Health Behaviours, Socioeconomic Status, and Mortality: Further Analyses of the British Whitehall II and the French GAZEL Prospective Cohorts
Events
Loading … Spinner

Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Health behaviours, socioeconomic status, and mortality: Further analyses of the British Whitehall II and the French GAZEL prospective cohorts", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Silvia", "last_name"=>"Stringhini", "scopus_author_id"=>"28867486100"}, {"first_name"=>"Aline", "last_name"=>"Dugravot", "scopus_author_id"=>"23049197900"}, {"first_name"=>"Martin", "last_name"=>"Shipley", "scopus_author_id"=>"7103265845"}, {"first_name"=>"Marcel", "last_name"=>"Goldberg", "scopus_author_id"=>"7404395870"}, {"first_name"=>"Marie", "last_name"=>"Zins", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005528594"}, {"first_name"=>"Mika", "last_name"=>"Kivimäki", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004391239"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael", "last_name"=>"Marmot", "scopus_author_id"=>"35418876900"}, {"first_name"=>"Séverine", "last_name"=>"Sabia", "scopus_author_id"=>"24339408800"}, {"first_name"=>"Archana", "last_name"=>"Singh-Manoux", "scopus_author_id"=>"9734197200"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS Medicine", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-79952254704", "sgr"=>"79952254704", "issn"=>"15491277", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pmed.1000419", "pmid"=>"21364974", "isbn"=>"1549-1676 (Electronic)$\\$n1549-1277 (Linking)", "pui"=>"361373969"}, "id"=>"ad26de9d-94ab-3254-9416-0fa10a0a98b3", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Differences in morbidity and mortality between socioeconomic groups constitute one of the most consistent findings of epidemiologic research. However, research on social inequalities in health has yet to provide a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms underlying this association. In recent analysis, we showed health behaviours, assessed longitudinally over the follow-up, to explain a major proportion of the association of socioeconomic status (SES) with mortality in the British Whitehall II study. However, whether health behaviours are equally important mediators of the SES-mortality association in different cultural settings remains unknown. In the present paper, we examine this issue in Whitehall II and another prospective European cohort, the French GAZEL study.\\n\\nMETHODS AND FINDINGS: We included 9,771 participants from the Whitehall II study and 17,760 from the GAZEL study. Over the follow-up (mean 19.5 y in Whitehall II and 16.5 y in GAZEL), health behaviours (smoking, alcohol consumption, diet, and physical activity), were assessed longitudinally. Occupation (in the main analysis), education, and income (supplementary analysis) were the markers of SES. The socioeconomic gradient in smoking was greater (p<0.001) in Whitehall II (odds ratio [OR] = 3.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.11-4.36) than in GAZEL (OR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.18-1.49); this was also true for unhealthy diet (OR = 7.42, 95% CI 5.19-10.60 in Whitehall II and OR = 1.31, 95% CI 1.15-1.49 in GAZEL, p<0.001). Socioeconomic differences in mortality were similar in the two cohorts, a hazard ratio of 1.62 (95% CI 1.28-2.05) in Whitehall II and 1.94 in GAZEL (95% CI 1.58-2.39) for lowest versus highest occupational position. Health behaviours attenuated the association of SES with mortality by 75% (95% CI 44%-149%) in Whitehall II but only by 19% (95% CI 13%-29%) in GAZEL. Analysis using education and income yielded similar results.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS: Health behaviours were strong predictors of mortality in both cohorts but their association with SES was remarkably different. Thus, health behaviours are likely to be major contributors of socioeconomic differences in health only in contexts with a marked social characterisation of health behaviours. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/health-behaviours-socioeconomic-status-mortality-further-analyses-british-whitehall-ii-french-gazel", "reader_count"=>172, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>16, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>42, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>9, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>36, "Student > Postgraduate"=>8, "Student > Master"=>18, "Other"=>9, "Student > Bachelor"=>13, "Lecturer"=>5, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>10}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>16, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>42, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>9, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>36, "Student > Postgraduate"=>8, "Student > Master"=>18, "Other"=>9, "Student > Bachelor"=>13, "Lecturer"=>5, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>10}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>17, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>8, "Arts and Humanities"=>7, "Philosophy"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>2, "Computer Science"=>2, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>9, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>3, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>5, "Mathematics"=>2, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>62, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Sports and Recreations"=>2, "Psychology"=>18, "Social Sciences"=>32}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>62}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>32}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>2}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>18}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>17}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>3}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>7}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>9}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>8}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>2}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>5}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>3, "United Kingdom"=>7, "Portugal"=>1, "Spain"=>3, "Canada"=>4, "Sweden"=>1, "Norway"=>1, "Denmark"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "France"=>1, "Nigeria"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

CrossRef

Scopus | Further Information

{"@_fa"=>"true", "link"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"self", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/79952254704"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"author-affiliation", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/79952254704?field=author,affiliation"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=79952254704&origin=inward"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus-citedby", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=79952254704&origin=inward"}], "prism:url"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/79952254704", "dc:identifier"=>"SCOPUS_ID:79952254704", "eid"=>"2-s2.0-79952254704", "dc:title"=>"Health behaviours, socioeconomic status, and mortality: Further analyses of the British Whitehall II and the French GAZEL prospective cohorts", "dc:creator"=>"Stringhini S.", "prism:publicationName"=>"PLoS Medicine", "prism:issn"=>"15491277", "prism:eIssn"=>"15491676", "prism:volume"=>"8", "prism:issueIdentifier"=>"2", "prism:pageRange"=>nil, "prism:coverDate"=>"2011-02-01", "prism:coverDisplayDate"=>"February 2011", "prism:doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pmed.1000419", "citedby-count"=>"177", "affiliation"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"Hopital Paul-Brousse", "affiliation-city"=>"Villejuif", "affiliation-country"=>"France"}], "pubmed-id"=>"21364974", "prism:aggregationType"=>"Journal", "subtype"=>"ar", "subtypeDescription"=>"Article", "article-number"=>"e1000419", "source-id"=>"144840", "openaccess"=>"1", "openaccessFlag"=>true}

Facebook

  • {"url"=>"http%3A%2F%2Fjournals.plos.org%2Fplosmedicine%2Farticle%3Fid%3D10.1371%252Fjournal.pmed.1000419", "share_count"=>0, "like_count"=>0, "comment_count"=>0, "click_count"=>0, "total_count"=>0}

Counter

  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"741", "xml_views"=>"17", "html_views"=>"1223"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"430", "xml_views"=>"26", "html_views"=>"1596"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"89", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"151"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"39", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"99"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"40", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"91"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"38", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"76"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"31", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"135"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"32", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"265"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"31", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"366"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"40", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"216"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"26", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"180"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"37", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"211"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"41", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"214"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"31", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"227"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"44", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"202"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"46", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"204"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"24", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"122"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"47", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"195"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"13", "html_views"=>"263"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"38", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"175"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"35", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"174"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"38", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"202"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"27", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"179"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"25", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"210"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"27", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"170"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"32", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"293"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"24", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"241"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"26", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"284"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"207"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"125"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"126"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"151"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"27", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"241"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"35", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"197"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"35", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"179"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"34", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"227"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"24", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"293"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"27", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"286"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"325"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"46", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"315"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"23", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"206"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"28", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"143"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"166"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"222"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"29", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"324"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"263"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"176"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"146"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"127"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"28", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"147"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"24", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"147"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"135"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"109"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"92"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"74"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"95"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"133"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"24", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"166"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"94"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"77"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"26", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"117"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"119"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"21", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"142"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"145"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"97"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"50"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"107"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"112"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"105"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"97"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"87"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"100"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"153"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"132"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"110"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"85"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"87"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"87"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"68"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"87"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"106"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"92"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"56"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"66"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"31", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"51"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"28", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"78"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"29", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"75"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"33", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"56"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"41"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"38"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"28"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"29", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"58"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"27", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"53"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"48"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"36"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"21", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"62"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"41"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"65"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"61"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"46"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"30"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"29"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"19"}

Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/398436", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/398473", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/398513", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/398546", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/398574", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/398611", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/398642", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/398682", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/398723", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/398755", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/398789", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/398821", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/398864", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/398914", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/398974", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/399007", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/399050"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Differences in morbidity and mortality between socioeconomic groups constitute one of the most consistent findings of epidemiologic research. However, research on social inequalities in health has yet to provide a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms underlying this association. In recent analysis, we showed health behaviours, assessed longitudinally over the follow-up, to explain a major proportion of the association of socioeconomic status (SES) with mortality in the British Whitehall II study. However, whether health behaviours are equally important mediators of the SES-mortality association in different cultural settings remains unknown. In the present paper, we examine this issue in Whitehall II and another prospective European cohort, the French GAZEL study.</p><h3>Methods and Findings</h3><p>We included 9,771 participants from the Whitehall II study and 17,760 from the GAZEL study. Over the follow-up (mean 19.5 y in Whitehall II and 16.5 y in GAZEL), health behaviours (smoking, alcohol consumption, diet, and physical activity), were assessed longitudinally. Occupation (in the main analysis), education, and income (supplementary analysis) were the markers of SES. The socioeconomic gradient in smoking was greater (<em>p</em><0.001) in Whitehall II (odds ratio [OR]  = 3.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.11–4.36) than in GAZEL (OR  = 1.33, 95% CI 1.18–1.49); this was also true for unhealthy diet (OR  = 7.42, 95% CI 5.19–10.60 in Whitehall II and OR  = 1.31, 95% CI 1.15–1.49 in GAZEL, <em>p</em><0.001). Socioeconomic differences in mortality were similar in the two cohorts, a hazard ratio of 1.62 (95% CI 1.28–2.05) in Whitehall II and 1.94 in GAZEL (95% CI 1.58–2.39) for lowest versus highest occupational position. Health behaviours attenuated the association of SES with mortality by 75% (95% CI 44%–149%) in Whitehall II but only by 19% (95% CI 13%–29%) in GAZEL. Analysis using education and income yielded similar results.</p><h3>Conclusions</h3><p>Health behaviours were strong predictors of mortality in both cohorts but their association with SES was remarkably different. Thus, health behaviours are likely to be major contributors of socioeconomic differences in health only in contexts with a marked social characterisation of health behaviours.</p><h3></h3><p><em>Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary</em></p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["socioeconomic", "further", "analyses", "british", "whitehall", "ii", "french", "gazel", "prospective", "cohorts"], "article_id"=>138705, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Medicine", "Information And Computing Sciences"], "users"=>["Silvia Stringhini", "Aline Dugravot", "Martin Shipley", "Marcel Goldberg", "Marie Zins", "Mika Kivimäki", "Michael Marmot", "Séverine Sabia", "Archana Singh-Manoux"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000419.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000419.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000419.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000419.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000419.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000419.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000419.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000419.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000419.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000419.s010", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000419.s011", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000419.s012", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000419.s013", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000419.s014", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000419.s015", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000419.s016", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000419.s017"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Health_Behaviours_Socioeconomic_Status_and_Mortality_Further_Analyses_of_the_British_Whitehall_II_and_the_French_GAZEL_Prospective_Cohorts/138705", "title"=>"Health Behaviours, Socioeconomic Status, and Mortality: Further Analyses of the British Whitehall II and the French GAZEL Prospective Cohorts", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-02-22 02:25:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/796064"], "description"=>"<p>Age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of unhealthy behaviours at baseline and at last follow-up as a function of occupational position (high SES and low SES) in the British Whitehall II and the French GAZEL cohorts.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sex-adjusted", "prevalence", "unhealthy", "behaviours", "baseline", "follow-up", "occupational", "ses", "british", "whitehall", "ii", "french", "gazel"], "article_id"=>466412, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Medicine", "Information And Computing Sciences"], "users"=>["Silvia Stringhini", "Aline Dugravot", "Martin Shipley", "Marcel Goldberg", "Marie Zins", "Mika Kivimäki", "Michael Marmot", "Séverine Sabia", "Archana Singh-Manoux"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000419.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Age_and_sex_adjusted_prevalence_of_unhealthy_behaviours_at_baseline_and_at_last_follow_up_as_a_function_of_occupational_position_high_SES_and_low_SES_in_the_British_Whitehall_II_and_the_French_GAZEL_cohorts_/466412", "title"=>"Age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of unhealthy behaviours at baseline and at last follow-up as a function of occupational position (high SES and low SES) in the British Whitehall II and the French GAZEL cohorts.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-02-22 01:46:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/796215"], "description"=>"a<p>Model adjusted for age at baseline and sex.</p>b<p><i>p</i> for interaction between health behaviour and cohort.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["behaviours", "all-cause", "british", "whitehall", "ii", "deaths", "french", "gazel", "cohort"], "article_id"=>466571, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Medicine", "Information And Computing Sciences"], "users"=>["Silvia Stringhini", "Aline Dugravot", "Martin Shipley", "Marcel Goldberg", "Marie Zins", "Mika Kivimäki", "Michael Marmot", "Séverine Sabia", "Archana Singh-Manoux"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000419.t003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_association_between_health_behaviours_and_all_cause_mortality_in_the_British_Whitehall_II_n_8202_8202_9_771_deaths_693_and_the_French_GAZEL_n_8202_8202_17_760_deaths_908_cohort_studies_/466571", "title"=>"The association between health behaviours and all-cause mortality in the British Whitehall II (<i>n = </i>9,771, deaths  = 693) and the French GAZEL (<i>n = </i>17,760, deaths  = 908) cohort studies.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-02-22 01:49:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/796263"], "description"=>"a<p>Difference in health behaviour prevalence between lowest and highest occupational position adjusted for age and sex.</p>b<p>Risk ratio (RR) for lowest versus highest occupational position adjusted for age and sex.</p>c<p>OR for lowest versus highest occupational position adjusted for age and sex.</p>d<p><i>p</i> for interaction between health behaviour and cohort in logistic regression.</p><p>Δ, difference.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["occupational", "behaviours", "british", "whitehall", "ii", "french", "gazel", "cohort"], "article_id"=>466616, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Medicine", "Information And Computing Sciences"], "users"=>["Silvia Stringhini", "Aline Dugravot", "Martin Shipley", "Marcel Goldberg", "Marie Zins", "Mika Kivimäki", "Michael Marmot", "Séverine Sabia", "Archana Singh-Manoux"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000419.t002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Association_of_occupational_position_with_health_behaviours_in_the_British_Whitehall_II_n_8202_8202_9_771_at_first_and_n_8202_8202_7_166_at_last_follow_up_and_the_French_GAZEL_n_8202_8202_17_760_at_first_and_n_8202_8202_15_377_at_last_follow_up_cohort_st/466616", "title"=>"Association of occupational position with health behaviours in the British Whitehall II (<i>n = </i>9,771 at first and <i>n = </i>7,166 at last follow-up) and the French GAZEL (<i>n = </i>17,760 at first and <i>n = </i>15,377 at last follow-up) cohort studies.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-02-22 01:50:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/796301"], "description"=>"a<p>Age- and sex-adjusted mortality rate per 1,000 person-years.</p><p>SD, standard deviation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["characteristics", "british", "whitehall", "ii", "french", "gazel", "cohort"], "article_id"=>466661, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Medicine", "Information And Computing Sciences"], "users"=>["Silvia Stringhini", "Aline Dugravot", "Martin Shipley", "Marcel Goldberg", "Marie Zins", "Mika Kivimäki", "Michael Marmot", "Séverine Sabia", "Archana Singh-Manoux"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000419.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sample_characteristics_of_the_British_Whitehall_II_and_the_French_GAZEL_cohort_studies_/466661", "title"=>"Sample characteristics of the British Whitehall II and the French GAZEL cohort studies.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-02-22 01:51:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/796360"], "description"=>"<p>In Whitehall II, education categorized as university, secondary, and primary education was collected at phase 5 (1997–1999) and was available on 6,776 participants. The remaining participants, <i>n = </i>2,978, were imputed using multiple imputation. Income was not available at study baseline (1985–1988). We thus use a proxy measure composed of measures of car ownership and type of accommodation. The highest category represents participants owning a car and their house, the lowest represents participants not owning a car and living in rented accommodation. The intermediate category represents other combinations of car ownership and type of accommodation. In the GAZEL study education and income were collected at study baseline (1989). Education was categorized as university, secondary, and primary education. For income, the following three categories (based on quintiles of income, converted in Euro from French Francs) were used in the analysis: <1,600€, 1,600€–3,800€, and ≥3,800€.</p>a<p>HR for lowest versus highest occupational position adjusted for age at baseline and sex.</p>b<p>Percent attenuation in log HR  = 100× (β<sub>Model 1</sub> − β<sub>Model 1</sub>+ health behaviour(s))/(β<sub>Model 1</sub>), where β =  log(HR).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["behaviours", "explaining", "gradient", "occupational", "british", "whitehall", "ii", "french", "gazel"], "article_id"=>466707, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Medicine", "Information And Computing Sciences"], "users"=>["Silvia Stringhini", "Aline Dugravot", "Martin Shipley", "Marcel Goldberg", "Marie Zins", "Mika Kivimäki", "Michael Marmot", "Séverine Sabia", "Archana Singh-Manoux"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000419.t005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_contribution_of_health_behaviours_in_explaining_the_social_gradient_in_mortality_by_occupational_position_education_and_income_in_the_British_Whitehall_II_and_the_French_GAZEL_study_/466707", "title"=>"The contribution of health behaviours in explaining the social gradient in mortality by occupational position, education, and income in the British Whitehall II and the French GAZEL study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-02-22 01:51:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/796403"], "description"=>"a<p>Percent attenuation in log HR  = 100× (β<sub>Model 1</sub> − β<sub>Model 1</sub>+ health behaviour(s))/(β<sub>Model 1</sub>), where β =  log(HR).</p>b<p>Bias corrected accelerated bootstrap 95% CI.</p>c<p>HR for lowest versus highest occupational position adjusted for age at baseline and sex.</p>d<p>HR for lowest versus highest occupational position adjusted for age at baseline, sex, and all health behaviours.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["behaviours", "time-dependent", "covariates", "explaining", "occupational", "all-cause", "british", "whitehall", "ii", "deaths", "french", "gazel", "cohort"], "article_id"=>466751, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Medicine", "Information And Computing Sciences"], "users"=>["Silvia Stringhini", "Aline Dugravot", "Martin Shipley", "Marcel Goldberg", "Marie Zins", "Mika Kivimäki", "Michael Marmot", "Séverine Sabia", "Archana Singh-Manoux"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000419.t004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Role_of_health_behaviours_used_as_time_dependent_covariates_in_explaining_the_association_between_occupational_position_and_all_cause_mortality_in_the_British_Whitehall_II_n_8202_8202_9_771_deaths_693_and_the_French_GAZEL_n_8202_8202_17_760_deaths_908_co/466751", "title"=>"Role of health behaviours used as time-dependent covariates in explaining the association between occupational position and all-cause mortality in the British Whitehall II (<i>n = </i>9 771, deaths  = 693) and the French GAZEL (<i>n = </i>17 760, deaths  = 908) cohort studies.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-02-22 01:52:31"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"month"=>"3", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"7", "full-text"=>"127", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"77", "unique-ip"=>"129", "figure"=>"19", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"16"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"2", "full-text"=>"66", "unique-ip"=>"64", "pdf"=>"36", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"10", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"3", "full-text"=>"60", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"37", "unique-ip"=>"65", "figure"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"12"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"6", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"74", "unique-ip"=>"71", "pdf"=>"49", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"54", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"32", "unique-ip"=>"53", "figure"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"8", "cited-by"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"67", "unique-ip"=>"56", "pdf"=>"32", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"56", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"23", "unique-ip"=>"53", "figure"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"10", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"7", "full-text"=>"63", "unique-ip"=>"70", "pdf"=>"25", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"61", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"26", "unique-ip"=>"53", "figure"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"12", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"62", "unique-ip"=>"56", "pdf"=>"29", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"1", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"54", "unique-ip"=>"51", "pdf"=>"22", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"66", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"34", "unique-ip"=>"61", "figure"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"2", "full-text"=>"80", "unique-ip"=>"80", "pdf"=>"32", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"10", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "abstract"=>"3", "full-text"=>"54", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"21", "unique-ip"=>"54", "figure"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"3", "full-text"=>"38", "unique-ip"=>"35", "pdf"=>"16", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"31", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"12", "unique-ip"=>"29", "figure"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"32", "full-text"=>"31", "pdf"=>"16", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"40", "full-text"=>"46", "pdf"=>"27", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"48", "full-text"=>"67", "pdf"=>"39", "abstract"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"30", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"19", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"30", "full-text"=>"32", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"50", "full-text"=>"60", "pdf"=>"34", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"3", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"35", "full-text"=>"36", "pdf"=>"18", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"18", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"17", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"32", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"33", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"45", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"22", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"38", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"16", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"45", "full-text"=>"54", "pdf"=>"28", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"14", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"17", "cited-by"=>"3", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"8", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"32", "full-text"=>"33", "pdf"=>"12", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"30", "full-text"=>"33", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"17", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"29", "full-text"=>"33", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"34", "full-text"=>"41", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2011-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2011-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[304, 568, 702, 818, 927, 1027, 1118, 1206, 1285, 1357, 1427, 1500, 1564, 1636, 1705, 1773, 1840, 1909, 1974, 2039, 2106, 2170, 2234, 2296, 2358, 2423, 2484, 2546, 2606, 2673, 2734, 2795, 2857, 2921, 2984, 3046, 3100]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Anatomy and physiology", "average_usage"=>[298, 559, 690, 805, 916, 1018, 1115, 1201, 1283, 1356, 1425, 1498, 1565, 1635, 1703, 1767, 1835, 1902, 1962, 2027, 2089, 2150, 2210, 2265]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Nutrition", "average_usage"=>[286, 567, 722, 851, 990, 1079, 1199, 1303, 1398, 1498, 1567, 1657, 1736, 1806, 1884, 1963, 2037, 2120, 2202, 2264, 2352, 2408, 2453, 2534, 2597, 2658, 2707, 2779, 2848, 2915, 2998, 3081, 3147, 3201, 3248, 3314, 3379]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Health care", "average_usage"=>[337, 676, 827, 964, 1066, 1171, 1267, 1396, 1503, 1580, 1663, 1758, 1822, 1887, 1968, 2037, 2107, 2173, 2246, 2357, 2419, 2488, 2576, 2637, 2724, 2815, 2887, 2956, 3034, 3111, 3174, 3245, 3294, 3357, 3404, 3464, 3529]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Nutrition", "average_usage"=>[293, 567, 706, 856, 980, 1079, 1179, 1276, 1370, 1445, 1517, 1617, 1694, 1773, 1852, 1918, 1988, 2058, 2121, 2212, 2258, 2317, 2382, 2440, 2515, 2569, 2649, 2715, 2770, 2848, 2909, 2966, 3019, 3086, 3155, 3236, 3332]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Public and occupational health", "average_usage"=>[343, 648, 793, 906, 1017, 1126, 1226, 1298, 1386, 1458, 1536, 1617, 1694, 1771, 1851, 1915, 1982, 2042, 2111, 2171, 2220, 2273, 2339, 2430, 2509, 2572, 2640, 2695, 2766, 2822, 2882, 2956, 2992, 3046, 3082, 3151, 3206]}, {"subject_area"=>"/People and places", "average_usage"=>[346, 621, 752, 863, 972, 1071, 1187, 1286, 1369, 1443, 1516, 1582, 1659, 1736, 1816, 1899, 1967, 2041, 2119, 2193, 2260, 2330, 2389, 2455, 2510, 2567, 2625, 2698, 2787, 2836, 2908, 2966, 3019, 3080, 3130, 3180, 3244]}, {"subject_area"=>"/People and places/Demography", "average_usage"=>[352, 584, 703, 791, 903, 987, 1078, 1163, 1237, 1318, 1379, 1447, 1507, 1584, 1660, 1717, 1793, 1863, 1922, 1967, 2039, 2098, 2152, 2219, 2285, 2341, 2392, 2466, 2528, 2581, 2623, 2670, 2731, 2787, 2856, 2901, 2953]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences", "average_usage"=>[340, 584, 708, 809, 915, 1005, 1089, 1174, 1254, 1334, 1408, 1478, 1563, 1648, 1716, 1791, 1847, 1915, 1979, 2044, 2105, 2163, 2218, 2297, 2382, 2436, 2493, 2553, 2618, 2682, 2741, 2786, 2847, 2937, 2989, 3039, 3102]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences/Sociology", "average_usage"=>[426, 807, 983, 1078, 1202, 1297, 1394, 1505, 1611, 1713, 1819, 1918, 2007, 2092, 2190, 2261, 2341, 2445, 2522, 2612, 2692, 2754, 2830, 2908, 2987, 3076, 3157, 3246, 3319, 3431, 3527, 3602, 3670, 3725, 3772, 3821, 3879]}]}
Loading … Spinner
There are currently no alerts