Cardiovascular Risk with Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs: Systematic Review of Population-Based Controlled Observational Studies
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{"title"=>"Cardiovascular risk with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: Systematic review of population-based controlled observational studies", "type"=>"generic", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Patricia", "last_name"=>"McGettigan", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603713381"}, {"first_name"=>"David", "last_name"=>"Henry", "scopus_author_id"=>"36012659800"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS Medicine", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"21980265", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pmed.1001098", "sgr"=>"80053307147", "isbn"=>"1549-1676 (Electronic)\\r1549-1277 (Linking)", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-80053307147", "issn"=>"15491277", "pui"=>"362661647"}, "id"=>"c2d70e03-75c7-3719-b810-130e24e90c22", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Randomised trials have highlighted the cardiovascular risks of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in high doses and sometimes atypical settings. Here, we provide estimates of the comparative risks with individual NSAIDs at typical doses in community settings.\\n\\nMETHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a systematic review of community-based controlled observational studies. We conducted comprehensive literature searches, extracted adjusted relative risk (RR) estimates, and pooled the estimates for major cardiovascular events associated with use of individual NSAIDs, in different doses, and in populations with low and high background risks of cardiovascular events. We also compared individual drugs in pair-wise (within study) analyses, generating ratios of RRs (RRRs). Thirty case-control studies included 184,946 cardiovascular events, and 21 cohort studies described outcomes in >2.7 million exposed individuals. Of the extensively studied drugs (ten or more studies), the highest overall risks were seen with rofecoxib, 1.45 (95% CI 1.33, 1.59), and diclofenac, 1.40 (1.27, 1.55), and the lowest with ibuprofen, 1.18 (1.11, 1.25), and naproxen, 1.09 (1.02, 1.16). In a sub-set of studies, risk was elevated with low doses of rofecoxib, 1.37 (1.20, 1.57), celecoxib, 1.26 (1.09, 1.47), and diclofenac, 1.22 (1.12, 1.33), and rose in each case with higher doses. Ibuprofen risk was seen only with higher doses. Naproxen was risk-neutral at all doses. Of the less studied drugs etoricoxib, 2.05 (1.45, 2.88), etodolac, 1.55 (1.28, 1.87), and indomethacin, 1.30 (1.19, 1.41), had the highest risks. In pair-wise comparisons, etoricoxib had a higher RR than ibuprofen, RRR = 1.68 (99% CI 1.14, 2.49), and naproxen, RRR = 1.75 (1.16, 2.64); etodolac was not significantly different from naproxen and ibuprofen. Naproxen had a significantly lower risk than ibuprofen, RRR = 0.92 (0.87, 0.99). RR estimates were constant with different background risks for cardiovascular disease and rose early in the course of treatment.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS: This review suggests that among widely used NSAIDs, naproxen and low-dose ibuprofen are least likely to increase cardiovascular risk. Diclofenac in doses available without prescription elevates risk. The data for etoricoxib were sparse, but in pair-wise comparisons this drug had a significantly higher RR than naproxen or ibuprofen. Indomethacin is an older, rather toxic drug, and the evidence on cardiovascular risk casts doubt on its continued clinical use. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/cardiovascular-risk-nonsteroidal-antiinflammatory-drugs-systematic-review-populationbased-controlled", "reader_count"=>164, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>11, "Researcher"=>24, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>13, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>15, "Student > Postgraduate"=>11, "Student > Master"=>26, "Other"=>30, "Student > Bachelor"=>19, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>7}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>11, "Researcher"=>24, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>13, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>15, "Student > Postgraduate"=>11, "Student > Master"=>26, "Other"=>30, "Student > Bachelor"=>19, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>7}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>13, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>13, "Chemistry"=>4, "Computer Science"=>1, "Engineering"=>3, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>108, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>10, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Psychology"=>4, "Social Sciences"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>108}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>4}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>13}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>10}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>3}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>4}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>13}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>2}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Colombia"=>1, "United States"=>2, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1, "Spain"=>2, "India"=>1, "Netherlands"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "Italy"=>1, "Australia"=>1, "Germany"=>1, "Indonesia"=>1}, "group_count"=>12}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/732538"], "description"=>"<p>The RR values in this table differ from those in <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001098#pmed-1001098-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a> because only a sub-set of all available studies reported dose-response relationships. “Low” and “high” daily doses of ibuprofen, naproxen, and diclofenac were defined in the individual studies as follows. Ibuprofen low dose/high dose: eight studies, ≤1,200 mg/>1,200 mg; one study, ≤1,600 mg/>1,600 mg; two studies, <1,800 mg/≥1,800 mg. Naproxen low dose/high dose: two studies, ≤500 mg/>500 mg; four studies, ≤750 mg/>750 mg; four studies, ≤1,000 mg/≥1,000 mg. Diclofenac low dose/high dose: six studies, ≤100 mg/>100 mg; two, studies <100 mg/≥100 mg; two studies, <150 mg/≥150 mg.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["relationships", "drugs", "included"], "article_id"=>402894, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Patricia McGettigan", "David Henry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001098.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Dose_response_relationships_for_individual_drugs_included_in_the_analyses_/402894", "title"=>"Dose-response relationships for individual drugs included in the analyses.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-09-27 00:48:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/732416"], "description"=>"<p>RR<sub>CD</sub> is the association between confounder and disease outcome. P<sub>C1</sub>is the prevalence of confounder in the exposed. P<sub>C0</sub> is the prevalence of confounder in the unexposed. RRR<sub>adj</sub> is the “true”, or fully adjusted, RRR. Percent bias is the percentage change to the RRR that would be introduced by a hypothetical confounding variable under the assumptions in the table.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["analyses", "pair-wise"], "article_id"=>402779, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Patricia McGettigan", "David Henry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001098.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_sensitivity_analyses_on_selected_pair_wise_comparisons_/402779", "title"=>"Results of sensitivity analyses on selected pair-wise comparisons.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-09-27 00:46:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/732501"], "description"=>"<p>Data are given as pooled RR (95% CI). Analyses are from studies that made paired comparisons of cardiovascular risk with individual drugs in low and high risk populations; the definitions of these populations are given in the text, and individual studies are described in <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001098#pmed.1001098.s001\" target=\"_blank\">Table S1</a>. The RR values in this table differ from those in <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001098#pmed-1001098-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a> because only a sub-set of all available studies provided data to assess the relationship between RR and background risk of cardiovascular events.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rrs", "cardiovascular", "events"], "article_id"=>402860, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Patricia McGettigan", "David Henry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001098.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimated_RRs_of_cardiovascular_events_according_to_risk_of_cardiovascular_disease_/402860", "title"=>"Estimated RRs of cardiovascular events according to risk of cardiovascular disease.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-09-27 00:47:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/731284"], "description"=>"<p>Vertical axis indicates pooled RR.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["analyses"], "article_id"=>401641, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Patricia McGettigan", "David Henry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001098.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_analyses_for_individual_drugs_/401641", "title"=>"Summary analyses for individual drugs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-09-27 00:27:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/732120"], "description"=>"<p>Forest plot for piroxicam.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>[], "article_id"=>402485, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Patricia McGettigan", "David Henry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001098.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Forest_plot_for_piroxicam_/402485", "title"=>"Forest plot for piroxicam.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-09-27 00:41:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/369083", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/369226", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/369275"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Randomised trials have highlighted the cardiovascular risks of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in high doses and sometimes atypical settings. Here, we provide estimates of the comparative risks with individual NSAIDs at typical doses in community settings.</p> <h3>Methods and Findings</h3><p>We performed a systematic review of community-based controlled observational studies. We conducted comprehensive literature searches, extracted adjusted relative risk (RR) estimates, and pooled the estimates for major cardiovascular events associated with use of individual NSAIDs, in different doses, and in populations with low and high background risks of cardiovascular events. We also compared individual drugs in pair-wise (within study) analyses, generating ratios of RRs (RRRs). Thirty case-control studies included 184,946 cardiovascular events, and 21 cohort studies described outcomes in >2.7 million exposed individuals. Of the extensively studied drugs (ten or more studies), the highest overall risks were seen with rofecoxib, 1.45 (95% CI 1.33, 1.59), and diclofenac, 1.40 (1.27, 1.55), and the lowest with ibuprofen, 1.18 (1.11, 1.25), and naproxen, 1.09 (1.02, 1.16). In a sub-set of studies, risk was elevated with low doses of rofecoxib, 1.37 (1.20, 1.57), celecoxib, 1.26 (1.09, 1.47), and diclofenac, 1.22 (1.12, 1.33), and rose in each case with higher doses. Ibuprofen risk was seen only with higher doses. Naproxen was risk-neutral at all doses. Of the less studied drugs etoricoxib, 2.05 (1.45, 2.88), etodolac, 1.55 (1.28, 1.87), and indomethacin, 1.30 (1.19, 1.41), had the highest risks. In pair-wise comparisons, etoricoxib had a higher RR than ibuprofen, RRR = 1.68 (99% CI 1.14, 2.49), and naproxen, RRR = 1.75 (1.16, 2.64); etodolac was not significantly different from naproxen and ibuprofen. Naproxen had a significantly lower risk than ibuprofen, RRR = 0.92 (0.87, 0.99). RR estimates were constant with different background risks for cardiovascular disease and rose early in the course of treatment.</p> <h3>Conclusions</h3><p>This review suggests that among widely used NSAIDs, naproxen and low-dose ibuprofen are least likely to increase cardiovascular risk. Diclofenac in doses available without prescription elevates risk. The data for etoricoxib were sparse, but in pair-wise comparisons this drug had a significantly higher RR than naproxen or ibuprofen. Indomethacin is an older, rather toxic drug, and the evidence on cardiovascular risk casts doubt on its continued clinical use.</p> <h3></h3><p> <em>Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary</em></p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cardiovascular", "non-steroidal", "anti-inflammatory", "systematic", "population-based", "controlled", "observational", "studies"], "article_id"=>132931, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Patricia McGettigan", "David Henry"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001098.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001098.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001098.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>32, "page_views"=>42, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Cardiovascular_Risk_with_Non_Steroidal_Anti_Inflammatory_Drugs_Systematic_Review_of_Population_Based_Controlled_Observational_Studies/132931", "title"=>"Cardiovascular Risk with Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs: Systematic Review of Population-Based Controlled Observational Studies", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-09-27 00:48:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/732472"], "description"=>"a<p>Studies reporting adjusted risk estimates did not all report person-years of exposure.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["numbers", "studies"], "article_id"=>402833, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Patricia McGettigan", "David Henry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001098.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_the_numbers_of_studies_and_overall_results_/402833", "title"=>"Summary of the numbers of studies and overall results.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-09-27 00:47:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/732364"], "description"=>"<p>Forest plot for valdecoxib.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>[], "article_id"=>402735, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Patricia McGettigan", "David Henry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001098.g013", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Forest_plot_for_valdecoxib_/402735", "title"=>"Forest plot for valdecoxib.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-09-27 00:45:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/731895"], "description"=>"<p>Forest plot for diclofenac.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>[], "article_id"=>402254, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Patricia McGettigan", "David Henry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001098.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Forest_plot_for_diclofenac_/402254", "title"=>"Forest plot for diclofenac.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-09-27 00:37:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/731208"], "description"=>"<p>Flow diagram for derivation of studies included in the analyses.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["diagram", "derivation", "studies", "included"], "article_id"=>401569, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Patricia McGettigan", "David Henry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001098.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Flow_diagram_for_derivation_of_studies_included_in_the_analyses_/401569", "title"=>"Flow diagram for derivation of studies included in the analyses.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-09-27 00:26:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/732280"], "description"=>"<p>Forest plot for etoricoxib.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>[], "article_id"=>402649, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Patricia McGettigan", "David Henry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001098.g012", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Forest_plot_for_etoricoxib_/402649", "title"=>"Forest plot for etoricoxib.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-09-27 00:44:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/732172"], "description"=>"<p>Forest plot for meloxicam.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>[], "article_id"=>402538, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Patricia McGettigan", "David Henry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001098.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Forest_plot_for_meloxicam_/402538", "title"=>"Forest plot for meloxicam.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-09-27 00:42:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/732219"], "description"=>"<p>Forest plot for etodolac.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>[], "article_id"=>402583, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Patricia McGettigan", "David Henry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001098.g011", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Forest_plot_for_etodolac_/402583", "title"=>"Forest plot for etodolac.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-09-27 00:43:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/731530"], "description"=>"<p>Forest plot for ibuprofen.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>[], "article_id"=>401893, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Patricia McGettigan", "David Henry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001098.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Forest_plot_for_ibuprofen_/401893", "title"=>"Forest plot for ibuprofen.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-09-27 00:31:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/732441"], "description"=>"<p>Values are pooled RRRs and 99% CIs. Bold indicates significant difference at <i>p</i><0.0033 (the Bonferroni-adjusted threshold <i>p-</i>value; <i>n</i> = 15 comparisons; alpha = 0.05).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pair-wise", "comparisons"], "article_id"=>402806, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Patricia McGettigan", "David Henry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001098.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Selected_pair_wise_comparisons_of_individual_drugs_/402806", "title"=>"Selected pair-wise comparisons of individual drugs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-09-27 00:46:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/731606"], "description"=>"<p>Forest plot for celecoxib.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>[], "article_id"=>401971, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Patricia McGettigan", "David Henry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001098.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Forest_plot_for_celecoxib_/401971", "title"=>"Forest plot for celecoxib.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-09-27 00:32:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/731814"], "description"=>"<p>Forest plot for rofecoxib.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>[], "article_id"=>402180, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Patricia McGettigan", "David Henry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001098.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Forest_plot_for_rofecoxib_/402180", "title"=>"Forest plot for rofecoxib.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-09-27 00:36:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/731349"], "description"=>"<p><b>Key for Figures 3-13:</b> Abraham: 2007a, low risk myocardial infarction; 2007b, average risk myocardial infarction; 2007c, low risk stroke; 2007d, average risk stroke. Andersohn: 2006a, myocardial infarction, cardiovascular death; 2006b, non-fatal stroke. Fosbol: 2010a, myocardial infarction, cardiovascular death; 2010b, fatal, non-fatal stroke. Gislason: 2006a, recurrent myocardial infarction; 2006b, death. Gislason: 2009a, myocardial infarction; 2009b, death. Lee: 2007a, low risk cardiovascular event; 2007b, high risk cardiovascular event. Roumie: 2008/09a, low risk cardiovascular event; 2008/09b, high risk cardiovascular event.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>[], "article_id"=>401718, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Patricia McGettigan", "David Henry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001098.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Forest_plot_for_naproxen_/401718", "title"=>"Forest plot for naproxen.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-09-27 00:28:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/732056"], "description"=>"<p>Forest plot for indomethacin.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>[], "article_id"=>402425, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Patricia McGettigan", "David Henry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001098.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Forest_plot_for_indomethacin_/402425", "title"=>"Forest plot for indomethacin.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-09-27 00:40:25"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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