Improved Response to Disasters and Outbreaks by Tracking Population Movements with Mobile Phone Network Data: A Post-Earthquake Geospatial Study in Haiti
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{"title"=>"Improved response to disasters and outbreaks by tracking population movements with mobile phone network data: A post-earthquake geospatial study in haiti", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Linus", "last_name"=>"Bengtsson", "scopus_author_id"=>"36514232000"}, {"first_name"=>"Xin", "last_name"=>"Lu", "scopus_author_id"=>"57191611185"}, {"first_name"=>"Anna", "last_name"=>"Thorson", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006983209"}, {"first_name"=>"Richard", "last_name"=>"Garfield", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102153999"}, {"first_name"=>"Johan", "last_name"=>"von Schreeb", "scopus_author_id"=>"6507104780"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS Medicine", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-80052313941", "isbn"=>"1549-1277", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pmed.1001083", "pui"=>"362471713", "sgr"=>"80052313941", "issn"=>"15491277", "pmid"=>"21918643"}, "id"=>"338bbf7a-be76-3275-b0fe-33d384659167", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Population movements following disasters can cause important increases in morbidity and mortality. Without knowledge of the locations of affected people, relief assistance is compromised. No rapid and accurate method exists to track population movements after disasters. We used position data of subscriber identity module (SIM) cards from the largest mobile phone company in Haiti (Digicel) to estimate the magnitude and trends of population movements following the Haiti 2010 earthquake and cholera outbreak.\\n\\nMETHODS AND FINDINGS: Geographic positions of SIM cards were determined by the location of the mobile phone tower through which each SIM card connects when calling. We followed daily positions of SIM cards 42 days before the earthquake and 158 days after. To exclude inactivated SIM cards, we included only the 1.9 million SIM cards that made at least one call both pre-earthquake and during the last month of study. In Port-au-Prince there were 3.2 persons per included SIM card. We used this ratio to extrapolate from the number of moving SIM cards to the number of moving persons. Cholera outbreak analyses covered 8 days and tracked 138,560 SIM cards. An estimated 630,000 persons (197,484 Digicel SIM cards), present in Port-au-Prince on the day of the earthquake, had left 19 days post-earthquake. Estimated net outflow of people (outflow minus inflow) corresponded to 20% of the Port-au-Prince pre-earthquake population. Geographic distribution of population movements from Port-au-Prince corresponded well with results from a large retrospective, population-based UN survey. To demonstrate feasibility of rapid estimates and to identify areas at potentially increased risk of outbreaks, we produced reports on SIM card movements from a cholera outbreak area at its immediate onset and within 12 hours of receiving data.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that estimates of population movements during disasters and outbreaks can be delivered rapidly and with potentially high validity in areas with high mobile phone use.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/improved-response-disasters-outbreaks-tracking-population-movements-mobile-phone-network-data-postea", "reader_count"=>315, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>8, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>12, "Librarian"=>3, "Researcher"=>61, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>24, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>78, "Student > Postgraduate"=>14, "Student > Master"=>57, "Other"=>13, "Student > Bachelor"=>27, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>14}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>8, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>12, "Librarian"=>3, "Researcher"=>61, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>24, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>78, "Student > Postgraduate"=>14, "Student > Master"=>57, "Other"=>13, "Student > Bachelor"=>27, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>14}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>22, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>19, "Arts and Humanities"=>3, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>12, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Chemistry"=>2, "Computer Science"=>61, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>8, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>12, "Engineering"=>25, "Environmental Science"=>17, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>2, "Mathematics"=>8, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>48, "Design"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>5, "Psychology"=>3, "Social Sciences"=>62, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>48}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>62}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>5}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>3}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>8}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>22}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>17}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>3}, "Design"=>{"Design"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>25}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>2}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>8}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>12}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>19}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>61}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>12}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>2}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Republic of Singapore"=>1, "United States"=>19, "Japan"=>2, "Uzbekistan"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>4, "Malaysia"=>2, "Switzerland"=>2, "Spain"=>3, "New Zealand"=>1, "Canada"=>1, "Sweden"=>1, "Austria"=>1, "Bangladesh"=>1, "Belgium"=>1, "Ireland"=>1, "Finland"=>1, "Denmark"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "Italy"=>1, "France"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>35}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4964356"], "description"=>"<p>October 15 to October 23, 2010, divided per communal section of destination. The data were disseminated to relief agencies at the outset of the outbreak (October 24, 2010).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["track population movements", "population movements", "Tracking Population Movements", "SIM cards 42 days", "Cholera outbreak analyses", "UN", "SIM cards", "Mobile Phone Network Data", "SIM card", "SIM card movements", "subscriber identity module", "Haiti Background Population movements", "Haiti 2010 earthquake", "Findings Geographic positions", "cholera outbreak area"], "article_id"=>411601, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Cancer", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Computational Biology"], "users"=>["Linus Bengtsson", "Xin Lu", "Anna Thorson", "Richard Garfield", "Johan von Schreeb"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001083.g005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Average_daily_numbers_of_SIMs_moving_out_of_the_cholera_outbreak_area_/411601", "title"=>"Average daily numbers of SIMs moving out of the cholera outbreak area.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-08-30 00:26:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4964323"], "description"=>"<p>Red, mobile phone network data; grey, National Civil Protection Agency (NCPA) estimates used by the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) and other relief agencies.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["track population movements", "population movements", "Tracking Population Movements", "SIM cards 42 days", "Cholera outbreak analyses", "UN", "SIM cards", "Mobile Phone Network Data", "SIM card", "SIM card movements", "subscriber identity module", "Haiti Background Population movements", "Haiti 2010 earthquake", "Findings Geographic positions", "cholera outbreak area"], "article_id"=>411460, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Cancer", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Computational Biology"], "users"=>["Linus Bengtsson", "Xin Lu", "Anna Thorson", "Richard Garfield", "Johan von Schreeb"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001083.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimates_of_the_proportion_of_PaP_persons_who_had_left_PaP_by_February_17_2010_divided_per_province_/411460", "title"=>"Estimates of the proportion of PaP persons who had left PaP by February 17, 2010, divided per province.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-08-30 00:24:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4964305"], "description"=>"<p>The earthquake caused a sharp net outflow from PaP. The PaP population then gradually grew until the end of the study period. The wavy shape of the curve is caused by net inflows during working days and corresponding net outflows during weekends. Sharp but temporary increases and decreases in the PaP population occurred during major holidays.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["track population movements", "population movements", "Tracking Population Movements", "SIM cards 42 days", "Cholera outbreak analyses", "UN", "SIM cards", "Mobile Phone Network Data", "SIM card", "SIM card movements", "subscriber identity module", "Haiti Background Population movements", "Haiti 2010 earthquake", "Findings Geographic positions", "cholera outbreak area"], "article_id"=>411270, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Cancer", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Computational Biology"], "users"=>["Linus Bengtsson", "Xin Lu", "Anna Thorson", "Richard Garfield", "Johan von Schreeb"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001083.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimated_net_changes_of_the_PaP_population_compared_to_the_population_of_PaP_on_the_earthquake_day_7_d_moving_average_shown_in_red_/411270", "title"=>"Estimated net changes of the PaP population compared to the population of PaP on the earthquake day (7-d moving average shown in red).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-08-30 00:21:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4964338"], "description"=>"<p>UNFPA household survey (beige) and population estimates based on SIMs that spent a minimum of 2 and 7 d outside PaP respectively (red and green).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["track population movements", "population movements", "Tracking Population Movements", "SIM cards 42 days", "Cholera outbreak analyses", "UN", "SIM cards", "Mobile Phone Network Data", "SIM card", "SIM card movements", "subscriber identity module", "Haiti Background Population movements", "Haiti 2010 earthquake", "Findings Geographic positions", "cholera outbreak area"], "article_id"=>411527, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Cancer", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Computational Biology"], "users"=>["Linus Bengtsson", "Xin Lu", "Anna Thorson", "Richard Garfield", "Johan von Schreeb"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001083.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_PaP_persons_who_left_and_returned_to_the_city_following_the_earthquake_/411527", "title"=>"Distribution of PaP persons who left and returned to the city following the earthquake.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-08-30 00:25:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4964314"], "description"=>"<p>Circles are shown for communes that received at least 500 persons.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["track population movements", "population movements", "Tracking Population Movements", "SIM cards 42 days", "Cholera outbreak analyses", "UN", "SIM cards", "Mobile Phone Network Data", "SIM card", "SIM card movements", "subscriber identity module", "Haiti Background Population movements", "Haiti 2010 earthquake", "Findings Geographic positions", "cholera outbreak area"], "article_id"=>411368, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Cancer", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Computational Biology"], "users"=>["Linus Bengtsson", "Xin Lu", "Anna Thorson", "Richard Garfield", "Johan von Schreeb"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001083.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimated_distribution_of_persons_who_were_in_PaP_on_the_day_of_the_earthquake_but_outside_PaP_19_d_after_the_earthquake_/411368", "title"=>"Estimated distribution of persons who were in PaP on the day of the earthquake but outside PaP 19 d after the earthquake.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-08-30 00:22:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4964287"], "description"=>"<div><p>Background</p><p>Population movements following disasters can cause important increases in morbidity and mortality. Without knowledge of the locations of affected people, relief assistance is compromised. No rapid and accurate method exists to track population movements after disasters. We used position data of subscriber identity module (SIM) cards from the largest mobile phone company in Haiti (Digicel) to estimate the magnitude and trends of population movements following the Haiti 2010 earthquake and cholera outbreak.</p><p>Methods and Findings</p><p>Geographic positions of SIM cards were determined by the location of the mobile phone tower through which each SIM card connects when calling. We followed daily positions of SIM cards 42 days before the earthquake and 158 days after. To exclude inactivated SIM cards, we included only the 1.9 million SIM cards that made at least one call both pre-earthquake and during the last month of study. In Port-au-Prince there were 3.2 persons per included SIM card. We used this ratio to extrapolate from the number of moving SIM cards to the number of moving persons. Cholera outbreak analyses covered 8 days and tracked 138,560 SIM cards.</p><p>An estimated 630,000 persons (197,484 Digicel SIM cards), present in Port-au-Prince on the day of the earthquake, had left 19 days post-earthquake. Estimated net outflow of people (outflow minus inflow) corresponded to 20% of the Port-au-Prince pre-earthquake population. Geographic distribution of population movements from Port-au-Prince corresponded well with results from a large retrospective, population-based UN survey. To demonstrate feasibility of rapid estimates and to identify areas at potentially increased risk of outbreaks, we produced reports on SIM card movements from a cholera outbreak area at its immediate onset and within 12 hours of receiving data.</p><p>Conclusions</p><p>Results suggest that estimates of population movements during disasters and outbreaks can be delivered rapidly and with potentially high validity in areas with high mobile phone use.</p><p> </p><p><i>Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary</i></p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["track population movements", "population movements", "Tracking Population Movements", "SIM cards 42 days", "Cholera outbreak analyses", "UN", "SIM cards", "Mobile Phone Network Data", "SIM card", "SIM card movements", "subscriber identity module", "Haiti Background Population movements", "Haiti 2010 earthquake", "Findings Geographic positions", "cholera outbreak area"], "article_id"=>133801, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Cancer", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Computational Biology"], "users"=>["Linus Bengtsson", "Xin Lu", "Anna Thorson", "Richard Garfield", "Johan von Schreeb"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001083.s001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>23, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Improved_Response_to_Disasters_and_Outbreaks_by_Tracking_Population_Movements_with_Mobile_Phone_Network_Data_A_Post_Earthquake_Geospatial_Study_in_Haiti/133801", "title"=>"Improved Response to Disasters and Outbreaks by Tracking Population Movements with Mobile Phone Network Data: A Post-Earthquake Geospatial Study in Haiti", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-08-30 01:03:21"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"32", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
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Relative Metric

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