Air Pollution and the Microvasculature: A Cross-Sectional Assessment of In Vivo Retinal Images in the Population-Based Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)
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{"title"=>"Air pollution and the microvasculature: A cross-sectional assessment of in vivo retinal images in the population-based multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA)", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Sara D.", "last_name"=>"Adar", "scopus_author_id"=>"21833871700"}, {"first_name"=>"Ronald", "last_name"=>"Klein", "scopus_author_id"=>"55574240992"}, {"first_name"=>"Barbara E.K.", "last_name"=>"Klein", "scopus_author_id"=>"55763794605"}, {"first_name"=>"Adam A.", "last_name"=>"Szpiro", "scopus_author_id"=>"35575181200"}, {"first_name"=>"Mary Frances", "last_name"=>"Cotch", "scopus_author_id"=>"56823700100"}, {"first_name"=>"Tien Y.", "last_name"=>"Wong", "scopus_author_id"=>"35231271400"}, {"first_name"=>"Marie S.", "last_name"=>"O'Neill", "scopus_author_id"=>"8624810200"}, {"first_name"=>"Sandi", "last_name"=>"Shrager", "scopus_author_id"=>"16048266400"}, {"first_name"=>"R.", "last_name"=>"Graham Barr", "scopus_author_id"=>"23477164100"}, {"first_name"=>"David S.", "last_name"=>"Siscovick", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005419833"}, {"first_name"=>"Martha L.", "last_name"=>"Daviglus", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003737941"}, {"first_name"=>"Paul D.", "last_name"=>"Sampson", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005197669"}, {"first_name"=>"Joel D.", "last_name"=>"Kaufman", "scopus_author_id"=>"7403022492"}], "year"=>2010, "source"=>"PLoS Medicine", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"360125770", "issn"=>"15491277", "isbn"=>"1549-1676 (Electronic)\\n1549-1277 (Linking)", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pmed.1000372", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-78649959114", "pmid"=>"21152417", "sgr"=>"78649959114"}, "id"=>"f36258ae-2d4a-3ca8-a2d0-a3b55ccc30e8", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Long- and short-term exposures to air pollution, especially fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)), have been linked to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. One hypothesized mechanism for these associations involves microvascular effects. Retinal photography provides a novel, in vivo approach to examine the association of air pollution with changes in the human microvasculature.\\n\\nMETHODS AND FINDINGS: Chronic and acute associations between residential air pollution concentrations and retinal vessel diameters, expressed as central retinal arteriolar equivalents (CRAE) and central retinal venular equivalents (CRVE), were examined using digital retinal images taken in Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) participants between 2002 and 2003. Study participants (46 to 87 years of age) were without clinical cardiovascular disease at the baseline examination (2000-2002). Long-term outdoor concentrations of PM(2.5) were estimated at each participant's home for the 2 years preceding the clinical exam using a spatio-temporal model. Short-term concentrations were assigned using outdoor measurements on the day preceding the clinical exam. Residential proximity to roadways was also used as an indicator of long-term traffic exposures. All associations were examined using linear regression models adjusted for subject-specific age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, income, smoking status, alcohol use, physical activity, body mass index, family history of cardiovascular disease, diabetes status, serum cholesterol, glucose, blood pressure, emphysema, C-reactive protein, medication use, and fellow vessel diameter. Short-term associations were further controlled for weather and seasonality. Among the 4,607 participants with complete data, CRAE were found to be narrower among persons residing in regions with increased long- and short-term levels of PM(2.5). These relationships were observed in a joint exposure model with -0.8 µm (95% confidence interval [CI] -1.1 to -0.5) and -0.4 µm (95% CI -0.8 to 0.1) decreases in CRAE per interquartile increases in long- (3 µg/m(3)) and short-term (9 µg/m(3)) PM(2.5) levels, respectively. These reductions in CRAE are equivalent to 7- and 3-year increases in age in the same cohort. Similarly, living near a major road was also associated with a -0.7 µm decrease (95% CI -1.4 to 0.1) in CRAE. Although the chronic association with CRAE was largely influenced by differences in exposure between cities, this relationship was generally robust to control for city-level covariates and no significant differences were observed between cities. Wider CRVE were associated with living in areas of higher PM(2.5) concentrations, but these findings were less robust and not supported by the presence of consistent acute associations with PM(2.5).\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS: Residing in regions with higher air pollution concentrations and experiencing daily increases in air pollution were each associated with narrower retinal arteriolar diameters in older individuals. These findings support the hypothesis that important vascular phenomena are associated with small increases in short-term or long-term air pollution exposures, even at current exposure levels, and further corroborate reported associations between air pollution and the development and exacerbation of clinical cardiovascular disease. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/air-pollution-microvasculature-crosssectional-assessment-vivo-retinal-images-populationbased-multiet", "reader_count"=>90, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>10, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Researcher"=>26, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>22, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Other"=>4, "Student > Master"=>11, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>10, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Researcher"=>26, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>22, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Other"=>4, "Student > Master"=>11, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>11, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>6, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>3, "Environmental Science"=>24, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>2, "Mathematics"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>32, "Sports and Recreations"=>3, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>2, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>32}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>3}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>11}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>24}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>3}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>6}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>2}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"New Zealand"=>1, "Canada"=>1, "Belgium"=>1, "United States"=>3, "Brazil"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>3, "Israel"=>1, "Australia"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>5}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/815262"], "description"=>"<p>Note: CRAE values represent residuals from full joint model (i.e., model controlled for age, sex, race/ethnicity, BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, income, education, smoking history, alcohol use, family history of cardiovascular disease, LDL, HDL, blood pressure, diabetes, glucose, physical activity, emphysema, CRP, fibrinogen, homocysteine, CRVE, and previous day PM<sub>2.5</sub> concentration). Data are plotted as a cubic polynomial with 3 df.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["retinal", "arteriolar", "diameter", "modeled", "concentrations"], "article_id"=>485600, "categories"=>["Virology", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Sara D. Adar", "Ronald Klein", "Barbara E. K. Klein", "Adam A. Szpiro", "Mary Frances Cotch", "Tien Y. Wong", "Marie S. O'Neill", "Sandi Shrager", "R. Graham Barr", "David S. Siscovick", "Martha L. Daviglus", "Paul D. Sampson", "Joel D. Kaufman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000372.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Associations_between_retinal_arteriolar_diameter_CRAE_and_modeled_long_term_PM_2_5_concentrations_after_control_for_covariates_/485600", "title"=>"Associations between retinal arteriolar diameter (CRAE) and modeled long-term PM<sub>2.5</sub> concentrations after control for covariates.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 22:04:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/815447"], "description"=>"a<p>Statistically significant differences from the main population at the 95% confidence level.</p><p>BP, blood pressure; CRP, C-reactive protein; CVD, cardiovascular disease; MET, metabolic equivalent.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["characteristics", "mesa"], "article_id"=>485808, "categories"=>["Virology", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Sara D. Adar", "Ronald Klein", "Barbara E. K. Klein", "Adam A. Szpiro", "Mary Frances Cotch", "Tien Y. Wong", "Marie S. O'Neill", "Sandi Shrager", "R. Graham Barr", "David S. Siscovick", "Martha L. Daviglus", "Paul D. Sampson", "Joel D. Kaufman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000372.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Demographic_and_health_characteristics_of_the_MESA_participants_in_exam_2_/485808", "title"=>"Demographic and health characteristics of the MESA participants in exam 2.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 22:05:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/815395"], "description"=>"<p>Notes: CRVE values presented as the residuals from a model controlled for age, sex, race/ethnicity, BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, income, education, smoking history, alcohol use, family history of cardiovascular disease, LDL, HDL, blood pressure, diabetes, glucose, physical activity, emphysema, CRP, fibrinogen, homocysteine, CRAE, and previous day PM<sub>2.5</sub> concentration.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["associations", "crve", "modeled", "concentrations"], "article_id"=>485748, "categories"=>["Virology", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Sara D. Adar", "Ronald Klein", "Barbara E. K. Klein", "Adam A. Szpiro", "Mary Frances Cotch", "Tien Y. Wong", "Marie S. O'Neill", "Sandi Shrager", "R. Graham Barr", "David S. Siscovick", "Martha L. Daviglus", "Paul D. Sampson", "Joel D. Kaufman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000372.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_City_wide_associations_between_CRVE_and_modeled_long_term_PM_2_5_concentrations_after_control_for_covariates_/485748", "title"=>"City-wide associations between CRVE and modeled long-term PM<sub>2.5</sub> concentrations after control for covariates.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 22:05:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/815336"], "description"=>"<p>Notes: CRAE values presented as the residuals from a model controlled for age, sex, race/ethnicity, BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, income, education, smoking history, alcohol use, family history of cardiovascular disease, LDL, HDL, blood pressure, diabetes, glucose, physical activity, emphysema, CRP, fibrinogen, homocysteine, CRVE, and previous day PM<sub>2.5</sub> concentration.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["associations", "crae", "modeled", "concentrations"], "article_id"=>485686, "categories"=>["Virology", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Sara D. Adar", "Ronald Klein", "Barbara E. K. Klein", "Adam A. Szpiro", "Mary Frances Cotch", "Tien Y. Wong", "Marie S. O'Neill", "Sandi Shrager", "R. Graham Barr", "David S. Siscovick", "Martha L. Daviglus", "Paul D. Sampson", "Joel D. Kaufman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000372.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_City_wide_associations_between_CRAE_and_modeled_long_term_PM_2_5_concentrations_after_control_for_covariates_/485686", "title"=>"City-wide associations between CRAE and modeled long-term PM<sub>2.5</sub> concentrations after control for covariates.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 22:05:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/815501"], "description"=>"<p>All associations reported as µm per interquartile range of 3 µg/m<sup>3</sup> (for long term) and 9 µg/m<sup>3</sup> (for short term). For both long- and short-term associations, model 1 controlled for age, sex, and race/ethnicity. In our long-term analyses, model 2 also included control for BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, income, education, smoking history, alcohol use, and family history of cardiovascular disease. Model 3 of our long-term analysis and Model 2 of our short-term analysis added control for LDL, HDL, blood pressure, diabetes, glucose, physical activity, emphysema, CRP, fibrinogen, and homocysteine. In our short-term analyses, model 2 controlled for all variables in model 3 of our long-term analysis while model 3 also included city-specific trends for day of week, time, temperature, and relative humidity. Model 4 added control for the fellow vessel diameter (e.g., CRAE or CRVE) to each models 3, and the joint model included long- and short-term concentrations simultaneously with control for covariates listed in the two respective models 4.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["retinal", "diameters", "long-", "exposures", "particulate"], "article_id"=>485852, "categories"=>["Virology", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Sara D. Adar", "Ronald Klein", "Barbara E. K. Klein", "Adam A. Szpiro", "Mary Frances Cotch", "Tien Y. Wong", "Marie S. O'Neill", "Sandi Shrager", "R. Graham Barr", "David S. Siscovick", "Martha L. Daviglus", "Paul D. Sampson", "Joel D. Kaufman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000372.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Associations_between_retinal_diameters_and_long_previous_2_y_and_short_term_previous_day_exposures_to_fine_particulate_air_pollution_/485852", "title"=>"Associations between retinal diameters and long- (previous 2 y) and short-term (previous day) exposures to fine particulate air pollution.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 22:06:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/815541"], "description"=>"<p>Distribution of retinal outcomes and long-term (previous 2 y) and short-term (previous days) exposure estimates among 4,607 participants with complete data.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["retinal", "outcomes", "estimates"], "article_id"=>485903, "categories"=>["Virology", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Sara D. Adar", "Ronald Klein", "Barbara E. K. Klein", "Adam A. Szpiro", "Mary Frances Cotch", "Tien Y. Wong", "Marie S. O'Neill", "Sandi Shrager", "R. Graham Barr", "David S. Siscovick", "Martha L. Daviglus", "Paul D. Sampson", "Joel D. Kaufman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000372.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>8, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_retinal_outcomes_and_long_term_previous_2_y_and_short_term_previous_days_exposure_estimates_among_4_607_participants_with_complete_data_/485903", "title"=>"Distribution of retinal outcomes and long-term (previous 2 y) and short-term (previous days) exposure estimates among 4,607 participants with complete data.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 22:06:18"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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