Causal Relationship between Obesity and Vitamin D Status: Bi-Directional Mendelian Randomization Analysis of Multiple Cohorts
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{"title"=>"Causal Relationship between Obesity and Vitamin D Status: Bi-Directional Mendelian Randomization Analysis of Multiple Cohorts", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Karani S.", "last_name"=>"Vimaleswaran", "scopus_author_id"=>"9280136600"}, {"first_name"=>"Diane J.", "last_name"=>"Berry", "scopus_author_id"=>"55077176000"}, {"first_name"=>"Chen", "last_name"=>"Lu", "scopus_author_id"=>"55619293095"}, {"first_name"=>"Emmi", "last_name"=>"Tikkanen", "scopus_author_id"=>"36603389300"}, {"first_name"=>"Stefan", "last_name"=>"Pilz", "scopus_author_id"=>"8743302000"}, {"first_name"=>"Linda T.", "last_name"=>"Hiraki", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506226540"}, {"first_name"=>"Jason D.", "last_name"=>"Cooper", "scopus_author_id"=>"7406077619"}, {"first_name"=>"Zari", "last_name"=>"Dastani", "scopus_author_id"=>"11640483600"}, {"first_name"=>"Rui", "last_name"=>"Li", "scopus_author_id"=>"56815974900"}, {"first_name"=>"Denise K.", "last_name"=>"Houston", "scopus_author_id"=>"8322975400"}, {"first_name"=>"Andrew R.", "last_name"=>"Wood", "scopus_author_id"=>"36505189800"}, {"first_name"=>"Karl", "last_name"=>"Michaëlsson", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003752519"}, {"first_name"=>"Liesbeth", "last_name"=>"Vandenput", "scopus_author_id"=>"8782798800"}, {"first_name"=>"Lina", "last_name"=>"Zgaga", "scopus_author_id"=>"57192975891"}, {"first_name"=>"Laura M.", "last_name"=>"Yerges-Armstrong", "scopus_author_id"=>"35103784600"}, {"first_name"=>"Mark I.", "last_name"=>"McCarthy", "scopus_author_id"=>"7402061249"}, {"first_name"=>"Josée", "last_name"=>"Dupuis", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102591911"}, {"first_name"=>"Marika", "last_name"=>"Kaakinen", "scopus_author_id"=>"57194504574"}, {"first_name"=>"Marcus E.", "last_name"=>"Kleber", "scopus_author_id"=>"34872560400"}, {"first_name"=>"Karen", "last_name"=>"Jameson", "scopus_author_id"=>"57193482287"}, {"first_name"=>"Nigel", "last_name"=>"Arden", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006658328"}, {"first_name"=>"Olli", "last_name"=>"Raitakari", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004828916"}, {"first_name"=>"Jorma", "last_name"=>"Viikari", "scopus_author_id"=>"35446128700"}, {"first_name"=>"Kurt K.", "last_name"=>"Lohman", "scopus_author_id"=>"57193210015"}, {"first_name"=>"Luigi", "last_name"=>"Ferrucci", "scopus_author_id"=>"55239601400"}, {"first_name"=>"Håkan", "last_name"=>"Melhus", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006676242"}, {"first_name"=>"Erik", "last_name"=>"Ingelsson", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506552509"}, {"first_name"=>"Liisa", "last_name"=>"Byberg", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602342052"}, {"first_name"=>"Lars", "last_name"=>"Lind", "scopus_author_id"=>"26643471200"}, {"first_name"=>"Mattias", "last_name"=>"Lorentzon", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003987830"}, {"first_name"=>"Veikko", "last_name"=>"Salomaa", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004714461"}, {"first_name"=>"Harry", "last_name"=>"Campbell", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202318417"}, {"first_name"=>"Malcolm", "last_name"=>"Dunlop", "scopus_author_id"=>"7101629955"}, {"first_name"=>"Braxton D.", "last_name"=>"Mitchell", "scopus_author_id"=>"7401949811"}, {"first_name"=>"Karl Heinz", "last_name"=>"Herzig", "scopus_author_id"=>"7007026450"}, {"first_name"=>"Anneli", "last_name"=>"Pouta", "scopus_author_id"=>"56830266200"}, {"first_name"=>"Anna Liisa", "last_name"=>"Hartikainen", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004678671"}, {"first_name"=>"Elizabeth A.", "last_name"=>"Streeten", "scopus_author_id"=>"6601987607"}, {"first_name"=>"Evropi", "last_name"=>"Theodoratou", "scopus_author_id"=>"16242774200"}, {"first_name"=>"Antti", "last_name"=>"Jula", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701433067"}, {"first_name"=>"Nicholas J.", "last_name"=>"Wareham", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006224498"}, {"first_name"=>"Claes", "last_name"=>"Ohlsson", "scopus_author_id"=>"56386930400"}, {"first_name"=>"Timothy M.", "last_name"=>"Frayling", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003962934"}, {"first_name"=>"Stephen B.", "last_name"=>"Kritchevsky", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005494101"}, {"first_name"=>"Timothy D.", "last_name"=>"Spector", "scopus_author_id"=>"35351391300"}, {"first_name"=>"J. Brent", "last_name"=>"Richards", "scopus_author_id"=>"56706824400"}, {"first_name"=>"Terho", "last_name"=>"Lehtimäki", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006539182"}, {"first_name"=>"Willem H.", "last_name"=>"Ouwehand", "scopus_author_id"=>"55801267700"}, {"first_name"=>"Peter", "last_name"=>"Kraft", "scopus_author_id"=>"55214760000"}, {"first_name"=>"Cyrus", "last_name"=>"Cooper", "scopus_author_id"=>"36041345700"}, {"first_name"=>"Winfried", "last_name"=>"März", "scopus_author_id"=>"55941988600"}, {"first_name"=>"Chris", "last_name"=>"Power", "scopus_author_id"=>"47061915900"}, {"first_name"=>"Ruth J.F.", "last_name"=>"Loos", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006771047"}, {"first_name"=>"Thomas J.", "last_name"=>"Wang", "scopus_author_id"=>"7405565318"}, {"first_name"=>"Marjo Riitta", "last_name"=>"Järvelin", "scopus_author_id"=>"18535933700"}, {"first_name"=>"John C.", "last_name"=>"Whittaker", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202152890"}, {"first_name"=>"Aroon D.", "last_name"=>"Hingorani", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005545809"}, {"first_name"=>"Elina", "last_name"=>"Hyppönen", "scopus_author_id"=>"55884875400"}, {"first_name"=>"Francis S.", "last_name"=>"Collins", "scopus_author_id"=>"7403031285"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS Medicine", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84874505939", "sgr"=>"84874505939", "issn"=>"15491676", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pmed.1001383", "pmid"=>"23393431", "isbn"=>"1549-1676 (Electronic)\\n1549-1277 (Linking)", "pui"=>"368439121"}, "id"=>"8d586b38-558b-3019-89e5-fb25f97524e1", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with vitamin D deficiency, and both are areas of active public health concern. We explored the causality and direction of the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] using genetic markers as instrumental variables (IVs) in bi-directional Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis.\\n\\nMETHODS AND FINDINGS: We used information from 21 adult cohorts (up to 42,024 participants) with 12 BMI-related SNPs (combined in an allelic score) to produce an instrument for BMI and four SNPs associated with 25(OH)D (combined in two allelic scores, separately for genes encoding its synthesis or metabolism) as an instrument for vitamin D. Regression estimates for the IVs (allele scores) were generated within-study and pooled by meta-analysis to generate summary effects. Associations between vitamin D scores and BMI were confirmed in the Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits (GIANT) consortium (n = 123,864). Each 1 kg/m(2) higher BMI was associated with 1.15% lower 25(OH)D (p = 6.52×10⁻²⁷). The BMI allele score was associated both with BMI (p = 6.30×10⁻⁶²) and 25(OH)D (-0.06% [95% CI -0.10 to -0.02], p = 0.004) in the cohorts that underwent meta-analysis. The two vitamin D allele scores were strongly associated with 25(OH)D (p≤8.07×10⁻⁵⁷ for both scores) but not with BMI (synthesis score, p = 0.88; metabolism score, p = 0.08) in the meta-analysis. A 10% higher genetically instrumented BMI was associated with 4.2% lower 25(OH)D concentrations (IV ratio: -4.2 [95% CI -7.1 to -1.3], p = 0.005). No association was seen for genetically instrumented 25(OH)D with BMI, a finding that was confirmed using data from the GIANT consortium (p≥0.57 for both vitamin D scores).\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS: On the basis of a bi-directional genetic approach that limits confounding, our study suggests that a higher BMI leads to lower 25(OH)D, while any effects of lower 25(OH)D increasing BMI are likely to be small. Population level interventions to reduce BMI are expected to decrease the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/causal-relationship-between-obesity-vitamin-d-status-bidirectional-mendelian-randomization-analysis-12", "reader_count"=>165, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>8, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>8, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>28, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>11, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>21, "Student > Postgraduate"=>10, "Student > Master"=>34, "Other"=>16, "Student > Bachelor"=>20, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>8, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>8, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>28, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>11, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>21, "Student > Postgraduate"=>10, "Student > Master"=>34, "Other"=>16, "Student > Bachelor"=>20, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>18, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>29, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>2, "Chemistry"=>2, "Computer Science"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>17, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>6, "Mathematics"=>2, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>71, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>4, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Psychology"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>7, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>71}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>7}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>2}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>18}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>4}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>2}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>29}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>2}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>6}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>17}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Republic of Singapore"=>1, "Canada"=>3, "Norway"=>2, "Japan"=>1, "Luxembourg"=>1, "Finland"=>1, "Italy"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Algeria"=>1, "Iceland"=>1, "Germany"=>1, "India"=>1}, "group_count"=>12}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/482433", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/482437", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/482438", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/482444", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/482451", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/482456", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/482461", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/482466", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/482467", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/482468", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/482471", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/482477"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Obesity is associated with vitamin D deficiency, and both are areas of active public health concern. We explored the causality and direction of the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] using genetic markers as instrumental variables (IVs) in bi-directional Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis.</p> <h3>Methods and Findings</h3><p>We used information from 21 adult cohorts (up to 42,024 participants) with 12 BMI-related SNPs (combined in an allelic score) to produce an instrument for BMI and four SNPs associated with 25(OH)D (combined in two allelic scores, separately for genes encoding its synthesis or metabolism) as an instrument for vitamin D. Regression estimates for the IVs (allele scores) were generated within-study and pooled by meta-analysis to generate summary effects.</p> <p>Associations between vitamin D scores and BMI were confirmed in the Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits (GIANT) consortium (<em>n</em> = 123,864). Each 1 kg/m<sup>2</sup> higher BMI was associated with 1.15% lower 25(OH)D (<em>p = </em>6.52×10<sup>−27</sup>). The BMI allele score was associated both with BMI (<em>p = </em>6.30×10<sup>−62</sup>) and 25(OH)D (−0.06% [95% CI −0.10 to −0.02], <em>p</em> = 0.004) in the cohorts that underwent meta-analysis. The two vitamin D allele scores were strongly associated with 25(OH)D (<em>p</em>≤8.07×10<sup>−57</sup> for both scores) but not with BMI (synthesis score, <em>p</em> = 0.88; metabolism score, <em>p</em> = 0.08) in the meta-analysis. A 10% higher genetically instrumented BMI was associated with 4.2% lower 25(OH)D concentrations (IV ratio: −4.2 [95% CI −7.1 to −1.3], <em>p</em> = 0.005). No association was seen for genetically instrumented 25(OH)D with BMI, a finding that was confirmed using data from the GIANT consortium (<em>p</em>≥0.57 for both vitamin D scores).</p> <h3>Conclusions</h3><p>On the basis of a bi-directional genetic approach that limits confounding, our study suggests that a higher BMI leads to lower 25(OH)D, while any effects of lower 25(OH)D increasing BMI are likely to be small. Population level interventions to reduce BMI are expected to decrease the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency.</p> <p> <em>Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary</em></p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["causal", "obesity", "bi-directional", "mendelian", "randomization", "cohorts"], "article_id"=>155823, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Karani S. Vimaleswaran", "Diane J. Berry", "Chen Lu", "Emmi Tikkanen", "Stefan Pilz", "Linda T. Hiraki", "Jason D. Cooper", "Zari Dastani", "Rui Li", "Denise K. Houston", "Andrew R. Wood", "Karl Michaëlsson", "Liesbeth Vandenput", "Lina Zgaga", "Laura M. Yerges-Armstrong", "Mark I. McCarthy", "Josée Dupuis", "Marika Kaakinen", "Marcus E. Kleber", "Karen Jameson", "Nigel Arden", "Olli Raitakari", "Jorma Viikari", "Kurt K. Lohman", "Luigi Ferrucci", "Håkan Melhus", "Erik Ingelsson", "Liisa Byberg", "Lars Lind", "Mattias Lorentzon", "Veikko Salomaa", "Harry Campbell", "Malcolm Dunlop", "Braxton D. Mitchell", "Karl-Heinz Herzig", "Anneli Pouta", "Anna-Liisa Hartikainen", "Elizabeth A. Streeten", "Evropi Theodoratou", "Antti Jula", "Nicholas J. Wareham", "Claes Ohlsson", "Timothy M. Frayling", "Stephen B. Kritchevsky", "Timothy D. Spector", "J. Brent Richards", "Terho Lehtimäki", "Willem H. Ouwehand", "Peter Kraft", "Cyrus Cooper", "Winfried März", "Chris Power", "Ruth J. F. Loos", "Thomas J. Wang", "Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin", "John C. Whittaker", "Aroon D. Hingorani", "Elina Hyppönen"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001383.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001383.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001383.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001383.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001383.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001383.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001383.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001383.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001383.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001383.s010", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001383.s011", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001383.s012"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Causal_Relationship_between_Obesity_and_Vitamin_D_Status_Bi_Directional_Mendelian_Randomization_Analysis_of_Multiple_Cohorts__/155823", "title"=>"Causal Relationship between Obesity and Vitamin D Status: Bi-Directional Mendelian Randomization Analysis of Multiple Cohorts", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-02-05 01:37:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/494737"], "description"=>"<p>95% confidence intervals given by error bars.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["meta-analysis", "bmi", "men", "women"], "article_id"=>165167, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Karani S. Vimaleswaran", "Diane J. Berry", "Chen Lu", "Emmi Tikkanen", "Stefan Pilz", "Linda T. Hiraki", "Jason D. Cooper", "Zari Dastani", "Rui Li", "Denise K. Houston", "Andrew R. Wood", "Karl Michaëlsson", "Liesbeth Vandenput", "Lina Zgaga", "Laura M. Yerges-Armstrong", "Mark I. McCarthy", "Josée Dupuis", "Marika Kaakinen", "Marcus E. Kleber", "Karen Jameson", "Nigel Arden", "Olli Raitakari", "Jorma Viikari", "Kurt K. Lohman", "Luigi Ferrucci", "Håkan Melhus", "Erik Ingelsson", "Liisa Byberg", "Lars Lind", "Mattias Lorentzon", "Veikko Salomaa", "Harry Campbell", "Malcolm Dunlop", "Braxton D. Mitchell", "Karl-Heinz Herzig", "Anneli Pouta", "Anna-Liisa Hartikainen", "Elizabeth A. Streeten", "Evropi Theodoratou", "Antti Jula", "Nicholas J. Wareham", "Claes Ohlsson", "Timothy M. Frayling", "Stephen B. Kritchevsky", "Timothy D. Spector", "J. Brent Richards", "Terho Lehtimäki", "Willem H. Ouwehand", "Peter Kraft", "Cyrus Cooper", "Winfried März", "Chris Power", "Ruth J. F. Loos", "Thomas J. Wang", "Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin", "John C. Whittaker", "Aroon D. Hingorani", "Elina Hyppönen"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001383.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Random_effects_meta_analysis_of_the_BMI_association_with_25_OH_D_in_men_A_n_20_950_and_women_B_n_21_074_/165167", "title"=>"Random effects meta-analysis of the BMI association with 25(OH)D in men (A) (<i>n</i> = 20,950) and women (B) (<i>n</i> = 21,074).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-05 01:26:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/494912"], "description"=>"<p>95% confidence intervals given by error bars.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bmi", "allele", "synthesis", "metabolism"], "article_id"=>165347, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Karani S. Vimaleswaran", "Diane J. Berry", "Chen Lu", "Emmi Tikkanen", "Stefan Pilz", "Linda T. Hiraki", "Jason D. Cooper", "Zari Dastani", "Rui Li", "Denise K. Houston", "Andrew R. Wood", "Karl Michaëlsson", "Liesbeth Vandenput", "Lina Zgaga", "Laura M. Yerges-Armstrong", "Mark I. McCarthy", "Josée Dupuis", "Marika Kaakinen", "Marcus E. Kleber", "Karen Jameson", "Nigel Arden", "Olli Raitakari", "Jorma Viikari", "Kurt K. Lohman", "Luigi Ferrucci", "Håkan Melhus", "Erik Ingelsson", "Liisa Byberg", "Lars Lind", "Mattias Lorentzon", "Veikko Salomaa", "Harry Campbell", "Malcolm Dunlop", "Braxton D. Mitchell", "Karl-Heinz Herzig", "Anneli Pouta", "Anna-Liisa Hartikainen", "Elizabeth A. Streeten", "Evropi Theodoratou", "Antti Jula", "Nicholas J. Wareham", "Claes Ohlsson", "Timothy M. Frayling", "Stephen B. Kritchevsky", "Timothy D. Spector", "J. Brent Richards", "Terho Lehtimäki", "Willem H. Ouwehand", "Peter Kraft", "Cyrus Cooper", "Winfried März", "Chris Power", "Ruth J. F. Loos", "Thomas J. Wang", "Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin", "John C. Whittaker", "Aroon D. Hingorani", "Elina Hyppönen"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001383.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Meta_analysis_of_the_BMI_allele_score_association_with_BMI_n_32_391_and_the_vitamin_D_synthesis_n_35_873_and_metabolism_n_38_191_allele_score_association_with_25_OH_D_/165347", "title"=>"Meta-analysis of the BMI allele score association with BMI (<i>n</i> = 32,391), and the vitamin D synthesis (<i>n</i> = 35,873) and metabolism (<i>n</i> = 38,191) allele score association with 25(OH)D.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-05 01:29:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/495110"], "description"=>"<p>95% confidence intervals given by error bars.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bmi", "allele"], "article_id"=>165537, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Karani S. Vimaleswaran", "Diane J. Berry", "Chen Lu", "Emmi Tikkanen", "Stefan Pilz", "Linda T. Hiraki", "Jason D. Cooper", "Zari Dastani", "Rui Li", "Denise K. Houston", "Andrew R. Wood", "Karl Michaëlsson", "Liesbeth Vandenput", "Lina Zgaga", "Laura M. Yerges-Armstrong", "Mark I. McCarthy", "Josée Dupuis", "Marika Kaakinen", "Marcus E. Kleber", "Karen Jameson", "Nigel Arden", "Olli Raitakari", "Jorma Viikari", "Kurt K. Lohman", "Luigi Ferrucci", "Håkan Melhus", "Erik Ingelsson", "Liisa Byberg", "Lars Lind", "Mattias Lorentzon", "Veikko Salomaa", "Harry Campbell", "Malcolm Dunlop", "Braxton D. Mitchell", "Karl-Heinz Herzig", "Anneli Pouta", "Anna-Liisa Hartikainen", "Elizabeth A. Streeten", "Evropi Theodoratou", "Antti Jula", "Nicholas J. Wareham", "Claes Ohlsson", "Timothy M. Frayling", "Stephen B. Kritchevsky", "Timothy D. Spector", "J. Brent Richards", "Terho Lehtimäki", "Willem H. Ouwehand", "Peter Kraft", "Cyrus Cooper", "Winfried März", "Chris Power", "Ruth J. F. Loos", "Thomas J. Wang", "Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin", "John C. Whittaker", "Aroon D. Hingorani", "Elina Hyppönen"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001383.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Meta_analysis_of_the_BMI_allele_score_association_with_25_OH_D_n_31_120_/165537", "title"=>"Meta-analysis of the BMI allele score association with 25(OH)D (<i>n</i> = 31,120).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-05 01:32:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/495322"], "description"=>"<p>95% confidence intervals given by error bars.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["synthesis", "allele", "bmi", "metabolism"], "article_id"=>165762, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Karani S. Vimaleswaran", "Diane J. Berry", "Chen Lu", "Emmi Tikkanen", "Stefan Pilz", "Linda T. Hiraki", "Jason D. Cooper", "Zari Dastani", "Rui Li", "Denise K. Houston", "Andrew R. Wood", "Karl Michaëlsson", "Liesbeth Vandenput", "Lina Zgaga", "Laura M. Yerges-Armstrong", "Mark I. McCarthy", "Josée Dupuis", "Marika Kaakinen", "Marcus E. Kleber", "Karen Jameson", "Nigel Arden", "Olli Raitakari", "Jorma Viikari", "Kurt K. Lohman", "Luigi Ferrucci", "Håkan Melhus", "Erik Ingelsson", "Liisa Byberg", "Lars Lind", "Mattias Lorentzon", "Veikko Salomaa", "Harry Campbell", "Malcolm Dunlop", "Braxton D. Mitchell", "Karl-Heinz Herzig", "Anneli Pouta", "Anna-Liisa Hartikainen", "Elizabeth A. Streeten", "Evropi Theodoratou", "Antti Jula", "Nicholas J. Wareham", "Claes Ohlsson", "Timothy M. Frayling", "Stephen B. Kritchevsky", "Timothy D. Spector", "J. Brent Richards", "Terho Lehtimäki", "Willem H. Ouwehand", "Peter Kraft", "Cyrus Cooper", "Winfried März", "Chris Power", "Ruth J. F. Loos", "Thomas J. Wang", "Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin", "John C. Whittaker", "Aroon D. Hingorani", "Elina Hyppönen"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001383.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Meta_analysis_of_the_synthesis_allele_score_association_with_BMI_A_n_36_553_and_the_metabolism_allele_score_association_with_BMI_B_n_40_367_/165762", "title"=>"Meta-analysis of the synthesis allele score association with BMI (A) (<i>n</i> = 36,553) and the metabolism allele score association with BMI (B) (<i>n</i> = 40,367).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-05 01:36:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/495524"], "description"=>"a<p>Sample size based on available information on body mass index and 25(OH)D.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cohorts", "stratified"], "article_id"=>165964, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Karani S. Vimaleswaran", "Diane J. Berry", "Chen Lu", "Emmi Tikkanen", "Stefan Pilz", "Linda T. Hiraki", "Jason D. Cooper", "Zari Dastani", "Rui Li", "Denise K. Houston", "Andrew R. Wood", "Karl Michaëlsson", "Liesbeth Vandenput", "Lina Zgaga", "Laura M. Yerges-Armstrong", "Mark I. McCarthy", "Josée Dupuis", "Marika Kaakinen", "Marcus E. Kleber", "Karen Jameson", "Nigel Arden", "Olli Raitakari", "Jorma Viikari", "Kurt K. Lohman", "Luigi Ferrucci", "Håkan Melhus", "Erik Ingelsson", "Liisa Byberg", "Lars Lind", "Mattias Lorentzon", "Veikko Salomaa", "Harry Campbell", "Malcolm Dunlop", "Braxton D. Mitchell", "Karl-Heinz Herzig", "Anneli Pouta", "Anna-Liisa Hartikainen", "Elizabeth A. Streeten", "Evropi Theodoratou", "Antti Jula", "Nicholas J. Wareham", "Claes Ohlsson", "Timothy M. Frayling", "Stephen B. Kritchevsky", "Timothy D. Spector", "J. Brent Richards", "Terho Lehtimäki", "Willem H. Ouwehand", "Peter Kraft", "Cyrus Cooper", "Winfried März", "Chris Power", "Ruth J. F. Loos", "Thomas J. Wang", "Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin", "John C. Whittaker", "Aroon D. Hingorani", "Elina Hyppönen"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001383.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Characteristics_of_the_study_cohorts_stratified_by_sex_/165964", "title"=>"Characteristics of the study cohorts stratified by sex.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-05 01:39:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/495625"], "description"=>"a<p>Calculated as the ratio between the allele score association with the outcome and intermediate trait. Coefficients can be interpreted as percent change in the outcome by percent change in the intermediate trait.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["coefficients", "iv"], "article_id"=>166069, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Karani S. Vimaleswaran", "Diane J. Berry", "Chen Lu", "Emmi Tikkanen", "Stefan Pilz", "Linda T. Hiraki", "Jason D. Cooper", "Zari Dastani", "Rui Li", "Denise K. Houston", "Andrew R. Wood", "Karl Michaëlsson", "Liesbeth Vandenput", "Lina Zgaga", "Laura M. Yerges-Armstrong", "Mark I. McCarthy", "Josée Dupuis", "Marika Kaakinen", "Marcus E. Kleber", "Karen Jameson", "Nigel Arden", "Olli Raitakari", "Jorma Viikari", "Kurt K. Lohman", "Luigi Ferrucci", "Håkan Melhus", "Erik Ingelsson", "Liisa Byberg", "Lars Lind", "Mattias Lorentzon", "Veikko Salomaa", "Harry Campbell", "Malcolm Dunlop", "Braxton D. Mitchell", "Karl-Heinz Herzig", "Anneli Pouta", "Anna-Liisa Hartikainen", "Elizabeth A. Streeten", "Evropi Theodoratou", "Antti Jula", "Nicholas J. Wareham", "Claes Ohlsson", "Timothy M. Frayling", "Stephen B. Kritchevsky", "Timothy D. Spector", "J. Brent Richards", "Terho Lehtimäki", "Willem H. Ouwehand", "Peter Kraft", "Cyrus Cooper", "Winfried März", "Chris Power", "Ruth J. F. Loos", "Thomas J. Wang", "Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin", "John C. Whittaker", "Aroon D. Hingorani", "Elina Hyppönen"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001383.t002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_the_coefficients_used_for_IV_ratio_analyses_/166069", "title"=>"Summary of the coefficients used for IV ratio analyses.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-05 01:41:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/495733"], "description"=>"<p>The GIANT meta-analyses consisted of 46 studies with up to 123,865 adults of European ancestry <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001383#pmed.1001383-Speliotes1\" target=\"_blank\">[23]</a>, including the 1958 British Birth Cohort, Framingham Heart study, Nurses' Health Study, Twins UK, UK Blood Services Common Control Collection, the Amish Family Osteoporosis Study, Health2000 GENMETS sub-sample, and Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966, which were also part of the D-CarDia collaboration.</p>a<p>Calculated as described in Ehret et al. <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001383#pmed.1001383-Ehret1\" target=\"_blank\">[35]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["scores", "bmi"], "article_id"=>166182, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Karani S. Vimaleswaran", "Diane J. Berry", "Chen Lu", "Emmi Tikkanen", "Stefan Pilz", "Linda T. Hiraki", "Jason D. Cooper", "Zari Dastani", "Rui Li", "Denise K. Houston", "Andrew R. Wood", "Karl Michaëlsson", "Liesbeth Vandenput", "Lina Zgaga", "Laura M. Yerges-Armstrong", "Mark I. McCarthy", "Josée Dupuis", "Marika Kaakinen", "Marcus E. Kleber", "Karen Jameson", "Nigel Arden", "Olli Raitakari", "Jorma Viikari", "Kurt K. Lohman", "Luigi Ferrucci", "Håkan Melhus", "Erik Ingelsson", "Liisa Byberg", "Lars Lind", "Mattias Lorentzon", "Veikko Salomaa", "Harry Campbell", "Malcolm Dunlop", "Braxton D. Mitchell", "Karl-Heinz Herzig", "Anneli Pouta", "Anna-Liisa Hartikainen", "Elizabeth A. Streeten", "Evropi Theodoratou", "Antti Jula", "Nicholas J. Wareham", "Claes Ohlsson", "Timothy M. Frayling", "Stephen B. Kritchevsky", "Timothy D. Spector", "J. Brent Richards", "Terho Lehtimäki", "Willem H. Ouwehand", "Peter Kraft", "Cyrus Cooper", "Winfried März", "Chris Power", "Ruth J. F. Loos", "Thomas J. Wang", "Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin", "John C. Whittaker", "Aroon D. Hingorani", "Elina Hyppönen"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001383.t003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_for_the_association_between_vitamin_D_SNPs_allele_scores_and_BMI_from_the_GIANT_consortium_/166182", "title"=>"Results for the association between vitamin D SNPs/allele scores and BMI from the GIANT consortium.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-05 01:43:02"}

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Relative Metric

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