Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision: Modeling the Impact and Cost of Expanding Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention in Eastern and Southern Africa
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{"title"=>"Voluntary medical male circumcision: Modeling the impact and cost of expanding male circumcision for HIV prevention in Eastern and Southern Africa", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Emmanuel", "last_name"=>"Njeuhmeli", "scopus_author_id"=>"54409139600"}, {"first_name"=>"Steven", "last_name"=>"Forsythe", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005831555"}, {"first_name"=>"Jason", "last_name"=>"Reed", "scopus_author_id"=>"54794425100"}, {"first_name"=>"Marjorie", "last_name"=>"Opuni", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506655335"}, {"first_name"=>"Lori", "last_name"=>"Bollinger", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003735453"}, {"first_name"=>"Nathan", "last_name"=>"Heard", "scopus_author_id"=>"57190412330"}, {"first_name"=>"Delivette", "last_name"=>"Castor", "scopus_author_id"=>"14055544500"}, {"first_name"=>"John", "last_name"=>"Stover", "scopus_author_id"=>"35241051500"}, {"first_name"=>"Timothy", "last_name"=>"Farley", "scopus_author_id"=>"7103348858"}, {"first_name"=>"Veena", "last_name"=>"Menon", "scopus_author_id"=>"54794368500"}, {"first_name"=>"Catherine", "last_name"=>"Hankins", "scopus_author_id"=>"35832461700"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS Medicine", "identifiers"=>{"arxiv"=>"NIHMS150003", "sgr"=>"82255185600", "pmid"=>"22140367", "isbn"=>"1549-1676 (Electronic)\\n1549-1277 (Linking)", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-82255185600", "issn"=>"15491277", "pui"=>"363017223", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pmed.1001132"}, "id"=>"86932eff-b3fd-3149-a835-5689353bad10", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: There is strong evidence showing that voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) reduces HIV incidence in men. To inform the VMMC policies and goals of 13 priority countries in eastern and southern Africa, we estimate the impact and cost of scaling up adult VMMC using updated, country-specific data. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We use the Decision Makers' Program Planning Tool (DMPPT) to model the impact and cost of scaling up adult VMMC in Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and Nyanza Province in Kenya. We use epidemiologic and demographic data from recent household surveys for each country. The cost of VMMC ranges from US$65.85 to US$95.15 per VMMC performed, based on a cost assessment of VMMC services aligned with the World Health Organization's considerations of models for optimizing volume and efficiencies. Results from the DMPPT models suggest that scaling up adult VMMC to reach 80% coverage in the 13 countries by 2015 would entail performing 20.34 million circumcisions between 2011 and 2015 and an additional 8.42 million between 2016 and 2025 (to maintain the 80% coverage). Such a scale-up would result in averting 3.36 million new HIV infections through 2025. In addition, while the model shows that this scale-up would cost a total of US$2 billion between 2011 and 2025, it would result in net savings (due to averted treatment and care costs) amounting to US$16.51 billion. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that rapid scale-up of VMMC in eastern and southern Africa is warranted based on the likely impact on the region's HIV epidemics and net savings. Scaling up of safe VMMC in eastern and southern Africa will lead to a substantial reduction in HIV infections in the countries and lower health system costs through averted HIV care costs.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/voluntary-medical-male-circumcision-modeling-impact-cost-expanding-male-circumcision-hiv-prevention", "reader_count"=>124, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>24, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>16, "Student > Postgraduate"=>12, "Student > Master"=>37, "Other"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>12, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>24, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>16, "Student > Postgraduate"=>12, "Student > Master"=>37, "Other"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>12, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>7, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>5, "Philosophy"=>1, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>7, "Computer Science"=>2, "Decision Sciences"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>7, "Engineering"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>3, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>12, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>51, "Psychology"=>5, "Social Sciences"=>20}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>51}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>20}, "Decision Sciences"=>{"Decision Sciences"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>5}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>7}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>3}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>7}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>5}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>7}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>12}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Saudi Arabia"=>1, "United States"=>6, "South Africa"=>2, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Uganda"=>1, "Portugal"=>1}, "group_count"=>13}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/359709"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>There is strong evidence showing that voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) reduces HIV incidence in men. To inform the VMMC policies and goals of 13 priority countries in eastern and southern Africa, we estimate the impact and cost of scaling up adult VMMC using updated, country-specific data.</p> <h3>Methods and Findings</h3><p>We use the Decision Makers' Program Planning Tool (DMPPT) to model the impact and cost of scaling up adult VMMC in Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and Nyanza Province in Kenya. We use epidemiologic and demographic data from recent household surveys for each country. The cost of VMMC ranges from US$65.85 to US$95.15 per VMMC performed, based on a cost assessment of VMMC services aligned with the World Health Organization's considerations of models for optimizing volume and efficiencies. Results from the DMPPT models suggest that scaling up adult VMMC to reach 80% coverage in the 13 countries by 2015 would entail performing 20.34 million circumcisions between 2011 and 2015 and an additional 8.42 million between 2016 and 2025 (to maintain the 80% coverage). Such a scale-up would result in averting 3.36 million new HIV infections through 2025. In addition, while the model shows that this scale-up would cost a total of US$2 billion between 2011 and 2025, it would result in net savings (due to averted treatment and care costs) amounting to US$16.51 billion.</p> <h3>Conclusions</h3><p>This study suggests that rapid scale-up of VMMC in eastern and southern Africa is warranted based on the likely impact on the region's HIV epidemics and net savings. Scaling up of safe VMMC in eastern and southern Africa will lead to a substantial reduction in HIV infections in the countries and lower health system costs through averted HIV care costs.</p> <h3></h3><p> <em>Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.</em></p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["modeling", "expanding", "circumcision", "hiv", "africa"], "article_id"=>131080, "categories"=>["Science Policy"], "users"=>["Emmanuel Njeuhmeli", "Steven Forsythe", "Jason Reed", "Marjorie Opuni", "Lori Bollinger", "Nathan Heard", "Delivette Castor", "John Stover", "Timothy Farley", "Veena Menon", "Catherine Hankins"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001132"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Voluntary_Medical_Male_Circumcision_Modeling_the_Impact_and_Cost_of_Expanding_Male_Circumcision_for_HIV_Prevention_in_Eastern_and_Southern_Africa/131080", "title"=>"Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision: Modeling the Impact and Cost of Expanding Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention in Eastern and Southern Africa", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-11-29 00:18:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/708845"], "description"=>"<p>For the 13 countries included in the study, the map on the left indicates the prevalence of HIV in adults ages 15 to 49 y. The map on the right indicates the percentage of men who are circumcised.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["hiv", "circumcision"], "article_id"=>379190, "categories"=>["Science Policy"], "users"=>["Emmanuel Njeuhmeli", "Steven Forsythe", "Jason Reed", "Marjorie Opuni", "Lori Bollinger", "Nathan Heard", "Delivette Castor", "John Stover", "Timothy Farley", "Veena Menon", "Catherine Hankins"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001132.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Geographic_distribution_of_HIV_and_male_circumcision_prevalence_/379190", "title"=>"Geographic distribution of HIV and male circumcision prevalence.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-11-29 02:33:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/708954"], "description"=>"<p><a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001132#pmed-1001132-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 2</a> provides data for males and females for 2011–2025 for the base case scenario in which 80% coverage of VMMC is reached in 2015 and maintained thereafter, and there is no post-circumcision risk behavior change.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["infections", "averted"], "article_id"=>379308, "categories"=>["Science Policy"], "users"=>["Emmanuel Njeuhmeli", "Steven Forsythe", "Jason Reed", "Marjorie Opuni", "Lori Bollinger", "Nathan Heard", "Delivette Castor", "John Stover", "Timothy Farley", "Veena Menon", "Catherine Hankins"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001132.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_HIV_infections_averted_in_base_case_by_male_and_female_by_country_2011_8211_2025_/379308", "title"=>"HIV infections averted in base case, by male and female, by country, 2011–2025.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-11-29 02:35:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/709071"], "description"=>"<p><a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001132#pmed-1001132-g003\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 3</a> provides the discounted cost of scaling up VMMC coverage for 2011–2015 for the base case scenario in which 80% coverage of VMMC is reached in 2015 and maintained thereafter, and there is no post-circumcision risk behavior change.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["scaling", "vmmc"], "article_id"=>379424, "categories"=>["Science Policy"], "users"=>["Emmanuel Njeuhmeli", "Steven Forsythe", "Jason Reed", "Marjorie Opuni", "Lori Bollinger", "Nathan Heard", "Delivette Castor", "John Stover", "Timothy Farley", "Veena Menon", "Catherine Hankins"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001132.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cost_for_scaling_up_VMMC_coverage_in_base_case_by_country_2011_8211_2015_/379424", "title"=>"Cost for scaling up VMMC coverage in base case, by country, 2011–2015.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-11-29 02:37:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/709170"], "description"=>"<p><a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001132#pmed-1001132-t006\" target=\"_blank\">Table 6</a> presents sensitivity analysis for the following key parameters: VMMC effectiveness, VMMC coverage, time to scale-up, level of post-circumcision behavior change, VMMC unit cost, and lifetime HIV treatment cost.</p>a<p>BC is post-circumcision risk behavior change.</p>b<p>No models were run for the scale-up to 50% VMMC coverage scenario for Mozambique and Tanzania, since national pre-scale-up VMMC coverage in these two countries was greater than 50%.</p>c<p>Scaling up VMMC in the presence of 30% post-circumcision risk behavior change in Rwanda resulted in an increase in HIV infections.</p><p>IA, infection(s) averted.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["parameters"], "article_id"=>379524, "categories"=>["Science Policy"], "users"=>["Emmanuel Njeuhmeli", "Steven Forsythe", "Jason Reed", "Marjorie Opuni", "Lori Bollinger", "Nathan Heard", "Delivette Castor", "John Stover", "Timothy Farley", "Veena Menon", "Catherine Hankins"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001132.t006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sensitivity_analysis_of_key_parameters_2011_8211_2025_/379524", "title"=>"Sensitivity analysis of key parameters (2011–2025).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-11-29 02:38:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/709223"], "description"=>"<p><a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001132#pmed-1001132-t004\" target=\"_blank\">Table 4</a> presents the additional VMMCs and the impact of VMMC on HIV infections averted for 2011–2015 and 2011–2025 for the base case scenario. HIV infections averted are not discounted.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["vmmc", "hiv", "infections", "averted"], "article_id"=>379571, "categories"=>["Science Policy"], "users"=>["Emmanuel Njeuhmeli", "Steven Forsythe", "Jason Reed", "Marjorie Opuni", "Lori Bollinger", "Nathan Heard", "Delivette Castor", "John Stover", "Timothy Farley", "Veena Menon", "Catherine Hankins"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001132.t004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Impact_of_VMMC_on_HIV_infections_averted_in_base_case_by_country_2011_8211_2015_and_2011_8211_2025_/379571", "title"=>"Impact of VMMC on HIV infections averted in base case, by country, 2011–2015 and 2011–2025.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-11-29 02:39:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/709275"], "description"=>"<p><a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001132#pmed-1001132-t005\" target=\"_blank\">Table 5</a> provides the discounted cost of scaling up VMMC coverage, cost per HIV infection averted, and net savings per HIV infection averted for 2011–2025 for the base case scenario. HIV infections averted are discounted.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["savings", "hiv", "averted"], "article_id"=>379618, "categories"=>["Science Policy"], "users"=>["Emmanuel Njeuhmeli", "Steven Forsythe", "Jason Reed", "Marjorie Opuni", "Lori Bollinger", "Nathan Heard", "Delivette Castor", "John Stover", "Timothy Farley", "Veena Menon", "Catherine Hankins"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001132.t005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Total_cost_and_net_savings_per_HIV_infection_averted_for_base_case_scenario_by_country_2011_8211_2025_/379618", "title"=>"Total cost and net savings per HIV infection averted for base case scenario, by country, 2011–2025.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-11-29 02:40:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/709315"], "description"=>"<p><a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001132#pmed-1001132-t002\" target=\"_blank\">Table 2</a> presents the components of the VMMC unit cost used in this study. The VMMC unit cost was derived based on a VMMC costing study conducted in Zimbabwe in 2010 <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001132#pmed.1001132-Schutte1\" target=\"_blank\">[50]</a> and supplemented with analysis of data from Swaziland.</p>a<p>We vary staff costs by country, adjusting them by after tax median monthly disposable salary.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["science policy"], "article_id"=>379668, "categories"=>["Science Policy"], "users"=>["Emmanuel Njeuhmeli", "Steven Forsythe", "Jason Reed", "Marjorie Opuni", "Lori Bollinger", "Nathan Heard", "Delivette Castor", "John Stover", "Timothy Farley", "Veena Menon", "Catherine Hankins"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001132.t002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_VMMC_unit_cost_components_/379668", "title"=>"VMMC unit cost components.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-11-29 02:41:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/709354"], "description"=>"<p><a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001132#pmed-1001132-t003\" target=\"_blank\">Table 3</a> shows the country-specific VMMC unit costs used in the study. To obtain the VMMC unit cost for each country, we vary staff costs in each country, adjusting them by after tax median monthly disposable salary <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001132#pmed.1001132-Numbeo1\" target=\"_blank\">[51]</a>. The range used in the sensitivity analysis is country base case unit cost ±20%.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["science policy"], "article_id"=>379706, "categories"=>["Science Policy"], "users"=>["Emmanuel Njeuhmeli", "Steven Forsythe", "Jason Reed", "Marjorie Opuni", "Lori Bollinger", "Nathan Heard", "Delivette Castor", "John Stover", "Timothy Farley", "Veena Menon", "Catherine Hankins"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001132.t003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_VMMC_unit_cost_by_country_/379706", "title"=>"VMMC unit cost by country.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-11-29 02:41:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/709394"], "description"=>"<p><a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001132#pmed-1001132-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a> provides the size of the 2008 population aged 15–49 y, adult population growth rate, and adult HIV incidence from Spectrum, which is populated with UN population data <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001132#pmed.1001132-Stover1\" target=\"_blank\">[27]</a>,<a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001132#pmed.1001132-Stover2\" target=\"_blank\">[43]</a>,<a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001132#pmed.1001132-United1\" target=\"_blank\">[44]</a>. The years for the pre-scale-up male circumcision and adult HIV prevalence data are as follows: Botswana (2004) <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001132#pmed.1001132-Botswana1\" target=\"_blank\">[30]</a>, Lesotho (2004) <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001132#pmed.1001132-Williams1\" target=\"_blank\">[9]</a>,<a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001132#pmed.1001132-Lesotho1\" target=\"_blank\">[39]</a>, Malawi (2004) <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001132#pmed.1001132-Malawi1\" target=\"_blank\">[40]</a>, Mozambique (2003) <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001132#pmed.1001132-Moambique1\" target=\"_blank\">[35]</a>, Namibia (2007) <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001132#pmed.1001132-Namibian1\" target=\"_blank\">[38]</a>, Nyanza Province, Kenya (2008/2009) <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001132#pmed.1001132-Kenya1\" target=\"_blank\">[36]</a>, Rwanda (2005) <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001132#pmed.1001132-Williams1\" target=\"_blank\">[9]</a>,<a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001132#pmed.1001132-Institut1\" target=\"_blank\">[34]</a>, South Africa (2008), Swaziland (2006/2007) <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001132#pmed.1001132-Swaziland1\" target=\"_blank\">[32]</a>, Tanzania (2007/2008) <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001132#pmed.1001132-Tanzania1\" target=\"_blank\">[42]</a>, Uganda (2004) <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001132#pmed.1001132-Ugandan1\" target=\"_blank\">[37]</a>, Zambia (2007) <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001132#pmed.1001132-Zambia1\" target=\"_blank\">[31]</a>, and Zimbabwe (2005/2006) <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001132#pmed.1001132-Zimbabwe1\" target=\"_blank\">[33]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["science policy"], "article_id"=>379744, "categories"=>["Science Policy"], "users"=>["Emmanuel Njeuhmeli", "Steven Forsythe", "Jason Reed", "Marjorie Opuni", "Lori Bollinger", "Nathan Heard", "Delivette Castor", "John Stover", "Timothy Farley", "Veena Menon", "Catherine Hankins"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001132.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pre_scale_up_population_characteristics_by_country_/379744", "title"=>"Pre-scale-up population characteristics, by country.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-11-29 02:42:24"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"12", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"29", "unique-ip"=>"26", "pdf"=>"19", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"8", "full-text"=>"30", "unique-ip"=>"29", "pdf"=>"16", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"23", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"10", "unique-ip"=>"21", "figure"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"2", "full-text"=>"38", "unique-ip"=>"38", "pdf"=>"28", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"2", "full-text"=>"21", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"21", "unique-ip"=>"28", "figure"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"19", "unique-ip"=>"21", "pdf"=>"11", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"17", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"9", "unique-ip"=>"16", "figure"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"12", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"53", "full-text"=>"46", "pdf"=>"16", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"12", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"43", "full-text"=>"35", "pdf"=>"16", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"3", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"31", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"10"}
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