponding to 10% reduced CHD risk (RR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.83–0.97) for each 5% energy of increased PUFA, without evidence for statistical heterogeneity (Q-statistic <em>p</em> = 0.13; I<sup>2</sup> = 37%). Meta-regression identified study duration as an independent determinant of risk reduction (<em>p</em> = 0.017), with studies of longer duration showing greater benefits.</p><h3>Conclusions</h3><p>These findings provide evidence that consuming PUFA in place of SFA reduces CHD events in RCTs. This suggests that rather than trying to lower PUFA consumption, a shift toward greater population PUFA consumption in place of SFA would significantly reduce rates of CHD.</p><h3></h3><p><em>Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary</em></p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["effects", "coronary", "polyunsaturated", "saturated", "systematic", "meta-analysis", "randomized", "controlled", "trials"], "article_id"=>144126, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Cancer", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Dariush Mozaffarian", "Renata Micha", "Sarah Wallace"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000252.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000252.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000252.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000252.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>33, "page_views"=>23, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Effects_on_Coronary_Heart_Disease_of_Increasing_Polyunsaturated_Fat_in_Place_of_Saturated_Fat_A_Systematic_Review_and_Meta_Analysis_of_Randomized_Controlled_Trials/144126", "title"=>"Effects on Coronary Heart Disease of Increasing Polyunsaturated Fat in Place of Saturated Fat: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2010-03-23 01:08:46"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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