Gender Differences in Survival among Adult Patients Starting Antiretroviral Therapy in South Africa: A Multicentre Cohort Study
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{"title"=>"Gender Differences in Survival among Adult Patients Starting Antiretroviral Therapy in South Africa: A Multicentre Cohort Study", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Morna", "last_name"=>"Cornell", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004865023"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael", "last_name"=>"Schomaker", "scopus_author_id"=>"36905219500"}, {"first_name"=>"Daniela Belen", "last_name"=>"Garone", "scopus_author_id"=>"57192281381"}, {"first_name"=>"Janet", "last_name"=>"Giddy", "scopus_author_id"=>"22034401100"}, {"first_name"=>"Christopher J.", "last_name"=>"Hoffmann", "scopus_author_id"=>"35310450700"}, {"first_name"=>"Richard", "last_name"=>"Lessells", "scopus_author_id"=>"57201002306"}, {"first_name"=>"Mhairi", "last_name"=>"Maskew", "scopus_author_id"=>"22634887900"}, {"first_name"=>"Hans", "last_name"=>"Prozesky", "scopus_author_id"=>"16043148100"}, {"first_name"=>"Robin", "last_name"=>"Wood", "scopus_author_id"=>"56786822400"}, {"first_name"=>"Leigh F.", "last_name"=>"Johnson", "scopus_author_id"=>"8538531600"}, {"first_name"=>"Matthias", "last_name"=>"Egger", "scopus_author_id"=>"34768019000"}, {"first_name"=>"Andrew", "last_name"=>"Boulle", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602727118"}, {"first_name"=>"Landon", "last_name"=>"Myer", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006272201"}, {"first_name"=>"James", "last_name"=>"Ndirangu", "scopus_author_id"=>"35095408800"}, {"first_name"=>"Christopher J.", "last_name"=>"Hoffmann", "scopus_author_id"=>"57195524652"}, {"first_name"=>"Benjamin", "last_name"=>"Chi", "scopus_author_id"=>"35085783200"}, {"first_name"=>"Robin", "last_name"=>"Wood", "scopus_author_id"=>"7404053384"}, {"first_name"=>"Diana", "last_name"=>"Dickinson", "scopus_author_id"=>"14035326000"}, {"first_name"=>"Daniela Belen", "last_name"=>"Garone", "scopus_author_id"=>"6507674486"}, {"first_name"=>"Sam", "last_name"=>"Phiri", "scopus_author_id"=>"23486751200"}, {"first_name"=>"Janet", "last_name"=>"Giddy", "scopus_author_id"=>"55365211600"}, {"first_name"=>"Cleophas", "last_name"=>"Chimbetete", "scopus_author_id"=>"23099175800"}, {"first_name"=>"Joop", "last_name"=>"Oosterhout", "scopus_author_id"=>"57199513975"}, {"first_name"=>"Brian", "last_name"=>"Eley", "scopus_author_id"=>"54936423000"}, {"first_name"=>"Sabrina", "last_name"=>"Pestilli", "scopus_author_id"=>"56674726100"}, {"first_name"=>"Christiane", "last_name"=>"Fritz", "scopus_author_id"=>"54083016800"}, {"first_name"=>"Patrick", "last_name"=>"MacPhail", "scopus_author_id"=>"55759193200"}, {"first_name"=>"Karl", "last_name"=>"Technau", "scopus_author_id"=>"57050450100"}, {"first_name"=>"Harry", "last_name"=>"Moultrie", "scopus_author_id"=>"55948595500"}, {"first_name"=>"Mary Ann", "last_name"=>"Davies", "scopus_author_id"=>"56405907300"}, {"first_name"=>"Julia", "last_name"=>"Bohlius", "scopus_author_id"=>"6507302118"}, {"first_name"=>"Nello", "last_name"=>"Blaser", "scopus_author_id"=>"55349312900"}, {"first_name"=>"Lucy", "last_name"=>"Campbell", "scopus_author_id"=>"24079738200"}, {"first_name"=>"Janne", "last_name"=>"Estill", "scopus_author_id"=>"54388710900"}, {"first_name"=>"Béatrice", "last_name"=>"Fatzer", "scopus_author_id"=>"57195252430"}, {"first_name"=>"Lukas", "last_name"=>"Fenner", "scopus_author_id"=>"23396832100"}, {"first_name"=>"Claire", "last_name"=>"Graber", "scopus_author_id"=>"24436056200"}, {"first_name"=>"Thomas", "last_name"=>"Gsponer", "scopus_author_id"=>"36514637700"}, {"first_name"=>"Leigh", "last_name"=>"Johnson", "scopus_author_id"=>"56956136500"}, {"first_name"=>"Fritz", "last_name"=>"Kaeser", "scopus_author_id"=>"55366185500"}, {"first_name"=>"Olivia", "last_name"=>"Keiser", "scopus_author_id"=>"35227431700"}, {"first_name"=>"Nicola", "last_name"=>"Maxwell", "scopus_author_id"=>"36949238900"}, {"first_name"=>"Franziska", "last_name"=>"Schoeni-Affolter", "scopus_author_id"=>"8649028100"}, {"first_name"=>"Gilles", "last_name"=>"Wandeler", "scopus_author_id"=>"24175415100"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS Medicine", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84866720930", "sgr"=>"84866720930", "issn"=>"15491676", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pmed.1001304", "pmid"=>"22973181", "isbn"=>"1549-1676 (Electronic)\\r1549-1277 (Linking)", "pui"=>"365720708"}, "id"=>"0de734aa-2ac5-3b27-b1d7-bce355aa17c7", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Increased mortality among men on antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been documented but remains poorly understood. We examined the magnitude of and risk factors for gender differences in mortality on ART.\\n\\nMETHODS AND FINDINGS: Analyses included 46,201 ART-naïve adults starting ART between January 2002 and December 2009 in eight ART programmes across South Africa (SA). Patients were followed from initiation of ART to outcome or analysis closure. The primary outcome was mortality; secondary outcomes were loss to follow-up (LTF), virologic suppression, and CD4+ cell count responses. Survival analyses were used to examine the hazard of death on ART by gender. Sensitivity analyses were limited to patients who were virologically suppressed and patients whose CD4+ cell count reached >200 cells/µl. We compared gender differences in mortality among HIV+ patients on ART with mortality in an age-standardised HIV-negative population. Among 46,201 adults (65% female, median age 35 years), during 77,578 person-years of follow-up, men had lower median CD4+ cell counts than women (85 versus 110 cells/µl, p<0.001), were more likely to be classified WHO stage III/IV (86 versus 77%, p<0.001), and had higher mortality in crude (8.5 versus 5.7 deaths/100 person-years, p<0.001) and adjusted analyses (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] 1.31, 95% CI 1.22-1.41). After 36 months on ART, men were more likely than women to be truly LTF (AHR 1.20, 95% CI 1.12-1.28) but not to die after LTF (AHR 1.04, 95% CI 0.86-1.25). Findings were consistent across all eight programmes. Virologic suppression was similar by gender; women had slightly better immunologic responses than men. Notably, the observed gender differences in mortality on ART were smaller than gender differences in age-standardised death rates in the HIV-negative South African population. Over time, non-HIV mortality appeared to account for an increasing proportion of observed mortality. The analysis was limited by missing data on baseline HIV disease characteristics, and we did not observe directly mortality in HIV-negative populations where the participating cohorts were located.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS: HIV-infected men have higher mortality on ART than women in South African programmes, but these differences are only partly explained by more advanced HIV disease at the time of ART initiation, differential LTF and subsequent mortality, and differences in responses to treatment. The observed differences in mortality on ART may be best explained by background differences in mortality between men and women in the South African population unrelated to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/gender-differences-survival-among-adult-patients-starting-antiretroviral-therapy-south-africa-multic-5", "reader_count"=>128, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>26, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>10, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Postgraduate"=>12, "Student > Master"=>36, "Other"=>8, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>26, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>10, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Postgraduate"=>12, "Student > Master"=>36, "Other"=>8, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>7, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>3, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Mathematics"=>3, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>83, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>4, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>5, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>16, "Computer Science"=>3, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>83}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>16}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>4}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>3}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>3}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>5}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>7}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>3, "Malawi"=>1, "Niger"=>1, "Tanzania"=>1, "Zimbabwe"=>1, "South Africa"=>1, "Nigeria"=>1, "France"=>1, "Kenya"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1, "Spain"=>2, "Indonesia"=>1}, "group_count"=>9}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/307529", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/307589", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/307631", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/307676", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/307717"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Increased mortality among men on antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been documented but remains poorly understood. We examined the magnitude of and risk factors for gender differences in mortality on ART.</p> <h3>Methods and Findings</h3><p>Analyses included 46,201 ART-naïve adults starting ART between January 2002 and December 2009 in eight ART programmes across South Africa (SA). Patients were followed from initiation of ART to outcome or analysis closure. The primary outcome was mortality; secondary outcomes were loss to follow-up (LTF), virologic suppression, and CD4+ cell count responses. Survival analyses were used to examine the hazard of death on ART by gender. Sensitivity analyses were limited to patients who were virologically suppressed and patients whose CD4+ cell count reached >200 cells/µl. We compared gender differences in mortality among HIV+ patients on ART with mortality in an age-standardised HIV-negative population.</p> <p>Among 46,201 adults (65% female, median age 35 years), during 77,578 person-years of follow-up, men had lower median CD4+ cell counts than women (85 versus 110 cells/µl, <em>p</em><0.001), were more likely to be classified WHO stage III/IV (86 versus 77%, <em>p</em><0.001), and had higher mortality in crude (8.5 versus 5.7 deaths/100 person-years, <em>p</em><0.001) and adjusted analyses (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] 1.31, 95% CI 1.22–1.41). After 36 months on ART, men were more likely than women to be truly LTF (AHR 1.20, 95% CI 1.12–1.28) but not to die after LTF (AHR 1.04, 95% CI 0.86–1.25). Findings were consistent across all eight programmes. Virologic suppression was similar by gender; women had slightly better immunologic responses than men. Notably, the observed gender differences in mortality on ART were smaller than gender differences in age-standardised death rates in the HIV-negative South African population. Over time, non-HIV mortality appeared to account for an increasing proportion of observed mortality. The analysis was limited by missing data on baseline HIV disease characteristics, and we did not observe directly mortality in HIV-negative populations where the participating cohorts were located.</p> <h3>Conclusions</h3><p>HIV-infected men have higher mortality on ART than women in South African programmes, but these differences are only partly explained by more advanced HIV disease at the time of ART initiation, differential LTF and subsequent mortality, and differences in responses to treatment. The observed differences in mortality on ART may be best explained by background differences in mortality between men and women in the South African population unrelated to the HIV/AIDS epidemic.</p> <p> <em>Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.</em></p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["differences", "patients", "antiretroviral", "multicentre", "cohort"], "article_id"=>120678, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Morna Cornell", "Michael Schomaker", "Daniela Belen Garone", "Janet Giddy", "Christopher J. Hoffmann", "Richard Lessells", "Mhairi Maskew", "Hans Prozesky", "Robin Wood", "Leigh F. Johnson", "Matthias Egger", "Andrew Boulle", "Landon Myer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001304.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001304.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001304.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001304.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001304.s005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Gender_Differences_in_Survival_among_Adult_Patients_Starting_Antiretroviral_Therapy_in_South_Africa_A_Multicentre_Cohort_Study/120678", "title"=>"Gender Differences in Survival among Adult Patients Starting Antiretroviral Therapy in South Africa: A Multicentre Cohort Study", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-09-04 00:11:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/581815"], "description"=>"<p>Patient flowchart. Description of a combined cohort of adult patients initiating public sector ART in South Africa, 2002–2009.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cohort", "patients", "initiating"], "article_id"=>252298, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Morna Cornell", "Michael Schomaker", "Daniela Belen Garone", "Janet Giddy", "Christopher J. Hoffmann", "Richard Lessells", "Mhairi Maskew", "Hans Prozesky", "Robin Wood", "Leigh F. Johnson", "Matthias Egger", "Andrew Boulle", "Landon Myer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001304.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Patient_flowchart_Description_of_a_combined_cohort_of_adult_patients_initiating_public_sector_ART_in_South_Africa_2002_8211_2009_/252298", "title"=>"Patient flowchart. Description of a combined cohort of adult patients initiating public sector ART in South Africa, 2002–2009.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-09-04 00:38:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/582019"], "description"=>"<p>Adjusted for baseline age, CD4+ cell count, WHO stage, anaemia, weight, and viral load. Male versus female is reported as M∶F.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["baseline", "characteristics", "adjusted", "ratios"], "article_id"=>252501, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Morna Cornell", "Michael Schomaker", "Daniela Belen Garone", "Janet Giddy", "Christopher J. Hoffmann", "Richard Lessells", "Mhairi Maskew", "Hans Prozesky", "Robin Wood", "Leigh F. Johnson", "Matthias Egger", "Andrew Boulle", "Landon Myer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001304.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Male_versus_female_mortality_Baseline_characteristics_and_adjusted_hazard_ratios_for_male_versus_female_mortality_by_cohort_/252501", "title"=>"Male versus female mortality. Baseline characteristics and adjusted hazard ratios for male versus female mortality, by cohort.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-09-04 00:41:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/582171"], "description"=>"<p>Kaplan-Meier estimates of mortality by gender and duration on ART, corrected via linkage to the National Population Register.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["public health and epidemiology", "Infectious diseases"], "article_id"=>252657, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Morna Cornell", "Michael Schomaker", "Daniela Belen Garone", "Janet Giddy", "Christopher J. Hoffmann", "Richard Lessells", "Mhairi Maskew", "Hans Prozesky", "Robin Wood", "Leigh F. Johnson", "Matthias Egger", "Andrew Boulle", "Landon Myer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001304.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mortality_by_gender_and_ART_duration_/252657", "title"=>"Mortality by gender and ART duration.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-09-04 00:44:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/582236"], "description"=>"<p>Kaplan-Meier estimates of “true” LTF by gender and duration on ART.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["follow-up"], "article_id"=>252722, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Morna Cornell", "Michael Schomaker", "Daniela Belen Garone", "Janet Giddy", "Christopher J. Hoffmann", "Richard Lessells", "Mhairi Maskew", "Hans Prozesky", "Robin Wood", "Leigh F. Johnson", "Matthias Egger", "Andrew Boulle", "Landon Myer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001304.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_8220_True_8221_loss_to_follow_up_by_gender_and_ART_duration_/252722", "title"=>"“True” loss to follow-up by gender and ART duration.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-09-04 00:45:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/582301"], "description"=>"<p>Solid line, observed mortality ratio for men versus women on ART. Dotted line, age-standardised HIV-negative mortality ratio for men versus women in South Africa.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ratios"], "article_id"=>252786, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Morna Cornell", "Michael Schomaker", "Daniela Belen Garone", "Janet Giddy", "Christopher J. Hoffmann", "Richard Lessells", "Mhairi Maskew", "Hans Prozesky", "Robin Wood", "Leigh F. Johnson", "Matthias Egger", "Andrew Boulle", "Landon Myer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001304.g005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Male_versus_female_mortality_ratios_over_time_/252786", "title"=>"Male versus female mortality ratios over time.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-09-04 00:46:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/582405"], "description"=>"<p>Observed crude mortality<sup>a</sup>, age-standardised HIV-negative mortality<sup>a</sup>, and expected non-HIV mortality as a percentage of observed mortality among men and women, by duration on ART.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["crude", "age-standardised", "hiv-negative", "non-hiv", "observed", "men", "duration"], "article_id"=>252876, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Morna Cornell", "Michael Schomaker", "Daniela Belen Garone", "Janet Giddy", "Christopher J. Hoffmann", "Richard Lessells", "Mhairi Maskew", "Hans Prozesky", "Robin Wood", "Leigh F. Johnson", "Matthias Egger", "Andrew Boulle", "Landon Myer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001304.t004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Observed_crude_mortality_a_age_standardised_HIV_negative_mortality_a_and_expected_non_HIV_mortality_as_a_percentage_of_observed_mortality_among_men_and_women_by_duration_on_ART_/252876", "title"=>"Observed crude mortality<sup>a</sup>, age-standardised HIV-negative mortality<sup>a</sup>, and expected non-HIV mortality as a percentage of observed mortality among men and women, by duration on ART.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-09-04 00:47:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/582443"], "description"=>"a<p>All differences between men and women were statistically significant (<i>p</i><0.001).</p>b<p><i>n</i> (%) reflects the number (percentage) of patients with values for this variable.</p>c<p>Data from five cohorts.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["characteristics", "adults", "initiating", "public-sector"], "article_id"=>252922, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Morna Cornell", "Michael Schomaker", "Daniela Belen Garone", "Janet Giddy", "Christopher J. Hoffmann", "Richard Lessells", "Mhairi Maskew", "Hans Prozesky", "Robin Wood", "Leigh F. Johnson", "Matthias Egger", "Andrew Boulle", "Landon Myer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001304.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Patient_characteristics_among_46_201_adults_initiating_public_sector_ART_in_South_Africa_2002_8211_2009_/252922", "title"=>"Patient characteristics among 46,201 adults initiating public-sector ART in South Africa, 2002–2009.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-09-04 00:48:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/582483"], "description"=>"a<p>Proportion suppressed is the proportion of patients with available data who achieved a viral load ≤400 copies/ml.</p>b<p>Median CD4+ cell count increase is the difference in CD4+ cell count at each time point between this measure and the measure taken at the previous time point; all differences between men and women were statistically significant, <i>p</i><0.001.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["immunologic", "responses", "duration"], "article_id"=>252968, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Morna Cornell", "Michael Schomaker", "Daniela Belen Garone", "Janet Giddy", "Christopher J. Hoffmann", "Richard Lessells", "Mhairi Maskew", "Hans Prozesky", "Robin Wood", "Leigh F. Johnson", "Matthias Egger", "Andrew Boulle", "Landon Myer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001304.t003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Virologic_and_immunologic_responses_by_gender_and_duration_on_ART_/252968", "title"=>"Virologic and immunologic responses by gender and duration on ART.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-09-04 00:49:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/582520"], "description"=>"<p>Multivariable models adjusted for cohort, age, CD4+ cell count, WHO stage, anaemia, weight, and log viral load at ART initiation. 95% CI in brackets after HR and AHR.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["adjusted", "associations", "duration"], "article_id"=>253002, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Morna Cornell", "Michael Schomaker", "Daniela Belen Garone", "Janet Giddy", "Christopher J. Hoffmann", "Richard Lessells", "Mhairi Maskew", "Hans Prozesky", "Robin Wood", "Leigh F. Johnson", "Matthias Egger", "Andrew Boulle", "Landon Myer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001304.t002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Crude_and_adjusted_associations_between_male_gender_and_mortality_by_duration_on_ART_/253002", "title"=>"Crude and adjusted associations between male gender and mortality by duration on ART.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-09-04 00:50:02"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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