Mortality and Hospital Stay Associated with Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli Bacteremia: Estimating the Burden of Antibiotic Resistance in Europe
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{"title"=>"Mortality and Hospital Stay Associated with Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli Bacteremia: Estimating the Burden of Antibiotic Resistance in Europe", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Marlieke E. A.", "last_name"=>"de Kraker"}, {"first_name"=>"Peter G.", "last_name"=>"Davey"}, {"first_name"=>"Hajo", "last_name"=>"Grundmann"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS Medicine", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"1549-1676", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pmed.1001104", "isbn"=>"1549-1676 (Electronic)\\r1549-1277 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"22022233"}, "id"=>"76d7881b-c7e5-31f1-97bc-06c8279a5033", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: The relative importance of human diseases is conventionally assessed by cause-specific mortality, morbidity, and economic impact. Current estimates for infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria are not sufficiently supported by quantitative empirical data. This study determined the excess number of deaths, bed-days, and hospital costs associated with blood stream infections (BSIs) caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli (G3CREC) in 31 countries that participated in the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (EARSS).\\n\\nMETHODS AND FINDINGS: The number of BSIs caused by MRSA and G3CREC was extrapolated from EARSS prevalence data and national health care statistics. Prospective cohort studies, carried out in hospitals participating in EARSS in 2007, provided the parameters for estimating the excess 30-d mortality and hospital stay associated with BSIs caused by either MRSA or G3CREC. Hospital expenditure was derived from a publicly available cost model. Trends established by EARSS were used to determine the trajectories for MRSA and G3CREC prevalence until 2015. In 2007, 27,711 episodes of MRSA BSIs were associated with 5,503 excess deaths and 255,683 excess hospital days in the participating countries, whereas 15,183 episodes of G3CREC BSIs were associated with 2,712 excess deaths and 120,065 extra hospital days. The total costs attributable to excess hospital stays for MRSA and G3CREC BSIs were 44.0 and 18.1 million Euros (63.1 and 29.7 million international dollars), respectively. Based on prevailing trends, the number of BSIs caused by G3CREC is likely to rapidly increase, outnumbering the number of MRSA BSIs in the near future.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS: Excess mortality associated with BSIs caused by MRSA and G3CREC is significant, and the prolongation of hospital stay imposes a considerable burden on health care systems. A foreseeable shift in the burden of antibiotic resistance from Gram-positive to Gram-negative infections will exacerbate this situation and is reason for concern.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/mortality-hospital-stay-associated-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-escherichia-coli-bacteremia-estim-22", "reader_count"=>101, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>6, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>22, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>19, "Student > Postgraduate"=>6, "Student > Master"=>22, "Other"=>12, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>6, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>22, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>19, "Student > Postgraduate"=>6, "Student > Master"=>22, "Other"=>12, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>31, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>2, "Chemistry"=>3, "Computer Science"=>2, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>3, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4, "Mathematics"=>2, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>38, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>5, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>6}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>38}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>3}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>5}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>3}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>6}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>31}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Netherlands"=>1, "United States"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>3, "France"=>1, "Chile"=>1, "Kenya"=>1}, "group_count"=>6}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/725873"], "description"=>"<p>Extrapolated EARSS numbers for 2003–2009, and future trajectories based on regression analysis for 2010–2015.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mrsa", "g3crec", "bacteremias", "european"], "article_id"=>396233, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Marlieke E. A. de Kraker", "Peter G. Davey", "Hajo Grundmann"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001104.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Trends_in_the_estimated_number_of_MRSA_and_G3CREC_bacteremias_in_the_European_region_/396233", "title"=>"Trends in the estimated number of MRSA and G3CREC bacteremias in the European region.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-10-11 01:43:53"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/725931"], "description"=>"<p>Estimated absolute numbers and the incidence expressed per 100,000 individuals of MRSA, MSSA, G3CREC, and G3CSEC. Countries include all European Union member states (excluding Slovakia), both EU candidate countries (Croatia and Turkey), two EFTA countries (Iceland and Norway), and Israel.</p>a<p>Total number and incidence of bacteremias as reported to EARSS or by national health authorities (UK), no confidence intervals provided.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bacteremias", "31", "european", "countries", "2007"], "article_id"=>396290, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Marlieke E. A. de Kraker", "Peter G. Davey", "Hajo Grundmann"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001104.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Frequency_of_S_aureus_and_E_coli_bacteremias_in_31_European_countries_in_2007_by_resistance_phenotype_/396290", "title"=>"Frequency of <i>S. aureus</i> and <i>E. coli</i> bacteremias in 31 European countries in 2007 by resistance phenotype.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-10-11 01:44:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/366901", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/366934", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/366975", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/367010", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/367045", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/367083"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>The relative importance of human diseases is conventionally assessed by cause-specific mortality, morbidity, and economic impact. Current estimates for infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria are not sufficiently supported by quantitative empirical data. This study determined the excess number of deaths, bed-days, and hospital costs associated with blood stream infections (BSIs) caused by methicillin-resistant <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> (MRSA) and third-generation cephalosporin-resistant <em>Escherichia coli</em> (G3CREC) in 31 countries that participated in the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (EARSS).</p> <h3>Methods and Findings</h3><p>The number of BSIs caused by MRSA and G3CREC was extrapolated from EARSS prevalence data and national health care statistics. Prospective cohort studies, carried out in hospitals participating in EARSS in 2007, provided the parameters for estimating the excess 30-d mortality and hospital stay associated with BSIs caused by either MRSA or G3CREC. Hospital expenditure was derived from a publicly available cost model. Trends established by EARSS were used to determine the trajectories for MRSA and G3CREC prevalence until 2015. In 2007, 27,711 episodes of MRSA BSIs were associated with 5,503 excess deaths and 255,683 excess hospital days in the participating countries, whereas 15,183 episodes of G3CREC BSIs were associated with 2,712 excess deaths and 120,065 extra hospital days. The total costs attributable to excess hospital stays for MRSA and G3CREC BSIs were 44.0 and 18.1 million Euros (63.1 and 29.7 million international dollars), respectively. Based on prevailing trends, the number of BSIs caused by G3CREC is likely to rapidly increase, outnumbering the number of MRSA BSIs in the near future.</p> <h3>Conclusions</h3><p>Excess mortality associated with BSIs caused by MRSA and G3CREC is significant, and the prolongation of hospital stay imposes a considerable burden on health care systems. A foreseeable shift in the burden of antibiotic resistance from Gram-positive to Gram-negative infections will exacerbate this situation and is reason for concern.</p> <h3></h3><p> <em>Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary</em></p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["resistant", "estimating", "antibiotic", "europe"], "article_id"=>132517, "categories"=>["Cancer"], "users"=>["Marlieke E. A. de Kraker", "Peter G. Davey", "Hajo Grundmann"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001104.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001104.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001104.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001104.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001104.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001104.s006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>8, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Mortality_and_Hospital_Stay_Associated_with_Resistant_Staphylococcus_aureus_and_Escherichia_coli_Bacteremia_Estimating_the_Burden_of_Antibiotic_Resistance_in_Europe/132517", "title"=>"Mortality and Hospital Stay Associated with Resistant <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and <em>Escherichia coli</em> Bacteremia: Estimating the Burden of Antibiotic Resistance in Europe", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-10-11 00:41:57"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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