HIV Treatment as Prevention: The Utility and Limitations of Ecological Observation
Publication Date
July 10, 2012
Journal
PLOS Medicine
Authors
M. Kumi Smith, Kimberly A. Powers, Kathryn E. Muessig, William C. Miller, et al
Volume
9
Issue
7
Pages
e1001260
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001260
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosmedicine/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.1001260
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22802740
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3393666
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/22802740
Web of Science
000307106400016
Scopus
84864435723
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/hiv-treatment-prevention-utility-limitations-ecological-observation
Events
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"HIV treatment as prevention: The utility and limitations of ecological observation", "type"=>"generic", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"M. Kumi", "last_name"=>"Smith", "scopus_author_id"=>"12799731700"}, {"first_name"=>"Kimberly A.", "last_name"=>"Powers", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006194043"}, {"first_name"=>"Kathryn E.", "last_name"=>"Muessig", "scopus_author_id"=>"16432537800"}, {"first_name"=>"William C.", "last_name"=>"Miller", "scopus_author_id"=>"7406061778"}, {"first_name"=>"Myron S.", "last_name"=>"Cohen", "scopus_author_id"=>"54790532400"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS Medicine", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"22802740", "sgr"=>"84864435723", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pmed.1001260", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84864435723", "pui"=>"365352078", "isbn"=>"1549-1277", "issn"=>"15491277"}, "id"=>"b2862baf-7331-3a0b-8b19-a650d716ff0c", "abstract"=>"Results from several observational studies of HIV-discordant couples and a randomized controlled trial (HIV Prevention Trials Network 052) show that antiretroviral therapy (ART) can greatly reduce heterosexual HIV transmission in stable HIV-discordant couples. However, such data do not prove that ART will reduce HIV incidence at the population level. Observational investigations using ecological measures have been used to support the implementation of HIV treatment for the specific purpose of preventing transmission at the population level. Many of these studies note ecological associations between measures of increased ART uptake and decreased HIV transmission. Given the urgency of implementing HIV prevention measures, ecological studies must de facto be used to inform current strategies. However, the hypothesis that widespread ART can eliminate HIV infection may have raised expectations beyond what we may be able to achieve. Here we review and discuss the construct of the exposure and outcome measures and analysis methods used in ecological studies. By examining the strengths and weaknesses of ecological analyses, we aim to aid understanding of the findings from these studies to inform future policy decisions regarding the use of ART for HIV prevention.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/hiv-treatment-prevention-utility-limitations-ecological-observation", "reader_count"=>57, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Researcher"=>17, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>11, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>6, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Researcher"=>17, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>11, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>6, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Engineering"=>1, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>3, "Mathematics"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>21, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>6, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>15, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>21}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>15}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>6}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>3}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>3, "South Africa"=>1}, "group_count"=>4}

CrossRef

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/612438"], "description"=>"<p>↑, upward trend; ↓, downward trend; →, stable rate. For studies using two exposure or outcome measures, two arrows are shown, corresponding to the measures listed first and second.</p><p>HAART, highly active ART; STD, sexually transmitted disease; VCT, voluntary counseling and testing; VL, viral load.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["measures", "studies", "population-level", "hiv"], "article_id"=>282928, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["M. Kumi Smith", "Kimberly A. Powers", "Kathryn E. Muessig", "William C. Miller", "Myron S. Cohen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001260.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_exposure_and_outcome_measures_in_studies_using_ecological_measures_to_assess_population_level_effects_of_ART_on_HIV_transmission_/282928", "title"=>"Summary of exposure and outcome measures in studies using ecological measures to assess population-level effects of ART on HIV transmission.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 02:48:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/612360"], "description"=>"<p>This figure is based on data from <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001260#pmed.1001260-Gardner1\" target=\"_blank\">[61]</a>,<a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001260#pmed.1001260-Burns1\" target=\"_blank\">[62]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["numbers", "hiv-infected", "individuals", "retained", "corresponding", "percentages", "stages"], "article_id"=>282843, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["M. Kumi Smith", "Kimberly A. Powers", "Kathryn E. Muessig", "William C. Miller", "Myron S. Cohen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001260.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimated_numbers_of_HIV_infected_individuals_in_the_US_retained_and_corresponding_percentages_lost_at_various_stages_of_the_test_link_and_treat_cascade_/282843", "title"=>"Estimated numbers of HIV-infected individuals in the US retained (and corresponding percentages lost) at various stages of the test, link, and treat cascade.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 02:47:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/612485"], "description"=>"<p>CI, confidence interval; HAART, highly active ART; STI, sexually transmitted infection; VL, viral load.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["methods", "conclusions"], "article_id"=>282980, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["M. Kumi Smith", "Kimberly A. Powers", "Kathryn E. Muessig", "William C. Miller", "Myron S. Cohen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001260.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Analysis_methods_and_conclusions_regarding_effects_/282980", "title"=>"Analysis methods and conclusions regarding effects.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 02:48:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/612463"], "description"=>"<p>VL, viral load.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["measures", "considerations"], "article_id"=>282953, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["M. Kumi Smith", "Kimberly A. Powers", "Kathryn E. Muessig", "William C. Miller", "Myron S. Cohen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001260.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_measures_used_and_considerations_for_their_use_/282953", "title"=>"Summary of measures used and considerations for their use.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 02:48:21"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
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Relative Metric

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