Fine Particulate Air Pollution and the Progression of Carotid Intima-Medial Thickness: A Prospective Cohort Study from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution
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{"title"=>"Fine Particulate Air Pollution and the Progression of Carotid Intima-Medial Thickness: A Prospective Cohort Study from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Sara D.", "last_name"=>"Adar", "scopus_author_id"=>"21833871700"}, {"first_name"=>"Lianne", "last_name"=>"Sheppard", "scopus_author_id"=>"7103362992"}, {"first_name"=>"Sverre", "last_name"=>"Vedal", "scopus_author_id"=>"14824309700"}, {"first_name"=>"Joseph F.", "last_name"=>"Polak", "scopus_author_id"=>"7401546724"}, {"first_name"=>"Paul D.", "last_name"=>"Sampson", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005197669"}, {"first_name"=>"Ana V.", "last_name"=>"Diez Roux", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004701264"}, {"first_name"=>"Matthew", "last_name"=>"Budoff", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005321640"}, {"first_name"=>"David R.", "last_name"=>"Jacobs", "scopus_author_id"=>"24495657500"}, {"first_name"=>"R. Graham", "last_name"=>"Barr", "scopus_author_id"=>"24330708900"}, {"first_name"=>"Karol", "last_name"=>"Watson", "scopus_author_id"=>"7201554483"}, {"first_name"=>"Joel D.", "last_name"=>"Kaufman", "scopus_author_id"=>"7403022492"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS Medicine", "identifiers"=>{"doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pmed.1001430", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84876917126", "sgr"=>"84876917126", "pmid"=>"23637576", "issn"=>"15491277", "pui"=>"368833900", "isbn"=>"1549-1676"}, "id"=>"4ef9c0f0-6a83-39f1-bd51-5bb6db65824b", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has been linked to cardiovascular disease, possibly via accelerated atherosclerosis. We examined associations between the progression of the intima-medial thickness (IMT) of the common carotid artery, as an indicator of atherosclerosis, and long-term PM2.5 concentrations in participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).\\n\\nMETHODS AND RESULTS: MESA, a prospective cohort study, enrolled 6,814 participants at the baseline exam (2000-2002), with 5,660 (83%) of those participants completing two ultrasound examinations between 2000 and 2005 (mean follow-up: 2.5 years). PM2.5 was estimated over the year preceding baseline and between ultrasounds using a spatio-temporal model. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations were examined using mixed models adjusted for confounders including age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking, and socio-economic indicators. Among 5,362 participants (5% of participants had missing data) with a mean annual progression of 14 µm/y, 2.5 µg/m(3) higher levels of residential PM2.5 during the follow-up period were associated with 5.0 µm/y (95% CI 2.6 to 7.4 µm/y) greater IMT progressions among persons in the same metropolitan area. Although significant associations were not found with IMT progression without adjustment for metropolitan area (0.4 µm/y [95% CI -0.4 to 1.2 µm/y] per 2.5 µg/m(3)), all of the six areas showed positive associations. Greater reductions in PM2.5 over follow-up for a fixed baseline PM2.5 were also associated with slowed IMT progression (-2.8 µm/y [95% CI -1.6 to -3.9 µm/y] per 1 µg/m(3) reduction). Study limitations include the use of a surrogate measure of atherosclerosis, some loss to follow-up, and the lack of estimates for air pollution concentrations prior to 1999.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS: This early analysis from MESA suggests that higher long-term PM2.5 concentrations are associated with increased IMT progression and that greater reductions in PM2.5 are related to slower IMT progression. These findings, even over a relatively short follow-up period, add to the limited literature on air pollution and the progression of atherosclerotic processes in humans. If confirmed by future analyses of the full 10 years of follow-up in this cohort, these findings will help to explain associations between long-term PM2.5 concentrations and clinical cardiovascular events.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/fine-particulate-air-pollution-progression-carotid-intimamedial-thickness-prospective-cohort-study-m-3", "reader_count"=>95, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>8, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>21, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Postgraduate"=>7, "Student > Master"=>13, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>12, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>8, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>21, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Postgraduate"=>7, "Student > Master"=>13, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>12, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>15, "Environmental Science"=>19, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>36, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>14, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>2, "Computer Science"=>3, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>36}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>14}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>3}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>15}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>19}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>4, "Czech Republic"=>1, "United States"=>3, "France"=>1, "Kenya"=>1, "India"=>1}, "group_count"=>7}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1032254"], "description"=>"<p>IMT estimated from results reported in <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001430#pmed-1001430-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a> assuming a group of white women of average age, body mass index, LDL cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, C-reactive protein, glucose, and baseline exposures to air pollution who never smoked, were not on hypertensive medications, and were in the lowest income and education groups. Results are reported for concentration increments above the city mean with confidence intervals around the mean.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Atmospheric science", "atmospheric chemistry", "Air quality", "cardiovascular", "atherosclerosis", "epidemiology", "Cardiovascular disease epidemiology", "Environmental epidemiology", "Public health", "Environmental health", "imt", "varying", "concentrations", "exceeding", "follow-up"], "article_id"=>688533, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Sara D. Adar", "Lianne Sheppard", "Sverre Vedal", "Joseph F. Polak", "Paul D. Sampson", "Ana V. Diez Roux", "Matthew Budoff", "David R. Jacobs Jr", "R. Graham Barr", "Karol Watson", "Joel D. Kaufman"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001430.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimated_IMT_95_CIs_over_time_at_varying_levels_of_average_residential_PM_2_5_concentrations_exceeding_the_city_average_during_the_follow_up_period_/688533", "title"=>"Estimated IMT (95% CIs) over time at varying levels of average residential PM<sub>2.5</sub> concentrations exceeding the city average during the follow-up period.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-23 02:22:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1032255"], "description"=>"<p>Models controlled for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, a neighborhood socio-economic score (derived from census tract level data on education, occupation, median home values, and median household income), adiposity (1/height, 1/height<sup>2</sup>, weight, waist, and 1/hip), pack-years at baseline, smoking status, HDL, total cholesterol, statin use, diabetes mellitus (using the 2003 ADA fasting criteria algorithm), systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, hypertensive diagnosis, hypertensive medications, and metropolitan area.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Atmospheric science", "atmospheric chemistry", "Air quality", "cardiovascular", "atherosclerosis", "epidemiology", "Cardiovascular disease epidemiology", "Environmental epidemiology", "Public health", "Environmental health", "imt", "progression", "averaged", "follow-up", "stratified", "controlled"], "article_id"=>688534, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Sara D. Adar", "Lianne Sheppard", "Sverre Vedal", "Joseph F. Polak", "Paul D. Sampson", "Ana V. Diez Roux", "Matthew Budoff", "David R. Jacobs Jr", "R. Graham Barr", "Karol Watson", "Joel D. Kaufman"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001430.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_difference_in_IMT_progression_m_y_95_CI_per_2_5_g_m_3_PM_2_5_concentration_averaged_over_follow_up_in_select_stratified_analyses_controlled_for_metropolitan_area_/688534", "title"=>"Mean difference in IMT progression (µm/y, 95% CI) per 2.5 µg/m<sup>3</sup> PM<sub>2.5</sub> concentration averaged over follow-up in select stratified analyses controlled for metropolitan area.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-23 02:22:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1032256"], "description"=>"<p>Change was defined as the average concentration over the follow-up period: concentration at baseline such that a reduction in concentrations over time would have a negative change and increases in concentrations over time would be manifest as a positive change. Minimal adjustment included age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Moderately adjustment added control for education, a neighborhood socio-economic score (derived from census tract level data on education, occupation, median home values, and median household income), adiposity (1/height, 1/height<sup>2</sup>, weight, waist, and 1/hip), and pack-years at baseline as well as a time-varying smoking status. Main models further adjusted for HDL, total cholesterol, statin use, diabetes mellitus (using the 2003 ADA fasting criteria algorithm), systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, hypertensive diagnosis, and hypertensive medications. In sensitivity analyses, we tested an extended model that also included physical activity, alcohol use, second-hand smoke exposures, C-reactive protein, creatinine, fibrinogen, occupation, and neighborhood noise among a smaller subset of the population with complete information.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Atmospheric science", "atmospheric chemistry", "Air quality", "cardiovascular", "atherosclerosis", "epidemiology", "Cardiovascular disease epidemiology", "Environmental epidemiology", "Public health", "Environmental health", "differences", "imt", "baseline", "progression", "concentrations", "follow-up"], "article_id"=>688535, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Sara D. Adar", "Lianne Sheppard", "Sverre Vedal", "Joseph F. Polak", "Paul D. Sampson", "Ana V. Diez Roux", "Matthew Budoff", "David R. Jacobs Jr", "R. Graham Barr", "Karol Watson", "Joel D. Kaufman"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001430.t003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_differences_95_CI_in_IMT_at_baseline_and_in_IMT_progression_over_time_associated_with_PM_2_5_concentrations_prior_to_baseline_and_change_between_follow_up_and_baseline_with_and_without_control_for_metropolitan_area_/688535", "title"=>"Mean differences (95% CI) in IMT at baseline and in IMT progression over time associated with PM<sub>2.5</sub> concentrations prior to baseline and change between follow-up and baseline, with and without control for metropolitan area.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-04-23 02:22:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1032257"], "description"=>"<p>Minimal adjustment included age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Moderately adjustment added control for education, a neighborhood socio-economic score (derived from census tract level data on education, occupation, median home values, and median household income), adiposity (1/height, 1/height<sup>2</sup>, weight, waist, and 1/hip), and pack-years at baseline as well as a time-varying smoking status. Main models further adjusted for HDL, total cholesterol, statin use, diabetes mellitus (using the 2003 ADA fasting criteria algorithm), systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, hypertensive diagnosis, and hypertensive medications. In sensitivity analyses, we tested an extended model that also included physical activity, second-hand smoke exposures, alcohol use, C-reactive protein, creatinine, fibrinogen, occupation, and neighborhood noise among a smaller subset of the population with complete data.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Atmospheric science", "atmospheric chemistry", "Air quality", "cardiovascular", "atherosclerosis", "epidemiology", "Cardiovascular disease epidemiology", "Environmental epidemiology", "Public health", "Environmental health", "differences", "imt", "baseline", "progression", "concentrations", "averaged"], "article_id"=>688536, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Sara D. Adar", "Lianne Sheppard", "Sverre Vedal", "Joseph F. Polak", "Paul D. Sampson", "Ana V. Diez Roux", "Matthew Budoff", "David R. Jacobs Jr", "R. Graham Barr", "Karol Watson", "Joel D. Kaufman"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001430.t002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_differences_95_CI_in_IMT_at_baseline_and_in_IMT_progression_over_time_associated_with_PM_2_5_concentrations_prior_to_baseline_and_averaged_over_follow_up_with_and_without_control_for_metropolitan_area_/688536", "title"=>"Mean differences (95% CI) in IMT at baseline and in IMT progression over time associated with PM<sub>2.5</sub> concentrations prior to baseline and averaged over follow-up, with and without control for metropolitan area.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-04-23 02:22:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1032258"], "description"=>"<p>Personal characteristics as reported at baseline. 86 participants had follow-up IMT measurements without valid baseline IMT measurements. Hypertension was defined by diastolic blood pressure ≥90, a systolic blood pressure ≥140 or self-reported history of hypertension with use of hypertensive medications.</p><p>CRP, C-reactive protein.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Atmospheric science", "atmospheric chemistry", "Air quality", "cardiovascular", "atherosclerosis", "epidemiology", "Cardiovascular disease epidemiology", "Environmental epidemiology", "Public health", "Environmental health", "presented"], "article_id"=>688537, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Sara D. Adar", "Lianne Sheppard", "Sverre Vedal", "Joseph F. Polak", "Paul D. Sampson", "Ana V. Diez Roux", "Matthew Budoff", "David R. Jacobs Jr", "R. Graham Barr", "Karol Watson", "Joel D. Kaufman"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001430.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Study_population_characteristics_presented_as_mean_standard_deviation_or_percent_/688537", "title"=>"Study population characteristics presented as mean (standard deviation) or percent.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-04-23 02:22:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1032259"], "description"=>"<div><p>Background</p><p>Fine particulate matter (PM<sub>2.5</sub>) has been linked to cardiovascular disease, possibly via accelerated atherosclerosis. We examined associations between the progression of the intima-medial thickness (IMT) of the common carotid artery, as an indicator of atherosclerosis, and long-term PM<sub>2.5</sub> concentrations in participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).</p> <p>Methods and Results</p><p>MESA, a prospective cohort study, enrolled 6,814 participants at the baseline exam (2000–2002), with 5,660 (83%) of those participants completing two ultrasound examinations between 2000 and 2005 (mean follow-up: 2.5 years). PM<sub>2.5</sub> was estimated over the year preceding baseline and between ultrasounds using a spatio-temporal model. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations were examined using mixed models adjusted for confounders including age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking, and socio-economic indicators. Among 5,362 participants (5% of participants had missing data) with a mean annual progression of 14 µm/y, 2.5 µg/m<sup>3</sup> higher levels of residential PM<sub>2.5</sub> during the follow-up period were associated with 5.0 µm/y (95% CI 2.6 to 7.4 µm/y) greater IMT progressions among persons in the same metropolitan area. Although significant associations were not found with IMT progression without adjustment for metropolitan area (0.4 µm/y [95% CI −0.4 to 1.2 µm/y] per 2.5 µg/m<sup>3</sup>), all of the six areas showed positive associations. Greater reductions in PM<sub>2.5</sub> over follow-up for a fixed baseline PM<sub>2.5</sub> were also associated with slowed IMT progression (−2.8 µm/y [95% CI −1.6 to −3.9 µm/y] per 1 µg/m<sup>3</sup> reduction). Study limitations include the use of a surrogate measure of atherosclerosis, some loss to follow-up, and the lack of estimates for air pollution concentrations prior to 1999.</p> <p>Conclusions</p><p>This early analysis from MESA suggests that higher long-term PM<sub>2.5</sub> concentrations are associated with increased IMT progression and that greater reductions in PM<sub>2.5</sub> are related to slower IMT progression. These findings, even over a relatively short follow-up period, add to the limited literature on air pollution and the progression of atherosclerotic processes in humans. If confirmed by future analyses of the full 10 years of follow-up in this cohort, these findings will help to explain associations between long-term PM<sub>2.5</sub> concentrations and clinical cardiovascular events.</p> <p><i>Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary</i></p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Atmospheric science", "atmospheric chemistry", "Air quality", "cardiovascular", "atherosclerosis", "epidemiology", "Cardiovascular disease epidemiology", "Environmental epidemiology", "Public health", "Environmental health", "particulate", "progression", "carotid", "intima-medial", "prospective", "cohort", "multi-ethnic"], "article_id"=>688538, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Sara D. Adar", "Lianne Sheppard", "Sverre Vedal", "Joseph F. Polak", "Paul D. Sampson", "Ana V. Diez Roux", "Matthew Budoff", "David R. Jacobs Jr", "R. Graham Barr", "Karol Watson", "Joel D. Kaufman"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001430"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Fine_Particulate_Air_Pollution_and_the_Progression_of_Carotid_Intima_Medial_Thickness_A_Prospective_Cohort_Study_from_the_Multi_Ethnic_Study_of_Atherosclerosis_and_Air_Pollution_/688538", "title"=>"Fine Particulate Air Pollution and the Progression of Carotid Intima-Medial Thickness: A Prospective Cohort Study from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-04-23 02:22:18"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Engineering and technology", "average_usage"=>[254, 440, 558, 675, 785, 883, 972, 1061, 1154, 1248, 1336, 1414, 1489]}]}
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