Reporting Guidelines for Survey Research: An Analysis of Published Guidance and Reporting Practices
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{"title"=>"Reporting guidelines for survey research: An analysis of published guidance and reporting practices", "type"=>"generic", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Carol", "last_name"=>"Bennett", "scopus_author_id"=>"27172360100"}, {"first_name"=>"Sara", "last_name"=>"Khangura", "scopus_author_id"=>"22634861400"}, {"first_name"=>"Jamie C.", "last_name"=>"Brehaut", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602742779"}, {"first_name"=>"Ian D.", "last_name"=>"Graham", "scopus_author_id"=>"35372072800"}, {"first_name"=>"David", "last_name"=>"Moher", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005443800"}, {"first_name"=>"Beth K.", "last_name"=>"Potter", "scopus_author_id"=>"8767870900"}, {"first_name"=>"Jeremy", "last_name"=>"Grimshaw", "scopus_author_id"=>"34769948000"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS Medicine", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"21829330", "issn"=>"15491277", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pmed.1001069", "pui"=>"362471712", "isbn"=>"15491277", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-80052336545", "sgr"=>"80052336545"}, "id"=>"d0db3567-b25d-36b8-a75a-f5d76547baba", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Research needs to be reported transparently so readers can critically assess the strengths and weaknesses of the design, conduct, and analysis of studies. Reporting guidelines have been developed to inform reporting for a variety of study designs. The objective of this study was to identify whether there is a need to develop a reporting guideline for survey research.\\n\\nMETHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a three-part project: (1) a systematic review of the literature (including \"Instructions to Authors\" from the top five journals of 33 medical specialties and top 15 general and internal medicine journals) to identify guidance for reporting survey research; (2) a systematic review of evidence on the quality of reporting of surveys; and (3) a review of reporting of key quality criteria for survey research in 117 recently published reports of self-administered surveys. Fewer than 7% of medical journals (n = 165) provided guidance to authors on survey research despite a majority having published survey-based studies in recent years. We identified four published checklists for conducting or reporting survey research, none of which were validated. We identified eight previous reviews of survey reporting quality, which focused on issues of non-response and accessibility of questionnaires. Our own review of 117 published survey studies revealed that many items were poorly reported: few studies provided the survey or core questions (35%), reported the validity or reliability of the instrument (19%), defined the response rate (25%), discussed the representativeness of the sample (11%), or identified how missing data were handled (11%).\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS: There is limited guidance and no consensus regarding the optimal reporting of survey research. The majority of key reporting criteria are poorly reported in peer-reviewed survey research articles. Our findings highlight the need for clear and consistent reporting guidelines specific to survey research.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/reporting-guidelines-survey-research-analysis-published-guidance-reporting-practices-14", "reader_count"=>141, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>12, "Librarian"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>12, "Researcher"=>24, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>18, "Student > Postgraduate"=>13, "Student > Master"=>24, "Other"=>8, "Student > Bachelor"=>12, "Lecturer"=>6, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>12, "Librarian"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>12, "Researcher"=>24, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>18, "Student > Postgraduate"=>13, "Student > Master"=>24, "Other"=>8, "Student > Bachelor"=>12, "Lecturer"=>6, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>13, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>5, "Arts and Humanities"=>2, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>11, "Computer Science"=>6, "Decision Sciences"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1, "Energy"=>1, "Engineering"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>7, "Mathematics"=>2, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>63, "Design"=>1, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Psychology"=>8, "Social Sciences"=>13, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>63}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>13}, "Decision Sciences"=>{"Decision Sciences"=>1}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>8}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>13}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>2}, "Design"=>{"Design"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Energy"=>{"Energy"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>5}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>6}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>11}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>7}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "Sweden"=>1, "United States"=>4, "Brazil"=>1, "South Africa"=>2, "United Kingdom"=>2, "Italy"=>1, "Portugal"=>1, "Croatia"=>1, "Russia"=>1}, "group_count"=>9}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/750990"], "description"=>"<p>Flow diagram of records and reports—Guidelines for survey research and evidence on the quality of reporting of surveys.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Clinical research design", "Survey research", "diagram", "records"], "article_id"=>421356, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Carol Bennett", "Sara Khangura", "Jamie C. Brehaut", "Ian D. Graham", "David Moher", "Beth K. Potter", "Jeremy M. Grimshaw"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001069.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Flow_diagram_of_records_and_reports_8212_Guidelines_for_survey_research_and_evidence_on_the_quality_of_reporting_of_surveys_/421356", "title"=>"Flow diagram of records and reports—Guidelines for survey research and evidence on the quality of reporting of surveys.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-08-02 00:22:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/751203"], "description"=>"<p>Systematic review – evidence on the of quality of reporting of survey research.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Clinical research design", "Survey research"], "article_id"=>421575, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Carol Bennett", "Sara Khangura", "Jamie C. Brehaut", "Ian D. Graham", "David Moher", "Beth K. Potter", "Jeremy M. Grimshaw"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001069.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>8, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Systematic_review_8211_evidence_on_the_of_quality_of_reporting_of_survey_research_/421575", "title"=>"Systematic review – evidence on the of quality of reporting of survey research.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-08-02 00:26:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/751237"], "description"=>"<p>Checklist items for reporting survey research.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Clinical research design", "Survey research", "items"], "article_id"=>421608, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Carol Bennett", "Sara Khangura", "Jamie C. Brehaut", "Ian D. Graham", "David Moher", "Beth K. Potter", "Jeremy M. Grimshaw"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001069.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Checklist_items_for_reporting_survey_research_/421608", "title"=>"Checklist items for reporting survey research.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-08-02 00:26:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/751113"], "description"=>"<p>Items reported by 117 included articles.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Clinical research design", "Survey research", "reported", "117", "included"], "article_id"=>421475, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Carol Bennett", "Sara Khangura", "Jamie C. Brehaut", "Ian D. Graham", "David Moher", "Beth K. Potter", "Jeremy M. Grimshaw"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001069.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Items_reported_by_117_included_articles_/421475", "title"=>"Items reported by 117 included articles.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-08-02 00:24:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/751057"], "description"=>"<p>Identification process for article selection—Review of published reports of self-reported surveys.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Clinical research design", "Survey research", "published", "reports", "self-reported"], "article_id"=>421428, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Carol Bennett", "Sara Khangura", "Jamie C. Brehaut", "Ian D. Graham", "David Moher", "Beth K. Potter", "Jeremy M. Grimshaw"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001069.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Identification_process_for_article_selection_8212_Review_of_published_reports_of_self_reported_surveys_/421428", "title"=>"Identification process for article selection—Review of published reports of self-reported surveys.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-08-02 00:23:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/751163"], "description"=>"<p>Instructions to authors—Examples of relevant text per category.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Clinical research design", "Survey research"], "article_id"=>421538, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Carol Bennett", "Sara Khangura", "Jamie C. Brehaut", "Ian D. Graham", "David Moher", "Beth K. Potter", "Jeremy M. Grimshaw"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001069.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Instructions_to_authors_8212_Examples_of_relevant_text_per_category_/421538", "title"=>"Instructions to authors—Examples of relevant text per category.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-08-02 00:25:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/377595", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/377679", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/377724"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Research needs to be reported transparently so readers can critically assess the strengths and weaknesses of the design, conduct, and analysis of studies. Reporting guidelines have been developed to inform reporting for a variety of study designs. The objective of this study was to identify whether there is a need to develop a reporting guideline for survey research.</p> <h3>Methods and Findings</h3><p>We conducted a three-part project: (1) a systematic review of the literature (including “Instructions to Authors” from the top five journals of 33 medical specialties and top 15 general and internal medicine journals) to identify guidance for reporting survey research; (2) a systematic review of evidence on the quality of reporting of surveys; and (3) a review of reporting of key quality criteria for survey research in 117 recently published reports of self-administered surveys. Fewer than 7% of medical journals (n = 165) provided guidance to authors on survey research despite a majority having published survey-based studies in recent years. We identified four published checklists for conducting or reporting survey research, none of which were validated. We identified eight previous reviews of survey reporting quality, which focused on issues of non-response and accessibility of questionnaires. Our own review of 117 published survey studies revealed that many items were poorly reported: few studies provided the survey or core questions (35%), reported the validity or reliability of the instrument (19%), defined the response rate (25%), discussed the representativeness of the sample (11%), or identified how missing data were handled (11%).</p> <h3>Conclusions</h3><p>There is limited guidance and no consensus regarding the optimal reporting of survey research. The majority of key reporting criteria are poorly reported in peer-reviewed survey research articles. Our findings highlight the need for clear and consistent reporting guidelines specific to survey research.</p> <h3></h3><p> <em>Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary</em></p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Clinical research design", "Survey research", "guidelines", "published", "practices"], "article_id"=>134610, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Carol Bennett", "Sara Khangura", "Jamie C. Brehaut", "Ian D. Graham", "David Moher", "Beth K. Potter", "Jeremy M. Grimshaw"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001069.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001069.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001069.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>22, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Reporting_Guidelines_for_Survey_Research_An_Analysis_of_Published_Guidance_and_Reporting_Practices/134610", "title"=>"Reporting Guidelines for Survey Research: An Analysis of Published Guidance and Reporting Practices", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-08-02 01:16:50"}

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Relative Metric

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