The Role of Adiposity in Cardiometabolic Traits: A Mendelian Randomization Analysis
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Whilst the causal relationship is clear for some of these traits, for others it is not. We aimed to determine whether adiposity is causally related to various cardiometabolic traits using the Mendelian randomization approach.\\n\\nMETHODS AND FINDINGS: We used the adiposity-associated variant rs9939609 at the FTO locus as an instrumental variable (IV) for body mass index (BMI) in a Mendelian randomization design. Thirty-six population-based studies of individuals of European descent contributed to the analyses. Age- and sex-adjusted regression models were fitted to test for association between (i) rs9939609 and BMI (n  =  198,502), (ii) rs9939609 and 24 traits, and (iii) BMI and 24 traits. The causal effect of BMI on the outcome measures was quantified by IV estimators. The estimators were compared to the BMI-trait associations derived from the same individuals. In the IV analysis, we demonstrated novel evidence for a causal relationship between adiposity and incident heart failure (hazard ratio, 1.19 per BMI-unit increase; 95% CI, 1.03-1.39) and replicated earlier reports of a causal association with type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemia, and hypertension (odds ratio for IV estimator, 1.1-1.4; all p < 0.05). For quantitative traits, our results provide novel evidence for a causal effect of adiposity on the liver enzymes alanine aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyl transferase and confirm previous reports of a causal effect of adiposity on systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting insulin, 2-h post-load glucose from the oral glucose tolerance test, C-reactive protein, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (all p < 0.05). The estimated causal effects were in agreement with traditional observational measures in all instances except for type 2 diabetes, where the causal estimate was larger than the observational estimate (p  =  0.001).\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS: We provide novel evidence for a causal relationship between adiposity and heart failure as well as between adiposity and increased liver enzymes.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/role-adiposity-cardiometabolic-traits-mendelian-randomization-analysis", "reader_count"=>126, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>10, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>7, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>36, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>9, "Student > Ph. D. 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Student"=>19, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>15, "Other"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>11}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>16, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>21, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Computer Science"=>3, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1, "Engineering"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>11, "Materials Science"=>1, "Mathematics"=>2, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>54, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Sports and Recreations"=>2, "Psychology"=>5, "Social Sciences"=>5, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>54}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>5}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>2}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>5}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>16}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>21}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>3}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>11}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Romania"=>1, "United States"=>2, "United Kingdom"=>2, "India"=>1, "Greece"=>1, "Canada"=>2, "Sweden"=>1, "Netherlands"=>2, "Belgium"=>1, "Norway"=>1, "China"=>1, "Finland"=>1, "Australia"=>1}, "group_count"=>6}

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  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"25"}
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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1100985"], "description"=>"a<p>OR/HR corresponds to one-unit increase in BMI (kg/m<sup>2</sup>).</p>b<p>OR/HR corresponds to per-allele change.</p>c<p>Only one study; meta-analysis not performed.</p><p>HR, hazard ratio.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Endocrinology", "Diabetic endocrinology", "Diabetes mellitus type 2", "epidemiology", "Cardiovascular disease epidemiology", "Genetic epidemiology", "nutrition", "obesity", "Public health", "mendelian", "randomization", "adiposity", "cardiovascular", "metabolic", "dichotomous"], "article_id"=>731424, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Tove Fall", "Sara Hägg", "Reedik Magi", "Alexander Ploner", "Krista Fischer", "Momoko Horikoshi", "Antti-Pekka Sarin", "Gudmar Thorleifsson", "Claes Ladenvall", "Mart Kals", "Maris Kuningas", "Harmen H. M. Draisma", "Janina S. Ried", "Natalie R. van Zuydam", "Ville Huikari", "Massimo Mangino", "Emily Sonestedt", "Beben Benyamin", "Christopher P. Nelson", "Natalia V. Rivera", "Kati Kristiansson", "Huei-yi Shen", "Aki S. Havulinna", "Abbas Dehghan", "Louise A. Donnelly", "Marika Kaakinen", "Marja-Liisa Nuotio", "Neil Robertson", "Renée F. A. G. de Bruijn", "M. Arfan Ikram", "Najaf Amin", "Anthony J. Balmforth", "Peter S. Braund", "Alexander S. F. Doney", "Angela Döring", "Paul Elliott", "Tõnu Esko", "Oscar H. Franco", "Solveig Gretarsdottir", "Anna-Liisa Hartikainen", "Kauko Heikkilä", "Karl-Heinz Herzig", "Hilma Holm", "Jouke Jan Hottenga", "Elina Hyppönen", "Thomas Illig", "Aaron Isaacs", "Bo Isomaa", "Lennart C. Karssen", "Johannes Kettunen", "Wolfgang Koenig", "Kari Kuulasmaa", "Tiina Laatikainen", "Jaana Laitinen", "Cecilia Lindgren", "Valeriya Lyssenko", "Esa Läärä", "Nigel W. Rayner", "Satu Männistö", "Anneli Pouta", "Wolfgang Rathmann", "Fernando Rivadeneira", "Aimo Ruokonen", "Markku J. Savolainen", "Eric J. G. Sijbrands", "Kerrin S. Small", "Jan H. Smit", "Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir", "Ann-Christine Syvänen", "Anja Taanila", "Martin D. Tobin", "Andre G. Uitterlinden", "Sara M. Willems", "Gonneke Willemsen", "Jacqueline Witteman", "Markus Perola", "Alun Evans", "Jean Ferrières", "Jarmo Virtamo", "Frank Kee", "David-Alexandre Trégouët", "Dominique Arveiler", "Philippe Amouyel", "Marco M. Ferrario", "Paolo Brambilla", "Alistair S. Hall", "Andrew C. Heath", "Pamela A. F. Madden", "Nicholas G. Martin", "Grant W. Montgomery", "John B. Whitfield", "Antti Jula", "Paul Knekt", "Ben Oostra", "Cornelia M. van Duijn", "Brenda W. J. H. Penninx", "George Davey Smith", "Jaakko Kaprio", "Nilesh J. Samani", "Christian Gieger", "Annette Peters", "H.-Erich Wichmann", "Dorret I. Boomsma", "Eco J. C. de Geus", "Tiinamaija Tuomi", "Chris Power", "Christopher J. Hammond", "Tim D. Spector", "Lars Lind", "Marju Orho-Melander", "Colin Neil Alexander Palmer", "Andrew D. Morris", "Leif Groop", "Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin", "Veikko Salomaa", "Erkki Vartiainen", "Albert Hofman", "Samuli Ripatti", "Andres Metspalu", "Unnur Thorsteinsdottir", "Kari Stefansson", "Nancy L. Pedersen", "Mark I. McCarthy", "Erik Ingelsson", "Inga Prokopenko"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001474.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Meta_analysis_results_of_Mendelian_randomization_analyses_on_effect_of_FTO_derived_adiposity_on_cardiovascular_and_metabolic_disease_dichotomous_outcomes_/731424", "title"=>"Meta-analysis results of Mendelian randomization analyses on effect of <i>FTO</i>-derived adiposity on cardiovascular and metabolic disease: dichotomous outcomes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-06-25 03:24:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1100980"], "description"=>"<p>The assigned weight for each study in the meta-analysis is shown in percent (% Weight). ES, estimate. For cohort abbreviations and references, see <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001474#pmed.1001474.s003\" target=\"_blank\">Table S1</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Endocrinology", "Diabetic endocrinology", "Diabetes mellitus type 2", "epidemiology", "Cardiovascular disease epidemiology", "Genetic epidemiology", "nutrition", "obesity", "Public health", "variant", "rs9939609", "bmi"], "article_id"=>731419, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Tove Fall", "Sara Hägg", "Reedik Magi", "Alexander Ploner", "Krista Fischer", "Momoko Horikoshi", "Antti-Pekka Sarin", "Gudmar Thorleifsson", "Claes Ladenvall", "Mart Kals", "Maris Kuningas", "Harmen H. M. Draisma", "Janina S. Ried", "Natalie R. van Zuydam", "Ville Huikari", "Massimo Mangino", "Emily Sonestedt", "Beben Benyamin", "Christopher P. Nelson", "Natalia V. Rivera", "Kati Kristiansson", "Huei-yi Shen", "Aki S. Havulinna", "Abbas Dehghan", "Louise A. Donnelly", "Marika Kaakinen", "Marja-Liisa Nuotio", "Neil Robertson", "Renée F. A. G. de Bruijn", "M. Arfan Ikram", "Najaf Amin", "Anthony J. Balmforth", "Peter S. Braund", "Alexander S. F. Doney", "Angela Döring", "Paul Elliott", "Tõnu Esko", "Oscar H. Franco", "Solveig Gretarsdottir", "Anna-Liisa Hartikainen", "Kauko Heikkilä", "Karl-Heinz Herzig", "Hilma Holm", "Jouke Jan Hottenga", "Elina Hyppönen", "Thomas Illig", "Aaron Isaacs", "Bo Isomaa", "Lennart C. Karssen", "Johannes Kettunen", "Wolfgang Koenig", "Kari Kuulasmaa", "Tiina Laatikainen", "Jaana Laitinen", "Cecilia Lindgren", "Valeriya Lyssenko", "Esa Läärä", "Nigel W. Rayner", "Satu Männistö", "Anneli Pouta", "Wolfgang Rathmann", "Fernando Rivadeneira", "Aimo Ruokonen", "Markku J. Savolainen", "Eric J. G. Sijbrands", "Kerrin S. Small", "Jan H. Smit", "Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir", "Ann-Christine Syvänen", "Anja Taanila", "Martin D. Tobin", "Andre G. Uitterlinden", "Sara M. Willems", "Gonneke Willemsen", "Jacqueline Witteman", "Markus Perola", "Alun Evans", "Jean Ferrières", "Jarmo Virtamo", "Frank Kee", "David-Alexandre Trégouët", "Dominique Arveiler", "Philippe Amouyel", "Marco M. Ferrario", "Paolo Brambilla", "Alistair S. Hall", "Andrew C. Heath", "Pamela A. F. Madden", "Nicholas G. Martin", "Grant W. Montgomery", "John B. Whitfield", "Antti Jula", "Paul Knekt", "Ben Oostra", "Cornelia M. van Duijn", "Brenda W. J. H. Penninx", "George Davey Smith", "Jaakko Kaprio", "Nilesh J. Samani", "Christian Gieger", "Annette Peters", "H.-Erich Wichmann", "Dorret I. Boomsma", "Eco J. C. de Geus", "Tiinamaija Tuomi", "Chris Power", "Christopher J. Hammond", "Tim D. Spector", "Lars Lind", "Marju Orho-Melander", "Colin Neil Alexander Palmer", "Andrew D. Morris", "Leif Groop", "Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin", "Veikko Salomaa", "Erkki Vartiainen", "Albert Hofman", "Samuli Ripatti", "Andres Metspalu", "Unnur Thorsteinsdottir", "Kari Stefansson", "Nancy L. Pedersen", "Mark I. McCarthy", "Erik Ingelsson", "Inga Prokopenko"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001474.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Association_between_FTO_variant_rs9939609_and_BMI_in_198_502_individuals_/731419", "title"=>"Association between <i>FTO</i> variant rs9939609 and BMI in 198,502 individuals.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-25 03:24:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1100979"], "description"=>"<p>(A) In an example from our study, the IV estimator is calculated as the beta coefficient from the association of <i>FTO</i> with systolic blood pressure divided by the beta coefficient from the association of <i>FTO</i> with BMI (IV estimator = 0.32/0.36 = 0.89 mm Hg/BMI unit). The IV estimator is equivalent to what is seen when systolic blood pressure is regressed on BMI. These results are supportive of a causal, non-confounded relationship. For binary traits, the calculation of the IV estimator is done on the log-odds scale. (B) The relationship of BMI with T2D, where the IV estimator is ln(OR<sub>IV</sub>) = ln(1.12)/0.36, which equals a causal OR of BMI for T2D of 1.37. This is larger than what is seen in the standard age- and sex-adjusted logistic regression of T2D on BMI (<i>p</i> = 0.001), indicating that confounding or reverse causation may be present or that BMI measured once in adulthood does not fully reflect the effect of lifetime adiposity.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Endocrinology", "Diabetic endocrinology", "Diabetes mellitus type 2", "epidemiology", "Cardiovascular disease epidemiology", "Genetic epidemiology", "nutrition", "obesity", "Public health", "mendelian", "randomization", "assumed", "confounding"], "article_id"=>731418, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Tove Fall", "Sara Hägg", "Reedik Magi", "Alexander Ploner", "Krista Fischer", "Momoko Horikoshi", "Antti-Pekka Sarin", "Gudmar Thorleifsson", "Claes Ladenvall", "Mart Kals", "Maris Kuningas", "Harmen H. M. Draisma", "Janina S. Ried", "Natalie R. van Zuydam", "Ville Huikari", "Massimo Mangino", "Emily Sonestedt", "Beben Benyamin", "Christopher P. Nelson", "Natalia V. Rivera", "Kati Kristiansson", "Huei-yi Shen", "Aki S. Havulinna", "Abbas Dehghan", "Louise A. Donnelly", "Marika Kaakinen", "Marja-Liisa Nuotio", "Neil Robertson", "Renée F. A. G. de Bruijn", "M. Arfan Ikram", "Najaf Amin", "Anthony J. Balmforth", "Peter S. Braund", "Alexander S. F. Doney", "Angela Döring", "Paul Elliott", "Tõnu Esko", "Oscar H. Franco", "Solveig Gretarsdottir", "Anna-Liisa Hartikainen", "Kauko Heikkilä", "Karl-Heinz Herzig", "Hilma Holm", "Jouke Jan Hottenga", "Elina Hyppönen", "Thomas Illig", "Aaron Isaacs", "Bo Isomaa", "Lennart C. Karssen", "Johannes Kettunen", "Wolfgang Koenig", "Kari Kuulasmaa", "Tiina Laatikainen", "Jaana Laitinen", "Cecilia Lindgren", "Valeriya Lyssenko", "Esa Läärä", "Nigel W. Rayner", "Satu Männistö", "Anneli Pouta", "Wolfgang Rathmann", "Fernando Rivadeneira", "Aimo Ruokonen", "Markku J. Savolainen", "Eric J. G. Sijbrands", "Kerrin S. Small", "Jan H. Smit", "Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir", "Ann-Christine Syvänen", "Anja Taanila", "Martin D. Tobin", "Andre G. Uitterlinden", "Sara M. Willems", "Gonneke Willemsen", "Jacqueline Witteman", "Markus Perola", "Alun Evans", "Jean Ferrières", "Jarmo Virtamo", "Frank Kee", "David-Alexandre Trégouët", "Dominique Arveiler", "Philippe Amouyel", "Marco M. Ferrario", "Paolo Brambilla", "Alistair S. Hall", "Andrew C. Heath", "Pamela A. F. Madden", "Nicholas G. Martin", "Grant W. Montgomery", "John B. Whitfield", "Antti Jula", "Paul Knekt", "Ben Oostra", "Cornelia M. van Duijn", "Brenda W. J. H. Penninx", "George Davey Smith", "Jaakko Kaprio", "Nilesh J. Samani", "Christian Gieger", "Annette Peters", "H.-Erich Wichmann", "Dorret I. Boomsma", "Eco J. C. de Geus", "Tiinamaija Tuomi", "Chris Power", "Christopher J. Hammond", "Tim D. Spector", "Lars Lind", "Marju Orho-Melander", "Colin Neil Alexander Palmer", "Andrew D. Morris", "Leif Groop", "Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin", "Veikko Salomaa", "Erkki Vartiainen", "Albert Hofman", "Samuli Ripatti", "Andres Metspalu", "Unnur Thorsteinsdottir", "Kari Stefansson", "Nancy L. Pedersen", "Mark I. McCarthy", "Erik Ingelsson", "Inga Prokopenko"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001474.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_In_a_Mendelian_randomization_framework_genotype_8211_phenotype_association_is_assumed_to_be_independent_of_confounding_factors_/731418", "title"=>"In a Mendelian randomization framework, genotype–phenotype association is assumed to be independent of confounding factors.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-25 03:24:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1100987", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1100989", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1100991", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1100997", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1101000", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1101003", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1101006", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1101017", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1101020", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1101021"], "description"=>"<div><p>Background</p><p>The association between adiposity and cardiometabolic traits is well known from epidemiological studies. Whilst the causal relationship is clear for some of these traits, for others it is not. We aimed to determine whether adiposity is causally related to various cardiometabolic traits using the Mendelian randomization approach.</p><p>Methods and Findings</p><p>We used the adiposity-associated variant rs9939609 at the <i>FTO</i> locus as an instrumental variable (IV) for body mass index (BMI) in a Mendelian randomization design. Thirty-six population-based studies of individuals of European descent contributed to the analyses.</p><p>Age- and sex-adjusted regression models were fitted to test for association between (i) rs9939609 and BMI (<i>n</i> = 198,502), (ii) rs9939609 and 24 traits, and (iii) BMI and 24 traits. The causal effect of BMI on the outcome measures was quantified by IV estimators. The estimators were compared to the BMI–trait associations derived from the same individuals. In the IV analysis, we demonstrated novel evidence for a causal relationship between adiposity and incident heart failure (hazard ratio, 1.19 per BMI-unit increase; 95% CI, 1.03–1.39) and replicated earlier reports of a causal association with type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemia, and hypertension (odds ratio for IV estimator, 1.1–1.4; all <i>p</i><0.05). For quantitative traits, our results provide novel evidence for a causal effect of adiposity on the liver enzymes alanine aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyl transferase and confirm previous reports of a causal effect of adiposity on systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting insulin, 2-h post-load glucose from the oral glucose tolerance test, C-reactive protein, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (all <i>p</i><0.05). The estimated causal effects were in agreement with traditional observational measures in all instances except for type 2 diabetes, where the causal estimate was larger than the observational estimate (<i>p</i> = 0.001).</p><p>Conclusions</p><p>We provide novel evidence for a causal relationship between adiposity and heart failure as well as between adiposity and increased liver enzymes.</p><p><i>Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary</i></p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Endocrinology", "Diabetic endocrinology", "Diabetes mellitus type 2", "epidemiology", "Cardiovascular disease epidemiology", "Genetic epidemiology", "nutrition", "obesity", "Public health", "adiposity", "cardiometabolic", "mendelian", "randomization"], "article_id"=>731426, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Tove Fall", "Sara Hägg", "Reedik Magi", "Alexander Ploner", "Krista Fischer", "Momoko Horikoshi", "Antti-Pekka Sarin", "Gudmar Thorleifsson", "Claes Ladenvall", "Mart Kals", "Maris Kuningas", "Harmen H. M. Draisma", "Janina S. Ried", "Natalie R. van Zuydam", "Ville Huikari", "Massimo Mangino", "Emily Sonestedt", "Beben Benyamin", "Christopher P. Nelson", "Natalia V. Rivera", "Kati Kristiansson", "Huei-yi Shen", "Aki S. Havulinna", "Abbas Dehghan", "Louise A. Donnelly", "Marika Kaakinen", "Marja-Liisa Nuotio", "Neil Robertson", "Renée F. A. G. de Bruijn", "M. Arfan Ikram", "Najaf Amin", "Anthony J. Balmforth", "Peter S. Braund", "Alexander S. F. Doney", "Angela Döring", "Paul Elliott", "Tõnu Esko", "Oscar H. Franco", "Solveig Gretarsdottir", "Anna-Liisa Hartikainen", "Kauko Heikkilä", "Karl-Heinz Herzig", "Hilma Holm", "Jouke Jan Hottenga", "Elina Hyppönen", "Thomas Illig", "Aaron Isaacs", "Bo Isomaa", "Lennart C. Karssen", "Johannes Kettunen", "Wolfgang Koenig", "Kari Kuulasmaa", "Tiina Laatikainen", "Jaana Laitinen", "Cecilia Lindgren", "Valeriya Lyssenko", "Esa Läärä", "Nigel W. Rayner", "Satu Männistö", "Anneli Pouta", "Wolfgang Rathmann", "Fernando Rivadeneira", "Aimo Ruokonen", "Markku J. Savolainen", "Eric J. G. Sijbrands", "Kerrin S. Small", "Jan H. Smit", "Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir", "Ann-Christine Syvänen", "Anja Taanila", "Martin D. Tobin", "Andre G. Uitterlinden", "Sara M. Willems", "Gonneke Willemsen", "Jacqueline Witteman", "Markus Perola", "Alun Evans", "Jean Ferrières", "Jarmo Virtamo", "Frank Kee", "David-Alexandre Trégouët", "Dominique Arveiler", "Philippe Amouyel", "Marco M. Ferrario", "Paolo Brambilla", "Alistair S. Hall", "Andrew C. Heath", "Pamela A. F. Madden", "Nicholas G. Martin", "Grant W. Montgomery", "John B. Whitfield", "Antti Jula", "Paul Knekt", "Ben Oostra", "Cornelia M. van Duijn", "Brenda W. J. H. Penninx", "George Davey Smith", "Jaakko Kaprio", "Nilesh J. Samani", "Christian Gieger", "Annette Peters", "H.-Erich Wichmann", "Dorret I. Boomsma", "Eco J. C. de Geus", "Tiinamaija Tuomi", "Chris Power", "Christopher J. Hammond", "Tim D. Spector", "Lars Lind", "Marju Orho-Melander", "Colin Neil Alexander Palmer", "Andrew D. Morris", "Leif Groop", "Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin", "Veikko Salomaa", "Erkki Vartiainen", "Albert Hofman", "Samuli Ripatti", "Andres Metspalu", "Unnur Thorsteinsdottir", "Kari Stefansson", "Nancy L. Pedersen", "Mark I. McCarthy", "Erik Ingelsson", "Inga Prokopenko"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001474.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001474.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001474.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001474.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001474.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001474.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001474.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001474.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001474.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001474.s010"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_Role_of_Adiposity_in_Cardiometabolic_Traits_A_Mendelian_Randomization_Analysis_/731426", "title"=>"The Role of Adiposity in Cardiometabolic Traits: A Mendelian Randomization Analysis", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-06-25 03:24:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1100982"], "description"=>"<p>Estimates (ES) are shown on a hazard ratio scale per number of effect alleles. The assigned weight for each study in the meta-analysis is shown in percent (% Weight). For cohort abbreviations and references, see <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001474#pmed.1001474.s003\" target=\"_blank\">Table S1</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Endocrinology", "Diabetic endocrinology", "Diabetes mellitus type 2", "epidemiology", "Cardiovascular disease epidemiology", "Genetic epidemiology", "nutrition", "obesity", "Public health", "cases"], "article_id"=>731421, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Tove Fall", "Sara Hägg", "Reedik Magi", "Alexander Ploner", "Krista Fischer", "Momoko Horikoshi", "Antti-Pekka Sarin", "Gudmar Thorleifsson", "Claes Ladenvall", "Mart Kals", "Maris Kuningas", "Harmen H. M. Draisma", "Janina S. Ried", "Natalie R. van Zuydam", "Ville Huikari", "Massimo Mangino", "Emily Sonestedt", "Beben Benyamin", "Christopher P. Nelson", "Natalia V. Rivera", "Kati Kristiansson", "Huei-yi Shen", "Aki S. Havulinna", "Abbas Dehghan", "Louise A. Donnelly", "Marika Kaakinen", "Marja-Liisa Nuotio", "Neil Robertson", "Renée F. A. G. de Bruijn", "M. Arfan Ikram", "Najaf Amin", "Anthony J. Balmforth", "Peter S. Braund", "Alexander S. F. Doney", "Angela Döring", "Paul Elliott", "Tõnu Esko", "Oscar H. Franco", "Solveig Gretarsdottir", "Anna-Liisa Hartikainen", "Kauko Heikkilä", "Karl-Heinz Herzig", "Hilma Holm", "Jouke Jan Hottenga", "Elina Hyppönen", "Thomas Illig", "Aaron Isaacs", "Bo Isomaa", "Lennart C. Karssen", "Johannes Kettunen", "Wolfgang Koenig", "Kari Kuulasmaa", "Tiina Laatikainen", "Jaana Laitinen", "Cecilia Lindgren", "Valeriya Lyssenko", "Esa Läärä", "Nigel W. Rayner", "Satu Männistö", "Anneli Pouta", "Wolfgang Rathmann", "Fernando Rivadeneira", "Aimo Ruokonen", "Markku J. Savolainen", "Eric J. G. Sijbrands", "Kerrin S. Small", "Jan H. Smit", "Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir", "Ann-Christine Syvänen", "Anja Taanila", "Martin D. Tobin", "Andre G. Uitterlinden", "Sara M. Willems", "Gonneke Willemsen", "Jacqueline Witteman", "Markus Perola", "Alun Evans", "Jean Ferrières", "Jarmo Virtamo", "Frank Kee", "David-Alexandre Trégouët", "Dominique Arveiler", "Philippe Amouyel", "Marco M. Ferrario", "Paolo Brambilla", "Alistair S. Hall", "Andrew C. Heath", "Pamela A. F. Madden", "Nicholas G. Martin", "Grant W. Montgomery", "John B. Whitfield", "Antti Jula", "Paul Knekt", "Ben Oostra", "Cornelia M. van Duijn", "Brenda W. J. H. Penninx", "George Davey Smith", "Jaakko Kaprio", "Nilesh J. Samani", "Christian Gieger", "Annette Peters", "H.-Erich Wichmann", "Dorret I. Boomsma", "Eco J. C. de Geus", "Tiinamaija Tuomi", "Chris Power", "Christopher J. Hammond", "Tim D. Spector", "Lars Lind", "Marju Orho-Melander", "Colin Neil Alexander Palmer", "Andrew D. Morris", "Leif Groop", "Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin", "Veikko Salomaa", "Erkki Vartiainen", "Albert Hofman", "Samuli Ripatti", "Andres Metspalu", "Unnur Thorsteinsdottir", "Kari Stefansson", "Nancy L. Pedersen", "Mark I. McCarthy", "Erik Ingelsson", "Inga Prokopenko"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001474.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Association_between_FTO_and_incident_heart_failure_in_2_863_cases_and_44_400_controls_/731421", "title"=>"Association between <i>FTO</i> and incident heart failure in 2,863 cases and 44,400 controls.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-25 03:24:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1100981"], "description"=>"<p>Estimates (ES) are shown on a hazard ratio scale for a one-unit increase in BMI. The assigned weight for each study in the meta-analysis is shown in percent (% Weight). For cohort abbreviations and references, see <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001474#pmed.1001474.s003\" target=\"_blank\">Table S1</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Endocrinology", "Diabetic endocrinology", "Diabetes mellitus type 2", "epidemiology", "Cardiovascular disease epidemiology", "Genetic epidemiology", "nutrition", "obesity", "Public health", "bmi", "cases"], "article_id"=>731420, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Tove Fall", "Sara Hägg", "Reedik Magi", "Alexander Ploner", "Krista Fischer", "Momoko Horikoshi", "Antti-Pekka Sarin", "Gudmar Thorleifsson", "Claes Ladenvall", "Mart Kals", "Maris Kuningas", "Harmen H. M. Draisma", "Janina S. Ried", "Natalie R. van Zuydam", "Ville Huikari", "Massimo Mangino", "Emily Sonestedt", "Beben Benyamin", "Christopher P. Nelson", "Natalia V. Rivera", "Kati Kristiansson", "Huei-yi Shen", "Aki S. Havulinna", "Abbas Dehghan", "Louise A. Donnelly", "Marika Kaakinen", "Marja-Liisa Nuotio", "Neil Robertson", "Renée F. A. G. de Bruijn", "M. Arfan Ikram", "Najaf Amin", "Anthony J. Balmforth", "Peter S. Braund", "Alexander S. F. Doney", "Angela Döring", "Paul Elliott", "Tõnu Esko", "Oscar H. Franco", "Solveig Gretarsdottir", "Anna-Liisa Hartikainen", "Kauko Heikkilä", "Karl-Heinz Herzig", "Hilma Holm", "Jouke Jan Hottenga", "Elina Hyppönen", "Thomas Illig", "Aaron Isaacs", "Bo Isomaa", "Lennart C. Karssen", "Johannes Kettunen", "Wolfgang Koenig", "Kari Kuulasmaa", "Tiina Laatikainen", "Jaana Laitinen", "Cecilia Lindgren", "Valeriya Lyssenko", "Esa Läärä", "Nigel W. Rayner", "Satu Männistö", "Anneli Pouta", "Wolfgang Rathmann", "Fernando Rivadeneira", "Aimo Ruokonen", "Markku J. Savolainen", "Eric J. G. Sijbrands", "Kerrin S. Small", "Jan H. Smit", "Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir", "Ann-Christine Syvänen", "Anja Taanila", "Martin D. Tobin", "Andre G. Uitterlinden", "Sara M. Willems", "Gonneke Willemsen", "Jacqueline Witteman", "Markus Perola", "Alun Evans", "Jean Ferrières", "Jarmo Virtamo", "Frank Kee", "David-Alexandre Trégouët", "Dominique Arveiler", "Philippe Amouyel", "Marco M. Ferrario", "Paolo Brambilla", "Alistair S. Hall", "Andrew C. Heath", "Pamela A. F. Madden", "Nicholas G. Martin", "Grant W. Montgomery", "John B. Whitfield", "Antti Jula", "Paul Knekt", "Ben Oostra", "Cornelia M. van Duijn", "Brenda W. J. H. Penninx", "George Davey Smith", "Jaakko Kaprio", "Nilesh J. Samani", "Christian Gieger", "Annette Peters", "H.-Erich Wichmann", "Dorret I. Boomsma", "Eco J. C. de Geus", "Tiinamaija Tuomi", "Chris Power", "Christopher J. Hammond", "Tim D. Spector", "Lars Lind", "Marju Orho-Melander", "Colin Neil Alexander Palmer", "Andrew D. Morris", "Leif Groop", "Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin", "Veikko Salomaa", "Erkki Vartiainen", "Albert Hofman", "Samuli Ripatti", "Andres Metspalu", "Unnur Thorsteinsdottir", "Kari Stefansson", "Nancy L. Pedersen", "Mark I. McCarthy", "Erik Ingelsson", "Inga Prokopenko"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001474.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Association_between_BMI_and_incident_heart_failure_in_2_863_cases_and_44_400_controls_/731420", "title"=>"Association between BMI and incident heart failure in 2,863 cases and 44,400 controls.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-25 03:24:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1100986"], "description"=>"a<p>No formal MR study, although the association of <i>FTO</i> and T2D is well known.</p><p>N.A, not applicable.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Endocrinology", "Diabetic endocrinology", "Diabetes mellitus type 2", "epidemiology", "Cardiovascular disease epidemiology", "Genetic epidemiology", "nutrition", "obesity", "Public health", "mendelian", "randomization", "studies", "adiposity", "cardiometabolic"], "article_id"=>731425, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Tove Fall", "Sara Hägg", "Reedik Magi", "Alexander Ploner", "Krista Fischer", "Momoko Horikoshi", "Antti-Pekka Sarin", "Gudmar Thorleifsson", "Claes Ladenvall", "Mart Kals", "Maris Kuningas", "Harmen H. M. Draisma", "Janina S. Ried", "Natalie R. van Zuydam", "Ville Huikari", "Massimo Mangino", "Emily Sonestedt", "Beben Benyamin", "Christopher P. Nelson", "Natalia V. Rivera", "Kati Kristiansson", "Huei-yi Shen", "Aki S. Havulinna", "Abbas Dehghan", "Louise A. Donnelly", "Marika Kaakinen", "Marja-Liisa Nuotio", "Neil Robertson", "Renée F. A. G. de Bruijn", "M. Arfan Ikram", "Najaf Amin", "Anthony J. Balmforth", "Peter S. Braund", "Alexander S. F. Doney", "Angela Döring", "Paul Elliott", "Tõnu Esko", "Oscar H. Franco", "Solveig Gretarsdottir", "Anna-Liisa Hartikainen", "Kauko Heikkilä", "Karl-Heinz Herzig", "Hilma Holm", "Jouke Jan Hottenga", "Elina Hyppönen", "Thomas Illig", "Aaron Isaacs", "Bo Isomaa", "Lennart C. Karssen", "Johannes Kettunen", "Wolfgang Koenig", "Kari Kuulasmaa", "Tiina Laatikainen", "Jaana Laitinen", "Cecilia Lindgren", "Valeriya Lyssenko", "Esa Läärä", "Nigel W. Rayner", "Satu Männistö", "Anneli Pouta", "Wolfgang Rathmann", "Fernando Rivadeneira", "Aimo Ruokonen", "Markku J. Savolainen", "Eric J. G. Sijbrands", "Kerrin S. Small", "Jan H. Smit", "Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir", "Ann-Christine Syvänen", "Anja Taanila", "Martin D. Tobin", "Andre G. Uitterlinden", "Sara M. Willems", "Gonneke Willemsen", "Jacqueline Witteman", "Markus Perola", "Alun Evans", "Jean Ferrières", "Jarmo Virtamo", "Frank Kee", "David-Alexandre Trégouët", "Dominique Arveiler", "Philippe Amouyel", "Marco M. Ferrario", "Paolo Brambilla", "Alistair S. Hall", "Andrew C. Heath", "Pamela A. F. Madden", "Nicholas G. Martin", "Grant W. Montgomery", "John B. Whitfield", "Antti Jula", "Paul Knekt", "Ben Oostra", "Cornelia M. van Duijn", "Brenda W. J. H. Penninx", "George Davey Smith", "Jaakko Kaprio", "Nilesh J. Samani", "Christian Gieger", "Annette Peters", "H.-Erich Wichmann", "Dorret I. Boomsma", "Eco J. C. de Geus", "Tiinamaija Tuomi", "Chris Power", "Christopher J. Hammond", "Tim D. Spector", "Lars Lind", "Marju Orho-Melander", "Colin Neil Alexander Palmer", "Andrew D. Morris", "Leif Groop", "Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin", "Veikko Salomaa", "Erkki Vartiainen", "Albert Hofman", "Samuli Ripatti", "Andres Metspalu", "Unnur Thorsteinsdottir", "Kari Stefansson", "Nancy L. Pedersen", "Mark I. McCarthy", "Erik Ingelsson", "Inga Prokopenko"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001474.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_our_study_with_previous_Mendelian_randomization_studies_of_adiposity_on_cardiometabolic_phenotypes_/731425", "title"=>"Comparison of our study with previous Mendelian randomization studies of adiposity on cardiometabolic phenotypes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-06-25 03:24:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1100984"], "description"=>"a<p>Beta coefficient corresponds to one-unit increase in BMI (kg/m<sup>2</sup>).</p>b<p>Beta coefficient corresponds to per-allele change.</p>c<p>Values were transformed to natural logarithm scale prior to analysis.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Endocrinology", "Diabetic endocrinology", "Diabetes mellitus type 2", "epidemiology", "Cardiovascular disease epidemiology", "Genetic epidemiology", "nutrition", "obesity", "Public health", "mendelian", "randomization", "adiposity", "cardiovascular", "metabolic", "quantitative"], "article_id"=>731423, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Tove Fall", "Sara Hägg", "Reedik Magi", "Alexander Ploner", "Krista Fischer", "Momoko Horikoshi", "Antti-Pekka Sarin", "Gudmar Thorleifsson", "Claes Ladenvall", "Mart Kals", "Maris Kuningas", "Harmen H. M. Draisma", "Janina S. Ried", "Natalie R. van Zuydam", "Ville Huikari", "Massimo Mangino", "Emily Sonestedt", "Beben Benyamin", "Christopher P. Nelson", "Natalia V. Rivera", "Kati Kristiansson", "Huei-yi Shen", "Aki S. Havulinna", "Abbas Dehghan", "Louise A. Donnelly", "Marika Kaakinen", "Marja-Liisa Nuotio", "Neil Robertson", "Renée F. A. G. de Bruijn", "M. Arfan Ikram", "Najaf Amin", "Anthony J. Balmforth", "Peter S. Braund", "Alexander S. F. Doney", "Angela Döring", "Paul Elliott", "Tõnu Esko", "Oscar H. Franco", "Solveig Gretarsdottir", "Anna-Liisa Hartikainen", "Kauko Heikkilä", "Karl-Heinz Herzig", "Hilma Holm", "Jouke Jan Hottenga", "Elina Hyppönen", "Thomas Illig", "Aaron Isaacs", "Bo Isomaa", "Lennart C. Karssen", "Johannes Kettunen", "Wolfgang Koenig", "Kari Kuulasmaa", "Tiina Laatikainen", "Jaana Laitinen", "Cecilia Lindgren", "Valeriya Lyssenko", "Esa Läärä", "Nigel W. Rayner", "Satu Männistö", "Anneli Pouta", "Wolfgang Rathmann", "Fernando Rivadeneira", "Aimo Ruokonen", "Markku J. Savolainen", "Eric J. G. Sijbrands", "Kerrin S. Small", "Jan H. Smit", "Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir", "Ann-Christine Syvänen", "Anja Taanila", "Martin D. Tobin", "Andre G. Uitterlinden", "Sara M. Willems", "Gonneke Willemsen", "Jacqueline Witteman", "Markus Perola", "Alun Evans", "Jean Ferrières", "Jarmo Virtamo", "Frank Kee", "David-Alexandre Trégouët", "Dominique Arveiler", "Philippe Amouyel", "Marco M. Ferrario", "Paolo Brambilla", "Alistair S. Hall", "Andrew C. Heath", "Pamela A. F. Madden", "Nicholas G. Martin", "Grant W. Montgomery", "John B. Whitfield", "Antti Jula", "Paul Knekt", "Ben Oostra", "Cornelia M. van Duijn", "Brenda W. J. H. Penninx", "George Davey Smith", "Jaakko Kaprio", "Nilesh J. Samani", "Christian Gieger", "Annette Peters", "H.-Erich Wichmann", "Dorret I. Boomsma", "Eco J. C. de Geus", "Tiinamaija Tuomi", "Chris Power", "Christopher J. Hammond", "Tim D. Spector", "Lars Lind", "Marju Orho-Melander", "Colin Neil Alexander Palmer", "Andrew D. Morris", "Leif Groop", "Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin", "Veikko Salomaa", "Erkki Vartiainen", "Albert Hofman", "Samuli Ripatti", "Andres Metspalu", "Unnur Thorsteinsdottir", "Kari Stefansson", "Nancy L. Pedersen", "Mark I. McCarthy", "Erik Ingelsson", "Inga Prokopenko"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001474.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Meta_analysis_results_of_Mendelian_randomization_analyses_on_effect_of_FTO_derived_adiposity_on_cardiovascular_and_metabolic_disease_quantitative_phenotypes_/731423", "title"=>"Meta-analysis results of Mendelian randomization analyses on effect of <i>FTO</i>-derived adiposity on cardiovascular and metabolic disease: quantitative phenotypes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-06-25 03:24:31"}

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Relative Metric

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