Adult Mortality Attributable to Preventable Risk Factors for Non-Communicable Diseases and Injuries in Japan: A Comparative Risk Assessment
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{"title"=>"Adult mortality attributable to preventable risk factors for non-communicable diseases and injuries in Japan: A comparative risk assessment", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Nayu", "last_name"=>"Ikeda", "scopus_author_id"=>"57201346058"}, {"first_name"=>"Manami", "last_name"=>"Inoue", "scopus_author_id"=>"8889234100"}, {"first_name"=>"Hiroyasu", "last_name"=>"Iso", "scopus_author_id"=>"35227393400"}, {"first_name"=>"Shunya", "last_name"=>"Ikeda", "scopus_author_id"=>"7404041706"}, {"first_name"=>"Toshihiko", "last_name"=>"Satoh", "scopus_author_id"=>"7403584210"}, {"first_name"=>"Mitsuhiko", "last_name"=>"Noda", "scopus_author_id"=>"7402801468"}, {"first_name"=>"Tetsuya", "last_name"=>"Mizoue", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006894381"}, {"first_name"=>"Hironori", "last_name"=>"Imano", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003586485"}, {"first_name"=>"Eiko", "last_name"=>"Saito", "scopus_author_id"=>"36145372300"}, {"first_name"=>"Kota", "last_name"=>"Katanoda", "scopus_author_id"=>"15055917700"}, {"first_name"=>"Tomotaka", "last_name"=>"Sobue", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005649935"}, {"first_name"=>"Shoichiro", "last_name"=>"Tsugane", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005204049"}, {"first_name"=>"Mohsen", "last_name"=>"Naghavi", "scopus_author_id"=>"9246620100"}, {"first_name"=>"Majid", "last_name"=>"Ezzati", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701418638"}, {"first_name"=>"Kenji", "last_name"=>"Shibuya", "scopus_author_id"=>"8948057900"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS Medicine", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"364181053", "issn"=>"15491277", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pmed.1001160", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84856489315", "pmid"=>"22291576", "sgr"=>"84856489315"}, "id"=>"8b81369c-c75e-392f-b1c7-89f3d92bba47", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: The population of Japan has achieved the longest life expectancy in the world. To further improve population health, consistent and comparative evidence on mortality attributable to preventable risk factors is necessary for setting priorities for health policies and programs. Although several past studies have quantified the impact of individual risk factors in Japan, to our knowledge no study has assessed and compared the effects of multiple modifiable risk factors for non-communicable diseases and injuries using a standard framework. We estimated the effects of 16 risk factors on cause-specific deaths and life expectancy in Japan.\\n\\nMETHODS AND FINDINGS: We obtained data on risk factor exposures from the National Health and Nutrition Survey and epidemiological studies, data on the number of cause-specific deaths from vital records adjusted for ill-defined codes, and data on relative risks from epidemiological studies and meta-analyses. We applied a comparative risk assessment framework to estimate effects of excess risks on deaths and life expectancy at age 40 y. In 2007, tobacco smoking and high blood pressure accounted for 129,000 deaths (95% CI: 115,000-154,000) and 104,000 deaths (95% CI: 86,000-119,000), respectively, followed by physical inactivity (52,000 deaths, 95% CI: 47,000-58,000), high blood glucose (34,000 deaths, 95% CI: 26,000-43,000), high dietary salt intake (34,000 deaths, 95% CI: 27,000-39,000), and alcohol use (31,000 deaths, 95% CI: 28,000-35,000). In recent decades, cancer mortality attributable to tobacco smoking has increased in the elderly, while stroke mortality attributable to high blood pressure has declined. Life expectancy at age 40 y in 2007 would have been extended by 1.4 y for both sexes (men, 95% CI: 1.3-1.6; women, 95% CI: 1.2-1.7) if exposures to multiple cardiovascular risk factors had been reduced to their optimal levels as determined by a theoretical-minimum-risk exposure distribution.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS: Tobacco smoking and high blood pressure are the two major risk factors for adult mortality from non-communicable diseases and injuries in Japan. There is a large potential population health gain if multiple risk factors are jointly controlled.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/adult-mortality-attributable-preventable-risk-factors-noncommunicable-diseases-injuries-japan-compar-4", "reader_count"=>82, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>17, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>19, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>17, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>19, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3, "Philosophy"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>4, "Computer Science"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>3, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>6, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>44, "Sports and Recreations"=>4, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>3, "Social Sciences"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>44}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>5}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>4}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>3}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>4}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>6}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Netherlands"=>1, "Cameroon"=>1, "Japan"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "Italy"=>1, "Kenya"=>1, "India"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/350909", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/350920", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/350931", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/350937", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/350941", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/350954", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/350963", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/350970", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/350978", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/350985"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>The population of Japan has achieved the longest life expectancy in the world. To further improve population health, consistent and comparative evidence on mortality attributable to preventable risk factors is necessary for setting priorities for health policies and programs. Although several past studies have quantified the impact of individual risk factors in Japan, to our knowledge no study has assessed and compared the effects of multiple modifiable risk factors for non-communicable diseases and injuries using a standard framework. We estimated the effects of 16 risk factors on cause-specific deaths and life expectancy in Japan.</p> <h3>Methods and Findings</h3><p>We obtained data on risk factor exposures from the National Health and Nutrition Survey and epidemiological studies, data on the number of cause-specific deaths from vital records adjusted for ill-defined codes, and data on relative risks from epidemiological studies and meta-analyses. We applied a comparative risk assessment framework to estimate effects of excess risks on deaths and life expectancy at age 40 y. In 2007, tobacco smoking and high blood pressure accounted for 129,000 deaths (95% CI: 115,000–154,000) and 104,000 deaths (95% CI: 86,000–119,000), respectively, followed by physical inactivity (52,000 deaths, 95% CI: 47,000–58,000), high blood glucose (34,000 deaths, 95% CI: 26,000–43,000), high dietary salt intake (34,000 deaths, 95% CI: 27,000–39,000), and alcohol use (31,000 deaths, 95% CI: 28,000–35,000). In recent decades, cancer mortality attributable to tobacco smoking has increased in the elderly, while stroke mortality attributable to high blood pressure has declined. Life expectancy at age 40 y in 2007 would have been extended by 1.4 y for both sexes (men, 95% CI: 1.3–1.6; women, 95% CI: 1.2–1.7) if exposures to multiple cardiovascular risk factors had been reduced to their optimal levels as determined by a theoretical-minimum-risk exposure distribution.</p> <h3>Conclusions</h3><p>Tobacco smoking and high blood pressure are the two major risk factors for adult mortality from non-communicable diseases and injuries in Japan. There is a large potential population health gain if multiple risk factors are jointly controlled.</p> <h3></h3><p> <em>Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary</em></p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["attributable", "preventable", "factors", "non-communicable", "diseases", "injuries", "comparative"], "article_id"=>129356, "categories"=>["Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Nayu Ikeda", "Manami Inoue", "Hiroyasu Iso", "Shunya Ikeda", "Toshihiko Satoh", "Mitsuhiko Noda", "Tetsuya Mizoue", "Hironori Imano", "Eiko Saito", "Kota Katanoda", "Tomotaka Sobue", "Shoichiro Tsugane", "Mohsen Naghavi", "Majid Ezzati", "Kenji Shibuya"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001160.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001160.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001160.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001160.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001160.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001160.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001160.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001160.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001160.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001160.s010"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Adult_Mortality_Attributable_to_Preventable_Risk_Factors_for_Non_Communicable_Diseases_and_Injuries_in_Japan_A_Comparative_Risk_Assessment/129356", "title"=>"Adult Mortality Attributable to Preventable Risk Factors for Non-Communicable Diseases and Injuries in Japan: A Comparative Risk Assessment", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-01-24 02:35:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/688352"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Life expectancy at age 40. (B) Probability of death between 15 and 60 y of age. (C) Probability of death between 60 and 75 y of age. Joint risk is a combination of high blood pressure (directly, or indirectly through high dietary salt intake), high blood glucose, high LDL cholesterol, and high body mass index. BMI, body mass index; CVD, cardiovascular disease; NCD, non-communicable diseases; PUFA, polyunsaturated fatty acids; SFA, saturated fatty acids; TFA, trans fatty acids.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["expectancy", "40", "probability", "optimal", "distributions", "factors"], "article_id"=>358821, "categories"=>["Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Nayu Ikeda", "Manami Inoue", "Hiroyasu Iso", "Shunya Ikeda", "Toshihiko Satoh", "Mitsuhiko Noda", "Tetsuya Mizoue", "Hironori Imano", "Eiko Saito", "Kota Katanoda", "Tomotaka Sobue", "Shoichiro Tsugane", "Mohsen Naghavi", "Majid Ezzati", "Kenji Shibuya"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001160.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Changes_in_life_expectancy_at_age_40_y_and_the_probability_of_death_under_optimal_distributions_of_risk_factors_in_Japan_2007_/358821", "title"=>"Changes in life expectancy at age 40 y and the probability of death under optimal distributions of risk factors in Japan, 2007.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-01-24 02:27:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/688455"], "description"=>"<p>Data for (A) men and (B) women.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["deaths", "attributable"], "article_id"=>358930, "categories"=>["Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Nayu Ikeda", "Manami Inoue", "Hiroyasu Iso", "Shunya Ikeda", "Toshihiko Satoh", "Mitsuhiko Noda", "Tetsuya Mizoue", "Hironori Imano", "Eiko Saito", "Kota Katanoda", "Tomotaka Sobue", "Shoichiro Tsugane", "Mohsen Naghavi", "Majid Ezzati", "Kenji Shibuya"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001160.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cancer_deaths_attributable_to_tobacco_smoking_by_age_group_1980_8211_2007_/358930", "title"=>"Cancer deaths attributable to tobacco smoking, by age group, 1980–2007.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-01-24 02:28:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/688557"], "description"=>"<p>Data for (A) men and (B) women.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["deaths", "attributable"], "article_id"=>359034, "categories"=>["Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Nayu Ikeda", "Manami Inoue", "Hiroyasu Iso", "Shunya Ikeda", "Toshihiko Satoh", "Mitsuhiko Noda", "Tetsuya Mizoue", "Hironori Imano", "Eiko Saito", "Kota Katanoda", "Tomotaka Sobue", "Shoichiro Tsugane", "Mohsen Naghavi", "Majid Ezzati", "Kenji Shibuya"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001160.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Stroke_deaths_attributable_to_high_blood_pressure_by_age_group_1980_8211_2007_/359034", "title"=>"Stroke deaths attributable to high blood pressure, by age group, 1980–2007.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-01-24 02:30:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/688643"], "description"=>"a<p>This category includes rheumatic heart disease, endocarditis, cardiomyopathy, aortic aneurysms, peripheral vascular disorders, and other ill-defined cardiovascular diseases.</p>b<p>This category includes <i>International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th edition</i> (ICD-10) codes D00–D24 (except D09.9), D26–D37 (except D37.9), and D38–D48 (except D38.6, D39.9, D40.9, D41.9, and D48.9).</p><p>IHD, ischemic heart disease.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["factors", "outcomes", "included"], "article_id"=>359121, "categories"=>["Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Nayu Ikeda", "Manami Inoue", "Hiroyasu Iso", "Shunya Ikeda", "Toshihiko Satoh", "Mitsuhiko Noda", "Tetsuya Mizoue", "Hironori Imano", "Eiko Saito", "Kota Katanoda", "Tomotaka Sobue", "Shoichiro Tsugane", "Mohsen Naghavi", "Majid Ezzati", "Kenji Shibuya"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001160.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Risk_factors_and_disease_outcomes_included_in_the_study_/359121", "title"=>"Risk factors and disease outcomes included in the study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-01-24 02:32:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/688692"], "description"=>"a<p>Sample size in the National Health and Nutrition Survey in 2007.</p>b<p>For those aged 20–29 y, the mean (standard error) was 40.4 (2.7) in men (<i>n</i> = 324) and 53.9 (2.5) in women (<i>n</i> = 395).</p>c<p>Reported for the total age group of both sexes combined.</p><p>PUFA, polyunsaturated fatty acids; SE, standard error; SFA, saturated fatty acids; TFA, trans fatty acids.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["factors"], "article_id"=>359169, "categories"=>["Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Nayu Ikeda", "Manami Inoue", "Hiroyasu Iso", "Shunya Ikeda", "Toshihiko Satoh", "Mitsuhiko Noda", "Tetsuya Mizoue", "Hironori Imano", "Eiko Saito", "Kota Katanoda", "Tomotaka Sobue", "Shoichiro Tsugane", "Mohsen Naghavi", "Majid Ezzati", "Kenji Shibuya"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001160.t003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Exposure_to_risk_factors_by_sex_and_age_group_in_2007_/359169", "title"=>"Exposure to risk factors by sex and age group in 2007.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-01-24 02:32:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/688723"], "description"=>"<p>Values are means, with standard deviations in parentheses.</p>a<p>We obtained exposure data from the 2007 National Health and Nutrition Survey <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001160#pmed.1001160-Ministry6\" target=\"_blank\">[28]</a> unless stated otherwise.</p>b<p>The optimal category for liver cancer and suicide was “occasional drinkers” because previous studies used it as the reference category for estimation of relative risks.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["distributions"], "article_id"=>359205, "categories"=>["Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Nayu Ikeda", "Manami Inoue", "Hiroyasu Iso", "Shunya Ikeda", "Toshihiko Satoh", "Mitsuhiko Noda", "Tetsuya Mizoue", "Hironori Imano", "Eiko Saito", "Kota Katanoda", "Tomotaka Sobue", "Shoichiro Tsugane", "Mohsen Naghavi", "Majid Ezzati", "Kenji Shibuya"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001160.t002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Measurements_data_sources_and_alternative_distributions_of_risk_exposures_/359205", "title"=>"Measurements, data sources, and alternative distributions of risk exposures.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-01-24 02:33:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/688797"], "description"=>"<p>Values in parentheses indicate lower and upper bounds of 95% CI.</p>a<p>A combination of high blood glucose, high LDL cholesterol, high blood pressure (directly, and indirectly through high dietary salt intake), and high body mass index.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["expectancy", "40", "changes", "probability", "15", "60", "75", "counterfactual", "distributions", "factors", "defined", "guidelines"], "article_id"=>359255, "categories"=>["Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Nayu Ikeda", "Manami Inoue", "Hiroyasu Iso", "Shunya Ikeda", "Toshihiko Satoh", "Mitsuhiko Noda", "Tetsuya Mizoue", "Hironori Imano", "Eiko Saito", "Kota Katanoda", "Tomotaka Sobue", "Shoichiro Tsugane", "Mohsen Naghavi", "Majid Ezzati", "Kenji Shibuya"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001160.t005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Changes_in_life_expectancy_at_age_40_y_e40_and_percentage_changes_in_the_probability_of_death_between_15_and_60_y_of_age_45q15_and_between_60_and_75_y_of_age_15q60_under_counterfactual_distributions_of_risk_factors_defined_by_clinical_guidelines_and_nati/359255", "title"=>"Changes in life expectancy at age 40 y (e40) and percentage changes in the probability of death between 15 and 60 y of age (45q15) and between 60 and 75 y of age (15q60) under counterfactual distributions of risk factors defined by clinical guidelines and national goals.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-01-24 02:34:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/688835"], "description"=>"<p>Values in parentheses indicate lower and upper bounds of 95% CI.</p>a<p>A combination of high blood glucose, high LDL cholesterol, high blood pressure (directly, and indirectly through high dietary salt intake), and high body mass index.</p><p>NCD, non-communicable disease; PUFA, polyunsaturated fatty acids, TFA, trans fatty acids.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["deaths", "attributable", "factors", "2007"], "article_id"=>359309, "categories"=>["Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Nayu Ikeda", "Manami Inoue", "Hiroyasu Iso", "Shunya Ikeda", "Toshihiko Satoh", "Mitsuhiko Noda", "Tetsuya Mizoue", "Hironori Imano", "Eiko Saito", "Kota Katanoda", "Tomotaka Sobue", "Shoichiro Tsugane", "Mohsen Naghavi", "Majid Ezzati", "Kenji Shibuya"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001160.t004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_number_of_deaths_attributable_to_risk_factors_in_Japan_2007_in_thousands_/359309", "title"=>"The number of deaths attributable to risk factors in Japan, 2007 (in thousands).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-01-24 02:35:09"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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