Research on implementation of interventions in tuberculosis control in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review
Events
Loading … Spinner

Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Research on Implementation of Interventions in Tuberculosis Control in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Frank", "last_name"=>"Cobelens", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004225016"}, {"first_name"=>"Sanne", "last_name"=>"van Kampen", "scopus_author_id"=>"35790571200"}, {"first_name"=>"Eleanor", "last_name"=>"Ochodo", "scopus_author_id"=>"54417705400"}, {"first_name"=>"Rifat", "last_name"=>"Atun", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602245046"}, {"first_name"=>"Christian", "last_name"=>"Lienhardt", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003944694"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS Medicine", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84871667102", "issn"=>"15491277", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84871667102", "pmid"=>"23271959", "pui"=>"368006166", "isbn"=>"1549-1277", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pmed.1001358"}, "id"=>"ffe6eb8a-eb15-315e-af71-7ae4c1dc69c5", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Several interventions for tuberculosis (TB) control have been recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) over the past decade. These include isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) for HIV-infected individuals and household contacts of infectious TB patients, diagnostic algorithms for rule-in or rule-out of smear-negative pulmonary TB, and programmatic treatment for multidrug-resistant TB. There is no systematically collected data on the type of evidence that is publicly available to guide the scale-up of these interventions in low- and middle-income countries. We investigated the availability of published evidence on their effectiveness, delivery, and cost-effectiveness that policy makers need for scaling-up these interventions at country level., METHODS AND FINDINGS: PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and several regional databases were searched for studies published from 1 January 1990 through 31 March 2012 that assessed health outcomes, delivery aspects, or cost-effectiveness for any of these interventions in low- or middle-income countries. Selected studies were evaluated for their objective(s), design, geographical and institutional setting, and generalizability. Studies reporting health outcomes were categorized as primarily addressing efficacy or effectiveness of the intervention. These criteria were used to draw landscapes of published research. We identified 59 studies on IPT in HIV infection, 14 on IPT in household contacts, 44 on rule-in diagnosis, 19 on rule-out diagnosis, and 72 on second-line treatment. Comparative effectiveness studies were relatively few (n = 9) and limited to South America and sub-Saharan Africa for IPT in HIV-infection, absent for IPT in household contacts, and rare for second-line treatment (n = 3). Evaluations of diagnostic and screening algorithms were more frequent (n = 19) but geographically clustered and mainly of non-comparative design. Fifty-four studies evaluated ways of delivering these interventions, and nine addressed their cost-effectiveness., CONCLUSIONS: There are substantial gaps in published evidence for scale-up for five WHO-recommended TB interventions settings at country level, which for many countries possibly precludes program-wide implementation of these interventions. There is a strong need for rigorous operational research studies to be carried out in programmatic settings to inform on best use of existing and new interventions in TB control.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/research-implementation-interventions-tuberculosis-control-low-middleincome-countries-systematic-rev-6", "reader_count"=>66, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>19, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>11, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Other"=>4, "Student > Master"=>14, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>19, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>11, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Other"=>4, "Student > Master"=>14, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>10, "Environmental Science"=>3, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>4, "Mathematics"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>25, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>8, "Arts and Humanities"=>2, "Psychology"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>9, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>25}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>9}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>2}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>8}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>4}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>10}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>3}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "United States"=>2, "Brazil"=>2, "United Kingdom"=>2}, "group_count"=>8}

Scopus | Further Information

{"@_fa"=>"true", "link"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"self", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84871667102"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"author-affiliation", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84871667102?field=author,affiliation"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84871667102&origin=inward"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus-citedby", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84871667102&origin=inward"}], "prism:url"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84871667102", "dc:identifier"=>"SCOPUS_ID:84871667102", "eid"=>"2-s2.0-84871667102", "dc:title"=>"Research on Implementation of Interventions in Tuberculosis Control in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review", "dc:creator"=>"Cobelens F.", "prism:publicationName"=>"PLoS Medicine", "prism:issn"=>"15491277", "prism:eIssn"=>"15491676", "prism:volume"=>"9", "prism:issueIdentifier"=>"12", "prism:pageRange"=>nil, "prism:coverDate"=>"2012-12-01", "prism:coverDisplayDate"=>"December 2012", "prism:doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pmed.1001358", "citedby-count"=>"23", "affiliation"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam", "affiliation-city"=>"Amsterdam", "affiliation-country"=>"Netherlands"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"Amsterdam Institute of Global Health and Development", "affiliation-city"=>"Amsterdam", "affiliation-country"=>"Netherlands"}], "pubmed-id"=>"23271959", "prism:aggregationType"=>"Journal", "subtype"=>"ar", "subtypeDescription"=>"Article", "article-number"=>"e1001358", "source-id"=>"144840", "openaccess"=>"1", "openaccessFlag"=>true}

Facebook

  • {"url"=>"http%3A%2F%2Fjournals.plos.org%2Fplosmedicine%2Farticle%3Fid%3D10.1371%252Fjournal.pmed.1001358", "share_count"=>0, "like_count"=>0, "comment_count"=>0, "click_count"=>0, "total_count"=>0}

Twitter

Counter

  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"186", "xml_views"=>"38", "html_views"=>"4389"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"160", "xml_views"=>"22", "html_views"=>"1924"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"65", "xml_views"=>"9", "html_views"=>"381"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"58", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"271"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"71", "xml_views"=>"10", "html_views"=>"550"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"48", "xml_views"=>"9", "html_views"=>"415"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"38", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"281"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"40", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"294"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"32", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"269"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"40", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"303"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"21", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"214"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"25", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"186"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"29", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"142"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"36", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"231"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"29", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"265"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"32", "xml_views"=>"5", "html_views"=>"324"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"29", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"266"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"34", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"212"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"153"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"25", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"170"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"21", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"133"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"159"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"229"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"221"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"23", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"188"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"133"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"80"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"120"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"123"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"110"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"23", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"122"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"100"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"93"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"122"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"132"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"21", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"95"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"65"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"78"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"80"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"62"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"81"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"71"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"46"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"36"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"54"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"73"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"52"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"56"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"53"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"48"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"23", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"99"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"101"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"52"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"26", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"109"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"78"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"48"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"73"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"60"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"39", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"78"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"68", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"76"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"40", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"30"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"72", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"45"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"28", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"52"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"32", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"36"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"21", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"24"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"24", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"51"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"26", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"35"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"33", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"40"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"53", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"37"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"70", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"38"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"49", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"70"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"55", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"84"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"86", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"31"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"75", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"37"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"29", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"49"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"32", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"64"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"50", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"36"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"33", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"23"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"25", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"16"}

Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/523013"], "description"=>"<p>Effectiveness studies relate to studies designed to address effectiveness as well as mixed effectiveness-efficacy for health-related outcomes, done in routine or mixed routine-research settings. Delivery studies relate to studies designed to address treatment completion and adherence, practices, and organization of services. Two non-comparative delivery studies were also included as effectiveness studies.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["published", "studies", "preventive", "contacts", "infectious", "tb"], "article_id"=>193507, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Medicine", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Frank Cobelens", "Sanne van Kampen", "Eleanor Ochodo", "Rifat Atun", "Christian Lienhardt"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001358.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_published_studies_on_preventive_therapy_of_household_contacts_of_infectious_TB_patients_by_geography_objective_and_study_setting_/193507", "title"=>"Distribution of published studies on preventive therapy of household contacts of infectious TB patients, by geography, objective, and study setting.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-18 00:58:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/523369"], "description"=>"a<p>Studies covering multiple sites or periods.</p>b<p>Including eight studies that evaluated treatment outcomes.</p>c<p>Including two studies that did so by (also) evaluating treatment outcomes.</p>d<p>Studies testing a hypothesis about measures to improve treatment completion or adherence.</p>e<p>As specific study objective, no hypothesis testing about measures to improve treatment completion or adherence.</p>f<p>Also addressing treatment outcomes.</p>g<p>Number of studies evaluating effects on health.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["studies", "second-line", "multidrug-resistant"], "article_id"=>193865, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Medicine", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Frank Cobelens", "Sanne van Kampen", "Eleanor Ochodo", "Rifat Atun", "Christian Lienhardt"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001358.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_for_studies_on_provision_of_second_line_treatment_for_multidrug_resistant_TB_/193865", "title"=>"Results for studies on provision of second-line treatment for multidrug-resistant TB.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-12-18 01:04:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/523305"], "description"=>"a<p>For example, comparing patients with positive versus negative tuberculin skin tests.</p>b<p>Including studies that addressed effects on treatment outcomes.</p>c<p>Studies testing a hypothesis about measures to improve treatment completion or adherence.</p>d<p>As specific study objective, no hypothesis testing about measures to improve treatment completion or adherence.</p>e<p>Two multi-country studies situated at locations with different TB incidences and HIV prevalence; one of these in various regions.</p>f<p>Number of studies evaluating effects on health outcomes.</p><p>HAART, highly active antiretroviral treatment.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["studies", "preventive", "hiv-infected", "individuals"], "article_id"=>193799, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Medicine", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Frank Cobelens", "Sanne van Kampen", "Eleanor Ochodo", "Rifat Atun", "Christian Lienhardt"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001358.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_for_studies_on_preventive_therapy_in_HIV_infected_individuals_and_in_household_contacts_/193799", "title"=>"Results for studies on preventive therapy in HIV-infected individuals and in household contacts.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-12-18 01:03:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/523178"], "description"=>"<p>Effectiveness studies, algorithm related to studies designed to evaluate predefined clinical algorithms, and effectiveness studies, diagnostics to studies designed to evaluate combined diagnostic methods, both for excluding TB among HIV-infected individuals and done in routine or mixed routine-research settings. One cost-effectiveness study was also included as evaluation of combined diagnostic methods.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["published", "studies", "algorithms", "smear-negative", "tb", "hiv-infected", "individuals"], "article_id"=>193667, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Medicine", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Frank Cobelens", "Sanne van Kampen", "Eleanor Ochodo", "Rifat Atun", "Christian Lienhardt"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001358.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_published_studies_on_clinical_algorithms_for_screening_for_smear_negative_TB_in_HIV_infected_individuals_8220_rule_out_8221_by_geography_objective_and_study_setting_/193667", "title"=>"Distribution of published studies on clinical algorithms for screening for smear-negative TB in HIV-infected individuals (“rule-out”), by geography, objective, and study setting.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-18 01:01:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/523344"], "description"=>"a<p>Excluding one that generated an algorithm that was subsequently evaluated in a separate (prediction) dataset.</p>b<p>Additional diagnostic procedures evaluated include bronchoalveolar lavage, nasopharyngeal aspirate, stool culture, fluorescence microscopy, PCR, urinary lipoarabinomannan, microscopic observation of drug susceptibility (MODS), endobroncheal ultrasound, repeat of smear examination after 1 mo.</p>c<p>These studies also assessed effects on health outcomes.</p>d<p>Excluding one multi-country study <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001358#pmed.1001358-Cain1\" target=\"_blank\">[65]</a>.</p>e<p>Excluding two multi-country studies <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001358#pmed.1001358-Cain1\" target=\"_blank\">[65]</a>,<a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001358#pmed.1001358-Monkongdee1\" target=\"_blank\">[66]</a>.</p>f<p>Number of studies evaluating effects on health outcomes.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["studies", "algorithms", "smear-negative", "tb", "patients", "presenting", "symptoms", "hiv-infected", "individuals"], "article_id"=>193831, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Medicine", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Frank Cobelens", "Sanne van Kampen", "Eleanor Ochodo", "Rifat Atun", "Christian Lienhardt"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001358.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_for_studies_on_clinical_algorithms_for_diagnosis_of_smear_negative_TB_in_patients_presenting_with_symptoms_8220_rule_in_8221_and_for_screening_of_HIV_infected_individuals_8220_rule_out_8221_/193831", "title"=>"Results for studies on clinical algorithms for diagnosis of smear-negative TB in patients presenting with symptoms (“rule-in”) and for screening of HIV-infected individuals (“rule-out”).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-12-18 01:03:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/522823"], "description"=>"<p>Flow chart for selection of articles for isoniazid preventive therapy (a), clinical algorithms for diagnosis/screening of smear-negative pulmonary TB (b), and second-line TB treatment (c).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["articles", "isoniazid", "preventive", "algorithms", "smear-negative", "pulmonary", "tb", "second-line"], "article_id"=>193308, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Medicine", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Frank Cobelens", "Sanne van Kampen", "Eleanor Ochodo", "Rifat Atun", "Christian Lienhardt"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001358.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>75, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Flow_chart_for_selection_of_articles_for_isoniazid_preventive_therapy_a_clinical_algorithms_for_diagnosis_screening_of_smear_negative_pulmonary_TB_b_and_second_line_TB_treatment_c_/193308", "title"=>"Flow chart for selection of articles for isoniazid preventive therapy (a), clinical algorithms for diagnosis/screening of smear-negative pulmonary TB (b), and second-line TB treatment (c).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-18 00:55:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/523095"], "description"=>"<p>Effectiveness studies, algorithm relate to studies designed to evaluate predefined clinical algorithms, and effectiveness studies, diagnostics to studies designed to evaluate combined diagnostic methods, both for diagnosing smear-negative TB among TB suspects done in routine or mixed routine-research settings. Delivery relates to studies designed to address diagnostic practices and improvement of smear examination or sputum collection to improve diagnosis of smear-negative TB. One study evaluated both combined diagnostic methods and a predefined clinical algorithm. Two cost-effectiveness studies were also included as evaluations of combined diagnostic methods.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["published", "studies", "algorithms", "diagnosing", "smear-negative", "tb", "patients", "presenting", "symptoms"], "article_id"=>193575, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Medicine", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Frank Cobelens", "Sanne van Kampen", "Eleanor Ochodo", "Rifat Atun", "Christian Lienhardt"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001358.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_published_studies_on_clinical_algorithms_for_diagnosing_smear_negative_TB_in_patients_presenting_with_symptoms_8220_rule_in_8221_by_geography_objective_and_study_setting_/193575", "title"=>"Distribution of published studies on clinical algorithms for diagnosing smear-negative TB in patients presenting with symptoms (“rule-in”), by geography, objective, and study setting.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-18 00:59:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/282800", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/282870", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/282984"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Several interventions for tuberculosis (TB) control have been recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) over the past decade. These include isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) for HIV-infected individuals and household contacts of infectious TB patients, diagnostic algorithms for rule-in or rule-out of smear-negative pulmonary TB, and programmatic treatment for multidrug-resistant TB. There is no systematically collected data on the type of evidence that is publicly available to guide the scale-up of these interventions in low- and middle-income countries. We investigated the availability of published evidence on their effectiveness, delivery, and cost-effectiveness that policy makers need for scaling-up these interventions at country level.</p> <h3>Methods and Findings</h3><p>PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and several regional databases were searched for studies published from 1 January 1990 through 31 March 2012 that assessed health outcomes, delivery aspects, or cost-effectiveness for any of these interventions in low- or middle-income countries. Selected studies were evaluated for their objective(s), design, geographical and institutional setting, and generalizability. Studies reporting health outcomes were categorized as primarily addressing efficacy or effectiveness of the intervention. These criteria were used to draw landscapes of published research. We identified 59 studies on IPT in HIV infection, 14 on IPT in household contacts, 44 on rule-in diagnosis, 19 on rule-out diagnosis, and 72 on second-line treatment. Comparative effectiveness studies were relatively few (<em>n</em> = 9) and limited to South America and sub-Saharan Africa for IPT in HIV-infection, absent for IPT in household contacts, and rare for second-line treatment (<em>n</em> = 3). Evaluations of diagnostic and screening algorithms were more frequent (<em>n</em> = 19) but geographically clustered and mainly of non-comparative design. Fifty-four studies evaluated ways of delivering these interventions, and nine addressed their cost-effectiveness.</p> <h3>Conclusions</h3><p>There are substantial gaps in published evidence for scale-up for five WHO-recommended TB interventions settings at country level, which for many countries possibly precludes program-wide implementation of these interventions. There is a strong need for rigorous operational research studies to be carried out in programmatic settings to inform on best use of existing and new interventions in TB control.</p> <p> <em>Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary</em></p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["interventions", "tuberculosis", "low-", "middle-income", "systematic", "review"], "article_id"=>115766, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Medicine", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Frank Cobelens", "Sanne van Kampen", "Eleanor Ochodo", "Rifat Atun", "Christian Lienhardt"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001358.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001358.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001358.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>37, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Research_on_Implementation_of_Interventions_in_Tuberculosis_Control_in_Low_and_Middle_Income_Countries_A_Systematic_Review__/115766", "title"=>"Research on Implementation of Interventions in Tuberculosis Control in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-12-18 01:36:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/522961"], "description"=>"<p>Effectiveness studies relate to studies designed to address effectiveness as well as mixed effectiveness-efficacy for health-related outcomes, done in routine or mixed routine-research settings. Delivery studies relate to studies designed to address treatment completion and adherence, practices, and organization of services. Two comparative and two non-comparative delivery studies were also included as effectiveness studies, and two cost-effectiveness studies were also included as delivery studies.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["published", "studies", "isoniazid", "preventive", "hiv-infected"], "article_id"=>193447, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Medicine", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Frank Cobelens", "Sanne van Kampen", "Eleanor Ochodo", "Rifat Atun", "Christian Lienhardt"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001358.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_published_studies_on_isoniazid_preventive_therapy_of_HIV_infected_individuals_by_geography_objective_and_study_setting_/193447", "title"=>"Distribution of published studies on isoniazid preventive therapy of HIV-infected individuals, by geography, objective, and study setting.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-18 00:57:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/523228"], "description"=>"<p>Effectiveness studies relate to studies designed to address effectiveness as well as mixed effectiveness-efficacy for health-related outcomes, done in programmatic settings or “DOTS-Plus” pilots. Delivery relates to studies designed to address treatment completion and adherence, and organization of services. One non-comparative delivery study and two cost-effectiveness studies were also included as effectiveness studies.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["published", "studies", "second-line", "drug-resistant"], "article_id"=>193727, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Medicine", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Frank Cobelens", "Sanne van Kampen", "Eleanor Ochodo", "Rifat Atun", "Christian Lienhardt"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001358.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>39, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_published_studies_on_provision_of_second_line_treatment_for_drug_resistant_TB_by_geography_objective_and_study_setting_/193727", "title"=>"Distribution of published studies on provision of second-line treatment for drug-resistant TB, by geography, objective, and study setting.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-18 01:02:07"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"97", "full-text"=>"121", "pdf"=>"48", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"13", "supp-data"=>"22", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"59", "full-text"=>"69", "pdf"=>"24", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"52", "full-text"=>"59", "pdf"=>"22", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"11", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"44", "full-text"=>"45", "pdf"=>"24", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"37", "full-text"=>"36", "pdf"=>"22", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"72", "full-text"=>"88", "pdf"=>"43", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"71", "full-text"=>"73", "pdf"=>"46", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"52", "full-text"=>"47", "pdf"=>"32", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"41", "full-text"=>"41", "pdf"=>"22", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"13", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"48", "full-text"=>"43", "pdf"=>"38", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"32", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"21", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"13", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"15", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"16", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"34", "full-text"=>"35", "pdf"=>"29", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"15", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"45", "full-text"=>"40", "pdf"=>"29", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"29", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"16", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"9", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"30", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"15", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"17", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"18", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"21", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"33", "full-text"=>"36", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"34", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"18", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"35", "full-text"=>"35", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"6", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"14", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"17", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"36", "full-text"=>"37", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"39", "pdf"=>"18", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"32", "full-text"=>"35", "pdf"=>"9", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"29", "full-text"=>"41", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"34", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2012-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2012-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences", "average_usage"=>[312, 547, 668, 769, 861, 953, 1046, 1135, 1224, 1307, 1388, 1464, 1536, 1606, 1676, 1744, 1812, 1882, 1954, 2020, 2089, 2155, 2218, 2282, 2344]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Diagnostic medicine", "average_usage"=>[303, 515, 631, 731, 816, 904, 995, 1087, 1171, 1251, 1334, 1405, 1474, 1539, 1615, 1679, 1745, 1806, 1874, 1943, 2006, 2070, 2141, 2199, 2263]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Epidemiology", "average_usage"=>[318, 557, 682, 789, 871, 969, 1067, 1153, 1246, 1337, 1418, 1488, 1573, 1633, 1695, 1767, 1835, 1928, 1974, 2020, 2082, 2139, 2202, 2263, 2341]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Infectious diseases", "average_usage"=>[328, 580, 713, 821, 914, 1012, 1107, 1202, 1293, 1381, 1477, 1551, 1633, 1694, 1769, 1847, 1917, 1986, 2056, 2121, 2194, 2267, 2329, 2410, 2461]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Tropical diseases", "average_usage"=>[318, 641, 793, 914, 1020, 1113, 1234, 1345, 1446, 1565, 1664, 1752, 1824, 1900, 1980, 2054, 2132, 2215, 2270, 2358, 2434, 2498, 2579, 2629, 2698]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences/Mathematics", "average_usage"=>[325, 522, 627, 718, 804, 884, 969, 1052, 1131, 1207, 1277, 1346, 1415, 1478, 1542, 1605, 1663, 1723, 1776, 1839, 1895, 1955, 2008, 2066, 2123]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences", "average_usage"=>[354, 585, 710, 810, 904, 998, 1090, 1181, 1268, 1361, 1435, 1525, 1594, 1657, 1731, 1813, 1878, 1948, 2016, 2094, 2158, 2219, 2294, 2347, 2410]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences/Economics", "average_usage"=>[353, 592, 730, 839, 925, 1005, 1093, 1199, 1307, 1398, 1523, 1598, 1695, 1775, 1842, 1940, 2025, 2103, 2166, 2261, 2345, 2488, 2581, 2625, 2674]}]}

F1000Prime | Further Information

Loading … Spinner
There are currently no alerts