Prescription Medicines and the Risk of Road Traffic Crashes: A French Registry-Based Study
Publication Date
November 16, 2010
Journal
PLOS Medicine
Authors
Ludivine Orriols, Bernard Delorme, Blandine Gadegbeku, Aurore Tricotel, et al
Volume
7
Issue
11
Pages
e1000366
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000366
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosmedicine/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.1000366
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21125020
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2981588
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/21125020
Web of Science
000284822600007
Scopus
78649961675
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/prescription-medicines-risk-road-traffic-crashes-french-registrybased-study
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Prescription medicines and the risk of road traffic crashes: A French registry-based study", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Ludivine", "last_name"=>"Orriols", "scopus_author_id"=>"34771782600"}, {"first_name"=>"Bernard", "last_name"=>"Delorme", "scopus_author_id"=>"26023119500"}, {"first_name"=>"Blandine", "last_name"=>"Gadegbeku", "scopus_author_id"=>"6507460466"}, {"first_name"=>"Aurore", "last_name"=>"Tricotel", "scopus_author_id"=>"36667720200"}, {"first_name"=>"Benjamin", "last_name"=>"Contrand", "scopus_author_id"=>"36105838100"}, {"first_name"=>"Bernard", "last_name"=>"Laumon", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701446913"}, {"first_name"=>"Louis Rachid", "last_name"=>"Salmi", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005763473"}, {"first_name"=>"Emmanuel", "last_name"=>"Lagarde", "scopus_author_id"=>"11241035300"}], "year"=>2010, "source"=>"PLoS Medicine", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"360125769", "issn"=>"15491277", "isbn"=>"1549-1676 (Electronic)\\n1549-1277 (Linking)", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pmed.1000366", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-78649961675", "pmid"=>"21125020", "sgr"=>"78649961675"}, "id"=>"b358c89d-0857-3f20-afd1-b2a5aefef7d3", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: In recent decades, increased attention has been focused on the impact of disabilities and medicinal drug use on road safety. The aim of our study was to investigate the association between prescription medicines and the risk of road traffic crashes, and estimate the attributable fraction.\\n\\nMETHODS AND FINDINGS: We extracted and matched data from three French nationwide databases: the national health care insurance database, police reports, and the national police database of injurious crashes. Drivers identified by their national health care number involved in an injurious crash in France, between July 2005 and May 2008, were included in the study. Medicines were grouped according to the four risk levels of the French classification system (from 0 [no risk] to 3 [high risk]). We included 72,685 drivers involved in injurious crashes. Users of level 2 (odds ratio [OR]  = 1.31 [1.24-1.40]) and level 3 (OR  = 1.25 [1.12-1.40]) prescription medicines were at higher risk of being responsible for a crash. The association remained after adjustment for the presence of a long-term chronic disease. The fraction of road traffic crashes attributable to levels 2 and 3 medications was 3.3% [2.7%-3.9%]. A within-person case-crossover analysis showed that drivers were more likely to be exposed to level 3 medications on the crash day than on a control day, 30 days earlier (OR  = 1.15 [1.05-1.27]).\\n\\nCONCLUSION: The use of prescription medicines is associated with a substantial number of road traffic crashes in France. In light of the results, warning messages appear to be relevant for level 2 and 3 medications and questionable for level 1 medications. A follow-up study is needed to evaluate the impact of the warning labeling system on road traffic crash prevention.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/prescription-medicines-risk-road-traffic-crashes-french-registrybased-study", "reader_count"=>44, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>14, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>14, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>1, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>3, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Mathematics"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>21, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>2, "Chemistry"=>3, "Psychology"=>7, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>21}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>3}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>7}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>3}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "Nigeria"=>1, "France"=>1, "Australia"=>1, "Germany"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

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Scopus | Further Information

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/817700"], "description"=>"a<p>Drivers exposed in the case period and not exposed in the control period.</p>b<p>Only considering exposure to medicine of the highest level of risk.</p><p>*<i>p<</i>0.01.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ors", "crashes", "users", "prescribed"], "article_id"=>488064, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Ludivine Orriols", "Bernard Delorme", "Blandine Gadegbeku", "Aurore Tricotel", "Benjamin Contrand", "Bernard Laumon", "Louis-Rachid Salmi", "Emmanuel Lagarde"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000366.t007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Case_crossover_analysis_ORs_for_road_traffic_crashes_in_users_of_prescribed_medicines_/488064", "title"=>"Case-crossover analysis: ORs for road traffic crashes in users of prescribed medicines.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 22:17:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/817510"], "description"=>"a<p><i>n</i> drivers exposed to at least one medicine in the level and no medicine in any higher level.</p>b<p>Exposed to at least one medicine of the risk level considered.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["exposed", "drivers", "classification", "medicines"], "article_id"=>487876, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Ludivine Orriols", "Bernard Delorme", "Blandine Gadegbeku", "Aurore Tricotel", "Benjamin Contrand", "Bernard Laumon", "Louis-Rachid Salmi", "Emmanuel Lagarde"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000366.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Number_of_exposed_drivers_on_the_crash_day_by_classification_and_number_of_medicines_used_/487876", "title"=>"Number of exposed drivers on the crash day by classification and number of medicines used.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 22:16:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/817588"], "description"=>"<p>Reference group, drivers not exposed to medicines of the risk level considered.</p>a<p>Crude ORs.</p>b<p>Model computed for the 62,766 drivers with no missing values for the adjustment variables.</p>c<p>ORs adjusted for age, gender, socioeconomic category, year, month, day of week, time of day, location, vehicle type, alcohol level, injury severity and other level medicines.</p>d<p>ORs adjusted for age, gender, socioeconomic category, year, month, day of week, time of day, location, vehicle type, alcohol level, injury severity, long-term chronic diseases, and other level medicines.</p><p>*<i>p<</i>0.01.</p><p>**<i>p<</i>0.001.</p><p>***<i>p<</i>0.0001.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["crashes", "users", "prescribed"], "article_id"=>487953, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Ludivine Orriols", "Bernard Delorme", "Blandine Gadegbeku", "Aurore Tricotel", "Benjamin Contrand", "Bernard Laumon", "Louis-Rachid Salmi", "Emmanuel Lagarde"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000366.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_ORs_for_responsible_road_traffic_crashes_in_users_of_prescribed_medicines_/487953", "title"=>"ORs for responsible road traffic crashes in users of prescribed medicines.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 22:17:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/817549"], "description"=>"<p>Some drivers may have been exposed to several substances from the same pharmacological subgroup, explaining the difference with the number of exposed drivers presented in <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000366#pmed-1000366-t002\" target=\"_blank\">Table 2</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pharmacotherapeutic", "classes"], "article_id"=>487914, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Ludivine Orriols", "Bernard Delorme", "Blandine Gadegbeku", "Aurore Tricotel", "Benjamin Contrand", "Bernard Laumon", "Louis-Rachid Salmi", "Emmanuel Lagarde"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000366.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Level_2_and_level_3_pharmacotherapeutic_classes_used_on_the_crash_day_/487914", "title"=>"Level 2 and level 3 pharmacotherapeutic classes used on the crash day.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 22:17:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/817305"], "description"=>"<p>French medication labeling system.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["labeling"], "article_id"=>487665, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Ludivine Orriols", "Bernard Delorme", "Blandine Gadegbeku", "Aurore Tricotel", "Benjamin Contrand", "Bernard Laumon", "Louis-Rachid Salmi", "Emmanuel Lagarde"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000366.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_French_medication_labeling_system_/487665", "title"=>"French medication labeling system.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 22:15:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/817624"], "description"=>"a<p>Model computed for the 62,766 drivers with no missing values for the adjustment variables.</p>b<p>ORs adjusted for age, gender, socioeconomic category, year, month, day of week, time of day, location, vehicle type, alcohol level, injury severity, long-term chronic diseases, and other medicines.</p>c<p>Including opioids (<i>n = </i>1,585), other analgesics and antipyretics (<i>n = </i>22), and antimigraine preparations (<i>n = </i>281).</p>d<p>Including antipsychotics (<i>n = </i>558) and anxiolytics (<i>n = </i>2,250).</p>e<p>Including antidepressants (<i>n = </i>2,509), psychostimulants (<i>n = </i>56), and antidementia drugs (<i>n = </i>33).</p>f<p>Including drugs used in alcohol dependence (<i>n = </i>51), drugs used in opioid dependence (<i>n = </i>295), antivertigo preparations (<i>n = </i>7), and other nervous system drugs (<i>n = </i>16).</p><p>*<i>p<</i>0.05 (nonsignificant after Bonferroni correction α (corrected)  = 0.05/10 = 0.005).</p><p>**<i>p<</i>0.001.</p><p>***<i>p<</i>0.0001 (still significant after Bonferroni correction).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["crashes", "users", "prescribed", "medicines", "atc"], "article_id"=>487986, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Ludivine Orriols", "Bernard Delorme", "Blandine Gadegbeku", "Aurore Tricotel", "Benjamin Contrand", "Bernard Laumon", "Louis-Rachid Salmi", "Emmanuel Lagarde"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000366.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_ORs_for_responsible_road_traffic_crashes_in_users_of_prescribed_medicines_by_ATC_class_/487986", "title"=>"ORs for responsible road traffic crashes in users of prescribed medicines by ATC class.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 22:17:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/817362"], "description"=>"<p>*The discrepancy between the number of police reports and the number of records in the national police database of injurious crashes is explained by the fact that a small proportion of unavailable reports were being used for on-going further legal investigations.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["inclusion"], "article_id"=>487731, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Ludivine Orriols", "Bernard Delorme", "Blandine Gadegbeku", "Aurore Tricotel", "Benjamin Contrand", "Bernard Laumon", "Louis-Rachid Salmi", "Emmanuel Lagarde"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000366.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Flowchart_of_the_inclusion_procedure_/487731", "title"=>"Flowchart of the inclusion procedure.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 22:16:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/817665"], "description"=>"a<p>ORs adjusted for age, gender, socioeconomic category, year, month, day of week, time of day, location, vehicle type, alcohol level, and injury severity.</p><p>*<i>p<</i>0.001 (still significant after Bonferroni correction).</p><p>**<i>p<</i>0.0001.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["crashes", "medicines"], "article_id"=>488030, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Ludivine Orriols", "Bernard Delorme", "Blandine Gadegbeku", "Aurore Tricotel", "Benjamin Contrand", "Bernard Laumon", "Louis-Rachid Salmi", "Emmanuel Lagarde"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000366.t006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_ORs_for_responsible_road_traffic_crashes_by_number_of_level_2_and_or_level_3_medicines_used_/488030", "title"=>"ORs for responsible road traffic crashes by number of level 2 and/or level 3 medicines used.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 22:17:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/817466"], "description"=>"<p>Baseline characteristics.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["public health and epidemiology/epidemiology"], "article_id"=>487838, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Ludivine Orriols", "Bernard Delorme", "Blandine Gadegbeku", "Aurore Tricotel", "Benjamin Contrand", "Bernard Laumon", "Louis-Rachid Salmi", "Emmanuel Lagarde"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000366.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Baseline_characteristics_/487838", "title"=>"Baseline characteristics.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 22:16:39"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
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Relative Metric

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