Violent Deaths of Iraqi Civilians, 2003–2008: Analysis by Perpetrator, Weapon, Time, and Location
Publication Date
February 15, 2011
Journal
PLOS Medicine
Authors
Madelyn Hsiao Rei Hicks, Hamit Dardagan, Gabriela Guerrero Serdán, Peter M. Bagnall, et al
Volume
8
Issue
2
Pages
e1000415
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000415
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosmedicine/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.1000415
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21358813
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3039690
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/21358813
Web of Science
000287657600009
Scopus
79952268760
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/violent-deaths-iraqi-civilians-20032008-analysis-perpetrator-weapon-time-location
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Violent deaths of Iraqi civilians, 2003-2008: Analysis by perpetrator, weapon, time, and location", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Madelyn Hsiao Rei", "last_name"=>"Hicks", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202942720"}, {"first_name"=>"Hamit", "last_name"=>"Dardagan", "scopus_author_id"=>"26434615300"}, {"first_name"=>"Gabriela", "last_name"=>"Serdán", "scopus_author_id"=>"36710751300"}, {"first_name"=>"Peter M.", "last_name"=>"Bagnall", "scopus_author_id"=>"26434566400"}, {"first_name"=>"John A.", "last_name"=>"Sloboda", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701874747"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael", "last_name"=>"Spagat", "scopus_author_id"=>"7801558010"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS Medicine", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"15491277", "pui"=>"361373977", "sgr"=>"79952268760", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pmed.1000415", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-79952268760", "isbn"=>"1549-1277", "pmid"=>"21358813"}, "id"=>"89729e5e-58ab-3049-9a6e-14044ba78447", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Armed violence is a major public health and humanitarian problem in Iraq. In this descriptive statistical analysis we aimed to describe for the first time Iraqi civilian deaths caused by perpetrators of armed violence during the first 5 years of the Iraq war: over time; by weapon used; by region (governorate); and by victim demographics.\\n\\nMETHODS AND FINDINGS: We analyzed the Iraq Body Count database of 92,614 Iraqi civilian direct deaths from armed violence occurring from March 20, 2003 through March 19, 2008, of which Unknown perpetrators caused 74% of deaths (n = 68,396), Coalition forces 12% (n = 11,516), and Anti-Coalition forces 11% (n = 9,954). We analyzed the subset of 60,481 civilian deaths from 14,196 short-duration events of lethal violence to link individual civilian deaths to events involving perpetrators and their methods. One-third of civilian violent death was from extrajudicial executions by Unknown perpetrators; quadratic regression shows these deaths progressively and disproportionately increased as deaths from other forms of violence increased across Iraq's governorates. The highest average number of civilians killed per event in which a civilian died were in Unknown perpetrator suicide bombings targeting civilians (19 per lethal event) and Coalition aerial bombings (17 per lethal event). In temporal analysis, numbers of civilian deaths from Coalition air attacks, and woman and child deaths from Coalition forces, peaked during the invasion. We applied a Woman and Child \"Dirty War Index\" (DWI), measuring the proportion of women and children among civilian deaths of known demographic status, to the 22,066 civilian victims identified as men, women, or children to indicate relatively indiscriminate perpetrator effects. DWI findings suggest the most indiscriminate effects on women and children were from Unknown perpetrators using mortar fire (DWI  = 79) and nonsuicide vehicle bombs (DWI  = 54) and from Coalition air attacks (DWI  = 69). Coalition forces had higher Woman and Child DWIs than Anti-Coalition forces, with no evidence of decrease over 2003-2008, for all weapons combined and for small arms gunfire, specifically.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS: Most Iraqi civilian violent deaths during 2003-2008 of the Iraq war were inflicted by Unknown perpetrators, primarily through extrajudicial executions that disproportionately increased in regions with greater numbers of violent deaths. Unknown perpetrators using suicide bombs, vehicle bombs, and mortars had highly lethal and indiscriminate effects on the Iraqi civilians they targeted. Deaths caused by Coalition forces of Iraqi civilians, women, and children peaked during the invasion period, with relatively indiscriminate effects from aerial weapons. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/violent-deaths-iraqi-civilians-20032008-analysis-perpetrator-weapon-time-location", "reader_count"=>41, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Other"=>1, "Student > Master"=>8, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Other"=>1, "Student > Master"=>8, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Environmental Science"=>3, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Mathematics"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>15, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Psychology"=>4, "Social Sciences"=>12, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>15}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>12}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>4}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>3}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>3}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Belgium"=>2, "United States"=>3, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/799247"], "description"=>"a<p>Of the total 60,481 deaths from short-duration violence, this Table shows 56,780 deaths attributed to these single perpetrator groups alone. Because of space constraints, we do not show the distribution of the 1,471 adult civilians of unreported sex attributed to “unknown,” “Anti-Coalition.” and “Coalition,” or the 2,230 deaths attributed to “other” or “crossfire” (which include <i>n</i> = 44 adult civilians of unreported sex from “other” or “crossfire” for the total of <i>n</i> = 1,515 adult civilians of unreported sex). Deaths were attributed to Unknown perpetrators if an unidentified perpetrator attacked a civilian target and to Anti-Coalition perpetrators if the target was Coalition or Coalition-associated.</p>b<p>Short-duration events lasting 2 d or less that caused at least one reported civilian death.</p>c<p>Unless noted, data are for events involving the single method used alone (e.g., small arms gunfire only, not combined gunfire and mortar fire).</p>d<p>Number (%) of men among the total of 17,939 men civilian victims from all perpetrators and all methods.</p>e<p>Number (%) of women among the total of 1,981 women civilian victims from all perpetrators and all methods.</p>f<p>Number (%) of children among the total of 2,146 child victims from all perpetrators and all methods. Within [ ] are shown numbers of boys, girls, and children of unreported sex.</p>g<p>Number (%) of unreported age among the total of 36,900 civilian victims of unreported age from all perpetrators and all methods.</p>h<p>“Woman and Child DWI”  =  (<i>n</i> women + children killed/<i>n</i> women + children + men civilians killed) × (100). Possible DWI range is 0 to 100 <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000415#pmed.1000415-Hicks2\" target=\"_blank\">[15]</a>. Higher Woman and Child DWI outcomes indicate higher proportions of women and children among demographically identified civilian victims.</p>i<p>Included in Totals are deaths from “other,” “unknown,” or “combined” methods if attributable to the single perpetrator, not shown in the single-method rows above.</p><p>CUS, children of unreported sex.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["demographics", "dwi", "outcomes", "perpetrators", "iraqi", "deaths", "short-duration", "2003"], "article_id"=>469603, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Mathematics", "Medicine", "Biotechnology", "Information And Computing Sciences"], "users"=>["Madelyn Hsiao-Rei Hicks", "Hamit Dardagan", "Gabriela Guerrero Serdán", "Peter M. Bagnall", "John A. Sloboda", "Michael Spagat"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000415.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Victim_demographics_and_DWI_outcomes_from_perpetrators_using_particular_methods_analysis_of_60_481_Iraqi_civilian_deaths_from_short_duration_violence_March_20_2003_through_March_19_2008_/469603", "title"=>"Victim demographics and DWI outcomes from perpetrators using particular methods: analysis of 60,481 Iraqi civilian deaths from short-duration violence, March 20, 2003 through March 19, 2008.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 20:38:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/798827"], "description"=>"<p>Analysis of reported civilian deaths from short-duration violent events lasting 2 d or less, March 20, 2003 through March 19, 2008.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["nonexecution", "deaths", "executions"], "article_id"=>469192, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Mathematics", "Medicine", "Biotechnology", "Information And Computing Sciences"], "users"=>["Madelyn Hsiao-Rei Hicks", "Hamit Dardagan", "Gabriela Guerrero Serdán", "Peter M. Bagnall", "John A. Sloboda", "Michael Spagat"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000415.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Iraqi_governorates_nonexecution_deaths_versus_executions_by_Unknown_perpetrators_/469192", "title"=>"Iraqi governorates: nonexecution deaths versus executions by Unknown perpetrators.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 20:36:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/799285"], "description"=>"<p>Reported civilian deaths from short-duration violent events lasting 2 d or less, March 20, 2003 through March 19, 2008.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["deaths", "short-duration", "events"], "article_id"=>469653, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Mathematics", "Medicine", "Biotechnology", "Information And Computing Sciences"], "users"=>["Madelyn Hsiao-Rei Hicks", "Hamit Dardagan", "Gabriela Guerrero Serdán", "Peter M. Bagnall", "John A. Sloboda", "Michael Spagat"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000415.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Civilian_deaths_from_short_duration_violent_events_in_Iraq_s_governorates_/469653", "title"=>"Civilian deaths from short-duration violent events in Iraq's governorates.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 20:38:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/799110"], "description"=>"<p>Analysis of reported civilian deaths from short-duration violent events lasting 2 d or less, March 20, 2003 through March 19, 2008. (A) Monthly numbers of civilians killed by Coalition and Anti-Coalition gunfire. (B) Monthly Woman and Child Dirty War Index from Coalition gunfire.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["deaths", "anti-coalition", "arms"], "article_id"=>469475, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Mathematics", "Medicine", "Biotechnology", "Information And Computing Sciences"], "users"=>["Madelyn Hsiao-Rei Hicks", "Hamit Dardagan", "Gabriela Guerrero Serdán", "Peter M. Bagnall", "John A. Sloboda", "Michael Spagat"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000415.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Civilian_violent_deaths_from_Coalition_and_Anti_Coalition_small_arms_gunfire_/469475", "title"=>"Civilian violent deaths from Coalition and Anti-Coalition small arms gunfire.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 20:37:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/798991"], "description"=>"<p>Analysis of reported civilian deaths from short-duration violent events lasting 2 d or less, March 20, 2003 through March 19, 2008. (A) Monthly numbers of women and children killed. (B) Monthly Woman and Child Dirty War Index.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["deaths", "iraqi", "women", "children", "anti-coalition"], "article_id"=>469355, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Mathematics", "Medicine", "Biotechnology", "Information And Computing Sciences"], "users"=>["Madelyn Hsiao-Rei Hicks", "Hamit Dardagan", "Gabriela Guerrero Serdán", "Peter M. Bagnall", "John A. Sloboda", "Michael Spagat"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000415.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Violent_deaths_of_Iraqi_women_and_children_by_Coalition_and_Anti_Coalition_forces_/469355", "title"=>"Violent deaths of Iraqi women and children by Coalition and Anti-Coalition forces.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 20:37:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/799366"], "description"=>"a<p>Deaths from violent events of any duration that caused at least one reported civilian death and deaths from hospital and morgue aggregate reports (<i>n</i> = 92,614).</p>b<p>Deaths from short-duration violent events lasting 2 d or less that caused at least one reported civilian death (<i>n</i> = 60,481).</p>c<p>Deaths from long-duration violent events lasting over 2 d that caused at least one reported civilian death, and deaths from hospital and morgue aggregate reports (<i>n</i> = 32,133).</p>d<p>Unknown perpetrators had a civilian target of attack, while themselves being indistinguishable from civilians (e.g., sectarian and Anti-Coalition combatants and criminals that attacked civilians).</p>e<p>Anti-Coalition forces were identified by the presence of a Coalition-associated target of attack, as they generally did not wear uniforms or distinguishing marks in attacks.</p>f<p>Primarily Iraqi police and Iraqi military forces.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["iraqi", "deaths", "perpetrator", "postinvasion", "short-duration", "long-duration", "events", "aggregate"], "article_id"=>469724, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Mathematics", "Medicine", "Biotechnology", "Information And Computing Sciences"], "users"=>["Madelyn Hsiao-Rei Hicks", "Hamit Dardagan", "Gabriela Guerrero Serdán", "Peter M. Bagnall", "John A. Sloboda", "Michael Spagat"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000415.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Number_of_92_614_Iraqi_civilian_deaths_by_perpetrator_and_postinvasion_year_From_all_armed_violence_from_short_duration_violent_events_and_from_long_duration_violent_events_and_aggregate_reports_/469724", "title"=>"Number (%) of 92,614 Iraqi civilian deaths by perpetrator and postinvasion year: From all armed violence, from short-duration violent events, and from long-duration violent events and aggregate reports.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 20:39:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/799323"], "description"=>"a<p>Deaths attributed to a single perpetrator group alone. Of the total 60,481 deaths, 2,230 deaths were attributed to “other” or “crossfire” and are not shown. Deaths were attributed to Unknown perpetrators if an unidentified perpetrator attacked a civilian target and to Anti-Coalition perpetrators if the target was Coalition or Coalition-associated.</p>b<p>Short-duration events lasting 2 d or less that caused at least one reported civilian death.</p>c<p>Unless noted, data are for events involving the single method used alone (e.g., small arms gunfire only, not events of combined gunfire and mortar fire).</p>d<p>The extrajudicial killing of any captured individual by any method. Includes combatants extrajudicially executed postcapture, as after capture they become noncombatants protected under international humanitarian law <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000415#pmed.1000415-Hicks2\" target=\"_blank\">[15]</a>,<a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000415#pmed.1000415-International1\" target=\"_blank\">[16]</a>. For executions only, “events” refer to events of discovering bodies, as events of killing by execution are usually hidden, and “mean” refers to number of bodies discovered.</p>e<p>Open small arms gunfire, not including executions of captured individuals by gunfire.</p>f<p>Included in Totals are deaths from events involving “other,” “unknown,” or “combined” methods if attributable to the single perpetrator, not shown in the single-method rows above.</p><p>SE, standard error.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["deaths", "perpetrators", "events", "short-duration", "2003"], "article_id"=>469689, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Mathematics", "Medicine", "Biotechnology", "Information And Computing Sciences"], "users"=>["Madelyn Hsiao-Rei Hicks", "Hamit Dardagan", "Gabriela Guerrero Serdán", "Peter M. Bagnall", "John A. Sloboda", "Michael Spagat"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000415.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Iraqi_civilian_deaths_from_perpetrators_using_particular_methods_analysis_of_60_481_deaths_from_14_196_events_of_short_duration_armed_violence_March_20_2003_through_March_19_2008_/469689", "title"=>"Iraqi civilian deaths from perpetrators using particular methods: analysis of 60,481 deaths from 14,196 events of short-duration armed violence, March 20, 2003 through March 19, 2008.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 20:38:53"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/798718"], "description"=>"<p>Analysis of reported civilian deaths from short-duration violent events lasting 2 d or less, March 20, 2003 through March 19, 2008.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["deaths", "attacks", "anti-coalition"], "article_id"=>469079, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Mathematics", "Medicine", "Biotechnology", "Information And Computing Sciences"], "users"=>["Madelyn Hsiao-Rei Hicks", "Hamit Dardagan", "Gabriela Guerrero Serdán", "Peter M. Bagnall", "John A. Sloboda", "Michael Spagat"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000415.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Monthly_civilian_deaths_from_Coalition_air_attacks_and_Anti_Coalition_suicide_bombers_/469079", "title"=>"Monthly civilian deaths from Coalition air attacks and Anti-Coalition suicide bombers.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 20:35:30"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"10"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
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