Child Mortality Estimation: Appropriate Time Periods for Child Mortality Estimates from Full Birth Histories
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{"title"=>"Child Mortality Estimation: Appropriate Time Periods for Child Mortality Estimates from Full Birth Histories", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Jon", "last_name"=>"Pedersen", "scopus_author_id"=>"19035946900"}, {"first_name"=>"Jing", "last_name"=>"Liu", "scopus_author_id"=>"55347562200"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS Medicine", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"22952435", "sgr"=>"84865541766", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pmed.1001289", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84865541766", "pui"=>"365532686", "isbn"=>"10.1371/journal.pmed.1001289", "issn"=>"15491277"}, "id"=>"97b7de62-796f-3aa9-adcd-883bf0a0d45a", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Child mortality estimates from complete birth histories from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) surveys and similar surveys are a chief source of data used to track Millennium Development Goal 4, which aims for a reduction of under-five mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. Based on the expected sample sizes when the DHS program commenced, the estimates are usually based on 5-y time periods. Recent surveys have had larger sample sizes than early surveys, and here we aimed to explore the benefits of using shorter time periods than 5 y for estimation. We also explore the benefit of changing the estimation procedure from being based on years before the survey, i.e., measured with reference to the date of the interview for each woman, to being based on calendar years.\\n\\nMETHODS AND FINDINGS: Jackknife variance estimation was used to calculate standard errors for 207 DHS surveys in order to explore to what extent the large samples in recent surveys can be used to produce estimates based on 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-y periods. We also recalculated the estimates for the surveys into calendar-year-based estimates. We demonstrate that estimation for 1-y periods is indeed possible for many recent surveys.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS: The reduction in bias achieved using 1-y periods and calendar-year-based estimation is worthwhile in some cases. In particular, it allows tracking of the effects of particular events such as droughts, epidemics, or conflict on child mortality in a way not possible with previous estimation procedures. Recommendations to use estimation for short time periods when possible and to use calendar-year-based estimation were adopted in the United Nations 2011 estimates of child mortality.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/child-mortality-estimation-appropriate-time-periods-child-mortality-estimates-full-birth-histories", "reader_count"=>51, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>16, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>16, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Arts and Humanities"=>2, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>2, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>3, "Environmental Science"=>3, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Mathematics"=>6, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>18, "Social Sciences"=>10, "Linguistics"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>18}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>10}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>6}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>3}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>2}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>3}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>2}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>2}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Republic of Singapore"=>2, "United States"=>1, "South Africa"=>1, "Malaysia"=>1, "Kenya"=>2}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/585599"], "description"=>"<p>Calendar-year estimates. Only estimates 20 or fewer years before the survey included.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["coefficient"], "article_id"=>256097, "categories"=>["Immunology", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Jon Pedersen", "Jing Liu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001289.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_coefficient_of_variation_for_5_q_0_by_length_of_period_/256097", "title"=>"Distribution of coefficient of variation for <sub>5</sub><i>q</i><sub>0</sub> by length of period.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-08-28 01:41:37"}
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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/585345"], "description"=>"<p>Sample size 6,372 households; total fertility rate 4.0 (births per woman). Estimates based on calendar years.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["intervals", "zimbabwe", "1999", "dhs"], "article_id"=>255843, "categories"=>["Immunology", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Jon Pedersen", "Jing Liu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001289.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimates_of_5_q_0_and_confidence_intervals_for_Zimbabwe_1999_DHS_survey_/255843", "title"=>"Estimates of <sub>5</sub><i>q</i><sub>0</sub> and confidence intervals for Zimbabwe 1999 DHS survey.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-08-28 01:37:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/585289"], "description"=>"<p>Sample size 11,095 households; total fertility rate 1.7 (births per woman). Estimates based on calendar years.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["intervals", "moldova", "2005", "dhs"], "article_id"=>255784, "categories"=>["Immunology", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Jon Pedersen", "Jing Liu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001289.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimates_of_5_q_0_and_confidence_intervals_for_Moldova_2005_DHS_survey_/255784", "title"=>"Estimates of <sub>5</sub><i>q</i><sub>0</sub> and confidence intervals for Moldova 2005 DHS survey.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-08-28 01:36:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/585454"], "description"=>"<p>Trends in <sub>5</sub><i>q</i><sub>0</sub> in Rwanda 2000 and 2005 DHS surveys using estimation periods based on years before the survey.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rwanda", "2000", "2005", "dhs", "surveys", "estimation", "periods", "years"], "article_id"=>255945, "categories"=>["Immunology", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Jon Pedersen", "Jing Liu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001289.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Trends_in_5_q_0_in_Rwanda_2000_and_2005_DHS_surveys_using_estimation_periods_based_on_years_before_the_survey_/255945", "title"=>"Trends in <sub>5</sub><i>q</i><sub>0</sub> in Rwanda 2000 and 2005 DHS surveys using estimation periods based on years before the survey.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-08-28 01:39:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/585006"], "description"=>"<p>Estimates based on years before the survey. Estimates based on calendar years. The number of surveys used for the estimates in each panel is indicated in the upper left corner of each.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["contiguous", "years", "allowing", "estimates", "coefficient", "estimation", "fertility"], "article_id"=>255499, "categories"=>["Immunology", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Jon Pedersen", "Jing Liu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001289.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_number_of_contiguous_years_before_survey_allowing_estimates_with_coefficient_of_variation_less_than_5_by_sample_size_estimation_period_and_total_fertility_rate_births_per_woman_/255499", "title"=>"Mean number of contiguous years before survey allowing estimates with coefficient of variation less than 5%, by sample size, estimation period, and total fertility rate (births per woman).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-08-28 01:31:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/584748"], "description"=>"<p>Estimates based on years before the survey.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["intervals", "rwanda", "2000", "dhs"], "article_id"=>255244, "categories"=>["Immunology", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Jon Pedersen", "Jing Liu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001289.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_5_q_0_and_confidence_intervals_for_the_Rwanda_2000_DHS_survey_/255244", "title"=>"<sub>5</sub><i>q</i><sub>0</sub> and confidence intervals for the Rwanda 2000 DHS survey.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-08-28 01:27:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/307170", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/307187", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/307227"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Child mortality estimates from complete birth histories from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) surveys and similar surveys are a chief source of data used to track Millennium Development Goal 4, which aims for a reduction of under-five mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. Based on the expected sample sizes when the DHS program commenced, the estimates are usually based on 5-y time periods. Recent surveys have had larger sample sizes than early surveys, and here we aimed to explore the benefits of using shorter time periods than 5 y for estimation. We also explore the benefit of changing the estimation procedure from being based on years before the survey, i.e., measured with reference to the date of the interview for each woman, to being based on calendar years.</p> <h3>Methods and Findings</h3><p>Jackknife variance estimation was used to calculate standard errors for 207 DHS surveys in order to explore to what extent the large samples in recent surveys can be used to produce estimates based on 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-y periods. We also recalculated the estimates for the surveys into calendar-year-based estimates. We demonstrate that estimation for 1-y periods is indeed possible for many recent surveys.</p> <h3>Conclusions</h3><p>The reduction in bias achieved using 1-y periods and calendar-year-based estimation is worthwhile in some cases. In particular, it allows tracking of the effects of particular events such as droughts, epidemics, or conflict on child mortality in a way not possible with previous estimation procedures. Recommendations to use estimation for short time periods when possible and to use calendar-year-based estimation were adopted in the United Nations 2011 estimates of child mortality.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["periods", "estimates", "histories"], "article_id"=>120605, "categories"=>["Immunology", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Jon Pedersen", "Jing Liu"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001289.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001289.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001289.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>14, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Child_Mortality_Estimation_Appropriate_Time_Periods_for_Child_Mortality_Estimates_from_Full_Birth_Histories/120605", "title"=>"Child Mortality Estimation: Appropriate Time Periods for Child Mortality Estimates from Full Birth Histories", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-08-28 00:10:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/585546"], "description"=>"<p>Based on output from the Measure DHS STATcompiler, and relevant survey reports when data were unavailable from the compiler.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sizes", "dhs"], "article_id"=>256049, "categories"=>["Immunology", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Jon Pedersen", "Jing Liu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001289.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sample_Sizes_for_DHS_surveys_1985_8211_2010_/256049", "title"=>"Sample Sizes for DHS surveys, 1985–2010.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-08-28 01:40:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/585576"], "description"=>"<p>Estimates based on years before survey.</p><p>CV, coefficient of variation; SE, standard error.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["5-y", "estimates", "errors", "rwanda", "2000", "dhs"], "article_id"=>256067, "categories"=>["Immunology", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Jon Pedersen", "Jing Liu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001289.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Single_year_and_5_y_estimates_of_5_q_0_and_standard_errors_for_the_Rwanda_2000_DHS_survey_/256067", "title"=>"Single-year and 5-y estimates of <sub>5</sub><i>q</i><sub>0</sub> and standard errors for the Rwanda 2000 DHS survey.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-08-28 01:41:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/585214"], "description"=>"<p>Sample size 5,841households; total fertility rate 2.0 (births per woman). Estimates based on years before the survey.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["intervals", "kazakhstan", "1999", "dhs"], "article_id"=>255706, "categories"=>["Immunology", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Jon Pedersen", "Jing Liu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001289.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimates_of_5_q_0_and_confidence_intervals_for_Kazakhstan_1999_DHS_survey_/255706", "title"=>"Estimates of <sub>5</sub><i>q</i><sub>0</sub> and confidence intervals for Kazakhstan 1999 DHS survey.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-08-28 01:35:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/584855"], "description"=>"<p>Estimates based on years before the survey. The number of surveys used for the estimates in each panel is indicated in the upper left corner of each.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["contiguous", "years", "allowing", "estimates", "coefficient", "estimation", "fertility"], "article_id"=>255347, "categories"=>["Immunology", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Jon Pedersen", "Jing Liu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001289.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_number_of_contiguous_years_before_survey_allowing_estimates_with_coefficient_of_variation_less_than_10_by_sample_size_estimation_period_and_total_fertility_rate_births_per_woman_/255347", "title"=>"Mean number of contiguous years before survey allowing estimates with coefficient of variation less than 10%, by sample size, estimation period, and total fertility rate (births per woman).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-08-28 01:29:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/584666"], "description"=>"<p>The figure shows a cosine curve (green lines) with a 5-y periodicity and average estimates based on 1- to 5-y periods (blue lines).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["public health and epidemiology", "epidemiology"], "article_id"=>255166, "categories"=>["Immunology", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Jon Pedersen", "Jing Liu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001289.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_choice_of_period_on_estimates_/255166", "title"=>"Effects of choice of period on estimates.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-08-28 01:26:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/585149"], "description"=>"<p>Sample size 12,439 households; total fertility rate 6.8 (births per woman). Estimates based on years before the survey.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["intervals", "mali", "2001", "dhs"], "article_id"=>255647, "categories"=>["Immunology", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Jon Pedersen", "Jing Liu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001289.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimates_of_5_q_0_and_confidence_intervals_for_Mali_2001_DHS_survey_/255647", "title"=>"Estimates of <sub>5</sub><i>q</i><sub>0</sub> and confidence intervals for Mali 2001 DHS survey.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-08-28 01:34:07"}

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Relative Metric

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