The Effect of Chromosome 9p21 Variants on Cardiovascular Disease May Be Modified by Dietary Intake: Evidence from a Case/Control and a Prospective Study
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{"title"=>"The effect of chromosome 9p21 variants on cardiovascular disease may be modified by dietary intake: Evidence from a case/control and a prospective study", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Ron", "last_name"=>"Do", "scopus_author_id"=>"24075896600"}, {"first_name"=>"Changchun", "last_name"=>"Xie", "scopus_author_id"=>"8154826100"}, {"first_name"=>"Xiaohe", "last_name"=>"Zhang", "scopus_author_id"=>"15520325400"}, {"first_name"=>"Satu", "last_name"=>"Männistö", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701509717"}, {"first_name"=>"Kennet", "last_name"=>"Harald", "scopus_author_id"=>"13003074900"}, {"first_name"=>"Shofiqul", "last_name"=>"Islam", "scopus_author_id"=>"55432803400"}, {"first_name"=>"Swneke D.", "last_name"=>"Bailey", "scopus_author_id"=>"56817726700"}, {"first_name"=>"Sumathy", "last_name"=>"Rangarajan", "scopus_author_id"=>"15830115800"}, {"first_name"=>"Matthew J.", "last_name"=>"McQueen", "scopus_author_id"=>"7103154099"}, {"first_name"=>"Rafael", "last_name"=>"Diaz", "scopus_author_id"=>"7201925889"}, {"first_name"=>"Liu", "last_name"=>"Lisheng", "scopus_author_id"=>"56764050000"}, {"first_name"=>"Xingyu", "last_name"=>"Wang", "scopus_author_id"=>"55736919100"}, {"first_name"=>"Kaisa", "last_name"=>"Silander", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603017528"}, {"first_name"=>"Leena", "last_name"=>"Peltonen", "scopus_author_id"=>"36051313500"}, {"first_name"=>"Salim", "last_name"=>"Yusuf", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202749318"}, {"first_name"=>"Veikko", "last_name"=>"Salomaa", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004714461"}, {"first_name"=>"James C.", "last_name"=>"Engert", "scopus_author_id"=>"56962776000"}, {"first_name"=>"Sonia S.", "last_name"=>"Anand", "scopus_author_id"=>"7201522674"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS Medicine", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"80055063475", "pmid"=>"22022235", "isbn"=>"1549-1676 (Electronic)\\r1549-1277 (Linking)", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-80055063475", "issn"=>"15491277", "pui"=>"362826630", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pmed.1001106"}, "id"=>"4cbc11db-4e5f-3a25-aab8-b08e3cd04997", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND One of the most robust genetic associations for cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the Chromosome 9p21 region. However, the interaction of this locus with environmental factors has not been extensively explored. We investigated the association of 9p21 with myocardial infarction (MI) in individuals of different ethnicities, and tested for an interaction with environmental factors. METHODS AND FINDINGS We genotyped four 9p21 SNPs in 8,114 individuals from the global INTERHEART study. All four variants were associated with MI, with odds ratios (ORs) of 1.18 to 1.20 (1.85×10(-8)≤p≤5.21×10(-7)). A significant interaction (p = 4.0×10(-4)) was observed between rs2383206 and a factor-analysis-derived \"prudent\" diet pattern score, for which a major component was raw vegetables. An effect of 9p21 on MI was observed in the group with a low prudent diet score (OR = 1.32, p = 6.82×10(-7)), but the effect was diminished in a step-wise fashion in the medium (OR = 1.17, p = 4.9×10(-3)) and high prudent diet scoring groups (OR = 1.02, p = 0.68) (p = 0.014 for difference). We also analyzed data from 19,129 individuals (including 1,014 incident cases of CVD) from the prospective FINRISK study, which used a closely related dietary variable. In this analysis, the 9p21 risk allele demonstrated a larger effect on CVD risk in the groups with diets low or average for fresh vegetables, fruits, and berries (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.22, p = 3.0×10(-4), and HR = 1.35, p = 4.1×10(-3), respectively) compared to the group with high consumption of these foods (HR = 0.96, p = 0.73) (p = 0.0011 for difference). The combination of the least prudent diet and two copies of the risk allele was associated with a 2-fold increase in risk for MI (OR = 1.98, p = 2.11×10(-9)) in the INTERHEART study and a 1.66-fold increase in risk for CVD in the FINRISK study (HR = 1.66, p = 0.0026). CONCLUSIONS The risk of MI and CVD conferred by Chromosome 9p21 SNPs appears to be modified by a prudent diet high in raw vegetables and fruits. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/effect-chromosome-9p21-variants-cardiovascular-disease-modified-dietary-intake-evidence-casecontrol", "reader_count"=>80, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>12, "Researcher"=>16, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>17, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>12, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>8}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>12, "Researcher"=>16, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>17, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>12, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>8}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>26, "Arts and Humanities"=>2, "Philosophy"=>1, "Chemistry"=>2, "Computer Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>5, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Mathematics"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>30, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>2, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>30}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>2}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>2}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>2}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>26}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>5}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>2, "Korea (South)"=>1, "United States"=>3, "Brazil"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Italy"=>1, "Malaysia"=>1, "Australia"=>1, "Germany"=>1, "India"=>1}, "group_count"=>5}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/725196"], "description"=>"<p>The reference class is the group bearing two protective alleles for rs2383206 (genotype AA) and having a high prudent dietary pattern score. ORs and 95% confidence intervals are shown in blue. Box sizes are proportional to the precision of the estimate (1/standard error<sup>2</sup>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["acute", "myocardial", "infarction", "prudent", "chromosome", "9p21", "variant", "rs2383206", "interheart"], "article_id"=>395525, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Ron Do", "Changchun Xie", "Xiaohe Zhang", "Satu Männistö", "Kennet Harald", "Shofiqul Islam", "Swneke D. Bailey", "Sumathy Rangarajan", "Matthew J. McQueen", "Rafael Diaz", "Liu Lisheng", "Xingyu Wang", "Kaisa Silander", "Leena Peltonen", "Salim Yusuf", "Veikko Salomaa", "James C. Engert", "Sonia S. Anand"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001106.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Risk_of_acute_myocardial_infarction_associated_with_prudent_diet_and_the_Chromosome_9p21_variant_rs2383206_in_the_INTERHEART_study_/395525", "title"=>"Risk of acute myocardial infarction associated with prudent diet and the Chromosome 9p21 variant rs2383206 in the INTERHEART study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-10-11 01:32:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/725578"], "description"=>"<p>+ is the risk allele; associations with <i>p</i><0.05 are shown in bold. Results shown are unadjusted ORs and <i>p</i>-values.</p>a<p>Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["chromosome", "9p21", "snps", "acute", "myocardial"], "article_id"=>395914, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Ron Do", "Changchun Xie", "Xiaohe Zhang", "Satu Männistö", "Kennet Harald", "Shofiqul Islam", "Swneke D. Bailey", "Sumathy Rangarajan", "Matthew J. McQueen", "Rafael Diaz", "Liu Lisheng", "Xingyu Wang", "Kaisa Silander", "Leena Peltonen", "Salim Yusuf", "Veikko Salomaa", "James C. Engert", "Sonia S. Anand"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001106.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>8, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Association_results_of_Chromosome_9p21_SNPs_and_acute_myocardial_infarction_/395914", "title"=>"Association results of Chromosome 9p21 SNPs and acute myocardial infarction.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-10-11 01:38:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/725519"], "description"=>"<p>Interaction tests were performed using logistic regression. Interaction term <i>p</i>-values are shown, after adjustment for main effects of SNP and the dietary variable, as well as ethnicity. The minimum sample size for the analyses is <i>n</i> = 7,989. Associations with <i>p</i><0.05 are shown in bold. Included individual food items were closely related to the three factors (based on high factor loadings) and were previously shown to be associated with MI.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["chromosome", "9p21", "snps", "acute", "myocardial"], "article_id"=>395856, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Ron Do", "Changchun Xie", "Xiaohe Zhang", "Satu Männistö", "Kennet Harald", "Shofiqul Islam", "Swneke D. Bailey", "Sumathy Rangarajan", "Matthew J. McQueen", "Rafael Diaz", "Liu Lisheng", "Xingyu Wang", "Kaisa Silander", "Leena Peltonen", "Salim Yusuf", "Veikko Salomaa", "James C. Engert", "Sonia S. Anand"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001106.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_effect_of_the_interaction_of_diet_and_Chromosome_9p21_SNPs_on_acute_myocardial_infarction_/395856", "title"=>"The effect of the interaction of diet and Chromosome 9p21 SNPs on acute myocardial infarction.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-10-11 01:37:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/725107"], "description"=>"<p>Prudent diet is derived from a composite score of fruit, vegetable, and berry intake (see Methods). The test of homogeneity was performed using the Breslow-Day test. HRs and 95% confidence intervals are shown in blue. HRs presented are per allele. Box sizes are proportional to the precision of the estimate (1/standard error<sup>2</sup>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["modifies", "chromosome", "9p21", "variant", "rs4977574", "cardiovascular", "finrisk"], "article_id"=>395441, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Ron Do", "Changchun Xie", "Xiaohe Zhang", "Satu Männistö", "Kennet Harald", "Shofiqul Islam", "Swneke D. Bailey", "Sumathy Rangarajan", "Matthew J. McQueen", "Rafael Diaz", "Liu Lisheng", "Xingyu Wang", "Kaisa Silander", "Leena Peltonen", "Salim Yusuf", "Veikko Salomaa", "James C. Engert", "Sonia S. Anand"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001106.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Prudent_diet_modifies_the_effect_of_the_Chromosome_9p21_variant_rs4977574_on_cardiovascular_disease_in_the_FINRISK_study_/395441", "title"=>"Prudent diet modifies the effect of the Chromosome 9p21 variant rs4977574 on cardiovascular disease in the FINRISK study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-10-11 01:30:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/366872", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/366915", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/366955", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/366988"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>One of the most robust genetic associations for cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the Chromosome 9p21 region. However, the interaction of this locus with environmental factors has not been extensively explored. We investigated the association of 9p21 with myocardial infarction (MI) in individuals of different ethnicities, and tested for an interaction with environmental factors.</p> <h3>Methods and Findings</h3><p>We genotyped four 9p21 SNPs in 8,114 individuals from the global INTERHEART study. All four variants were associated with MI, with odds ratios (ORs) of 1.18 to 1.20 (1.85×10<sup>−8</sup>≤<em>p</em>≤5.21×10<sup>−7</sup>). A significant interaction (<em>p</em> = 4.0×10<sup>−4</sup>) was observed between rs2383206 and a factor-analysis-derived “prudent” diet pattern score, for which a major component was raw vegetables. An effect of 9p21 on MI was observed in the group with a low prudent diet score (OR = 1.32, <em>p</em> = 6.82×10<sup>−7</sup>), but the effect was diminished in a step-wise fashion in the medium (OR = 1.17, <em>p</em> = 4.9×10<sup>−3</sup>) and high prudent diet scoring groups (OR = 1.02, <em>p</em> = 0.68) (<em>p</em> = 0.014 for difference). We also analyzed data from 19,129 individuals (including 1,014 incident cases of CVD) from the prospective FINRISK study, which used a closely related dietary variable. In this analysis, the 9p21 risk allele demonstrated a larger effect on CVD risk in the groups with diets low or average for fresh vegetables, fruits, and berries (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.22, <em>p</em> = 3.0×10<sup>−4</sup>, and HR = 1.35, <em>p</em> = 4.1×10<sup>−3</sup>, respectively) compared to the group with high consumption of these foods (HR = 0.96, <em>p</em> = 0.73) (<em>p</em> = 0.0011 for difference). The combination of the least prudent diet and two copies of the risk allele was associated with a 2-fold increase in risk for MI (OR = 1.98, <em>p</em> = 2.11×10<sup>−9</sup>) in the INTERHEART study and a 1.66-fold increase in risk for CVD in the FINRISK study (HR = 1.66, <em>p</em> = 0.0026).</p> <h3>Conclusions</h3><p>The risk of MI and CVD conferred by Chromosome 9p21 SNPs appears to be modified by a prudent diet high in raw vegetables and fruits.</p> <h3></h3><p> <em>Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary</em></p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["chromosome", "9p21", "variants", "cardiovascular", "modified", "dietary", "prospective"], "article_id"=>132503, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Ron Do", "Changchun Xie", "Xiaohe Zhang", "Satu Männistö", "Kennet Harald", "Shofiqul Islam", "Swneke D. Bailey", "Sumathy Rangarajan", "Matthew J. McQueen", "Rafael Diaz", "Liu Lisheng", "Xingyu Wang", "Kaisa Silander", "Leena Peltonen", "Salim Yusuf", "Veikko Salomaa", "James C. Engert", "Sonia S. Anand"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001106.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001106.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001106.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001106.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>28, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/The_Effect_of_Chromosome_9p21_Variants_on_Cardiovascular_Disease_May_Be_Modified_by_Dietary_Intake_Evidence_from_a_Case_Control_and_a_Prospective_Study/132503", "title"=>"The Effect of Chromosome 9p21 Variants on Cardiovascular Disease May Be Modified by Dietary Intake: Evidence from a Case/Control and a Prospective Study", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-10-11 00:41:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/725341"], "description"=>"<p>The reference class is the group bearing two protective alleles for rs4977574 (genotype AA) and having a prudent diet (see Methods). HRs and 95% confidence intervals are shown in blue. Box sizes are proportional to the precision of the estimate (1/standard error<sup>2</sup>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cardiovascular", "prudent", "chromosome", "9p21", "variant", "rs4977574", "finrisk"], "article_id"=>395673, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Ron Do", "Changchun Xie", "Xiaohe Zhang", "Satu Männistö", "Kennet Harald", "Shofiqul Islam", "Swneke D. Bailey", "Sumathy Rangarajan", "Matthew J. McQueen", "Rafael Diaz", "Liu Lisheng", "Xingyu Wang", "Kaisa Silander", "Leena Peltonen", "Salim Yusuf", "Veikko Salomaa", "James C. Engert", "Sonia S. Anand"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001106.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Risk_of_cardiovascular_disease_associated_with_prudent_diet_and_the_Chromosome_9p21_variant_rs4977574_in_the_FINRISK_study_/395673", "title"=>"Risk of cardiovascular disease associated with prudent diet and the Chromosome 9p21 variant rs4977574 in the FINRISK study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-10-11 01:34:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/725468"], "description"=>"<p>Allele frequencies of the risk allele (+) are shown.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["frequencies", "snps"], "article_id"=>395806, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Ron Do", "Changchun Xie", "Xiaohe Zhang", "Satu Männistö", "Kennet Harald", "Shofiqul Islam", "Swneke D. Bailey", "Sumathy Rangarajan", "Matthew J. McQueen", "Rafael Diaz", "Liu Lisheng", "Xingyu Wang", "Kaisa Silander", "Leena Peltonen", "Salim Yusuf", "Veikko Salomaa", "James C. Engert", "Sonia S. Anand"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001106.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Allele_frequencies_of_SNPs_by_ethnicity_/395806", "title"=>"Allele frequencies of SNPs by ethnicity.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-10-11 01:36:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/725009"], "description"=>"<p>Prudent diet is derived from a factor analysis and is made up of several individual food items, including fruits and raw vegetables. The test of homogeneity was performed using the Breslow-Day test. ORs and 95% confidence intervals are shown in blue. ORs presented are per allele, i.e., the OR equals the increase in risk for each copy of the risk allele. Box sizes are proportional to the precision of the estimate (1/standard error<sup>2</sup>). Tertiles for prudent diet (1, 2, and 3, with 1 being the lowest prudent diet score group) were calculated for each ethnicity separately.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["modifies", "chromosome", "9p21", "variant", "rs2383206", "acute", "myocardial", "infarction", "interheart"], "article_id"=>395327, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Ron Do", "Changchun Xie", "Xiaohe Zhang", "Satu Männistö", "Kennet Harald", "Shofiqul Islam", "Swneke D. Bailey", "Sumathy Rangarajan", "Matthew J. McQueen", "Rafael Diaz", "Liu Lisheng", "Xingyu Wang", "Kaisa Silander", "Leena Peltonen", "Salim Yusuf", "Veikko Salomaa", "James C. Engert", "Sonia S. Anand"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001106.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Prudent_diet_modifies_the_effect_of_the_Chromosome_9p21_variant_rs2383206_on_acute_myocardial_infarction_in_the_INTERHEART_study_/395327", "title"=>"Prudent diet modifies the effect of the Chromosome 9p21 variant rs2383206 on acute myocardial infarction in the INTERHEART study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-10-11 01:28:47"}

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Relative Metric

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